ГДЗ Голицынский Ю. Б. 7-е издание "Грамматика. Сборник упражнений"
1 1. This is a pen. That is a pencil.
2. This is a book. It is my book.
3. Is this your pencil? — No, it isn\\\'t my pencil, it is my sister\\\'s pencil.
4. I have a sister. My sister is an engineer. My sister\\\'s husband is a doctor. They have got two children.
5. This is a girl. This girl is their daughter. Their daughter\\\'s name is Vera.
6. That is a boy. That boy is her brother. Her brother\\\'s name is Nick.
7. This is our flat.
8. We have got a car. Our car is not expensive but reliable.
9. I have no pet.
10. My granny has got a headache. She has no idea what to do.
11. I have a friend. His name is Mike. My friend is very good.
12. It\\\'s a cat. Its tail is long and bushy. It\\\'s Mike\\\'s cat. 2 1. When is your birthday? — My birthday is (on) the first of May.
2. Do you remember your mother\\\'s birthday? — Yes, I do.
3. His uncle is generous and her aunt is very kind.
4. That man is very clever. His book is recognized by a lot of people.
5. They know our address.
6. Their son speaks English very well.
7. My cousin\\\'s dog is small. Its hair is curly.
8. Is this a watch? — No, it isn\\\'t a watch, it\\\'s a pen.
9. This pen is good, and that pen is bad.
10. I can see a pencil on your table, but I can see no paper.
11. Give me a chair, please.
12. They have a dog and two cats.
13. I have a spoon in my soup plate, but I have no soup in it.
14. My friend says he is going to be a millionaire one day.
15. Would you like an orange?
16. Mr Smith is an artist, Mrs Smith is a poetess. She is not a singer. 3 1. He hasn\\\'t got a car. But he\\\'s got a computer. The computer is new.
2. His friends have got a cat and a dog. The dog never bites the cat.
3. This is a tree. The tree is green.
4. I can see three boys. The boys are playing.
5. I have a bicycle. The bicycle is black. My friend has no bicycle.
6. Our room is large.
7. We wrote a dictation yesterday. The dictation was long,
8. She has two daughters and one son. Her son is a pupil.
9. Last year I gave my mother a bracelet for her birthday. She liked the bracelet.
10. My brother\\\'s friend has no dog.
11. This pencil is broken. Give me that pencil, please.
12. She has a ball. The ball is big.
13. I got a letter from my friend yesterday. The letter was interesting.
14. When they were in Geneva, they stayed at a hotel. Sometimes they had dinner at the hotel and sometimes in a restaurant.
15. I\\\'ve got an idea.
16. What a surprise! Our parents gave us a DVD player for Christmas. 4 1. This is a pen. The pen is red.
2. These are pencils. The pencils are black.
3. This is soup. The soup is so tasty.
4. In the morning I eat a sandwich and drink tea.
5. She gave me coffee and a cake. The coffee was hot. The cake was very tasty.
6. Do you like ice cream?
7. I see a book in your hand. Is the book interesting?
8. Do you need a camera?
9. He never eats meat, he always eats vegetables, cereals, seeds, fruit, and nuts. He is a vegetarian.
10. This is a pineapple. The pineapple is delicious.
11. Elaine, apples are good for you!
12. My cousin is upset. He\\\'s got a sore throat.
13. This is cottage cheese. The cottage cheese is fresh.
14. She bought meat, butter and potatoes yesterday. She also bought a cake. The cake was delicious. We ate the cake and drank tea.
15. This is my table. On the table I have books, two pencils, a pen and paper.
16. This is a bag. The bag is brown. It is my sister\\\'s bag. And this is my bag. It is yellow. 5 1. I have two sisters. My sisters are students.
2. We are at home.
3. My brother is not at home, he is at school.
4. My mother is at work. She is a doctor.
5. I am not a doctor.
6. He has no sister.
7. He is not a pilot.
8. I have thirty-two teeth.
9. He has a child.
10. She has two children. Her children are at school.
11. Is your father at home? — No, he is at work.
12. Where is your brother? — He is at home. 6 1. We have a large family.
2. My granny often tells us long interesting stories.
3. My father is an engineer. He works in a factory. The factory is large.
4. My mother is a doctor. She works at a large hospital. She is at work now.
5. My aunt is a teacher. She works at a school. The school is good. My aunt isn\\\'t at school now. She is at home. She is drinking tea and eating jam. The jam is sweet. I am at home, too. I am drinking tea and eating a sandwich. The sandwich is tasty.
6. My sister is at school. She is a pupil.
7. My cousin has a big black cat. My cousin\\\'s cat has two kittens. The cat likes milk. The kittens like milk, too.
8. I am an engineer.
9. My son is a pupil.
10. He is a good pupil.
11. This is a house.
12. This is my laptop.
13. You have some pencils, but I have no pencil. Give me a pencil, please.
14. It\\\'s a small animal that has long ears, a short tail, and soft hair. 7 1. What\\\'s the weather like today? — The weather is fine.
2. The sun is yellow.
3. The sky is grey today.
4. The Earth is a planet.
5. We had an English lesson yesterday. The teacher asked me many questions. The questions were difficult.
6. Where is your brother? — He is at home. He is in his room. He is sitting at the table. He is doing his homework. The homework is difficult.
7. Our cat is sitting on the sofa.
8. It is very dark in the room. Turn on the light, please.
9. Nick went into the bathroom, turned on the water and washed his hands.
10. Ann turned on the television to watch the evening news.
11. She doesn\\\'t often watch television.
12. You can\\\'t see the moon in the sky tonight. 8 1. This is a good book. Take the book from the table. Put this book in the bookcase.
2. The weather is fine today. The sky is blue. The sun is shining brightly in the blue sky.
3. This is a boy. The boy is at school. He is a pupil. This boy is my brother\\\'s friend. He has a cat, but he has no dog. He likes his cat. He gives the cat milk every day.
4. Yesterday I received a letter from my friend. The letter was important.
5. We live in a big house. I like the house very much.
6. Are you a worker? — No, I am a student.
7. I like your beautiful flower. Give me the flower, please.
8. My mother is at home. She is reading a marvellous story.
9. My father is not at home. He is at work. He is not a lawyer. He is a doctor. He is a good doctor. He works at a hospital. The hospital is large.
10. That is a book. The book is thick. That book isn\\\'t thin. This is an interesting thick book.
11. Those are books. The books are new and old. Those are new and old books. Those books are interesting. 9 1. There is a big tree in the garden.
2. There is abank near here. — Where is the bank?
3. There is a new supermarket in the centre of our town.
4. There is a hotel over there. The hotel isn\\\'t cheap.
5. Where is the cat? — The cat is on the sofa.
6. Where is the book? — The book is on the shelf.
7. Where are the flowers? — The flowers are in a beautiful vase.
8. Where is the vase? — The vase is on a little table near the window.
9. Open the window, please. The weather is fine today. I can see the sun in the sky. I can see a nice little bird. The bird is sitting in a big tree. The tree is green.
10. There is a little white cloud in the sky.
11. What a beautiful day!
12. We have a large room. There is a big sofa in the room and a little lamp on the wall over the sofa. I like to sit on the sofa and read a good book.
13. This is a computer. The computer isn\\\'t old. This computer is new. This ia a good new computer.
14. These are computers. The computers are new. These aren\\\'t old computers. These are new computers. These computers are good. 10 1. There is a wonderful small computer in front of the books there.
2. Where is the soup? — The soup is in a big saucepan on the gas cooker.
3. Where are the cutlets? — The cutlets are in the refrigerator on a little plate.
4. There is no bread on the table. Where is the bread?
5. There is a little brown coffee table in our room in front of the sofa.
6. Where is the table in your room?
7. There is a thick carpet on the floor in my mother\\\'s room.
8. Is your brother at home? — No, he is at work. He works in a big factory. He is an engineer.
9. My sister has many books. The books are in a big bookcase. She has really good taste in books.
10. The weather is fine today. Let\\\'s go and play in the yard. There are many children in the yard. They are playing with a ball. 11 1. I see a bottle of pineapple juice on the kitchen table.
2. Her son has a great sense of humor.
3. There was a disco at the club last Sunday but he didn\\\'t go.
4. Is there a bus stop near the building?
5. We have a big dog. The dog is very clever.
6. My friend has a very good computer.
7. This boy is big. He is a student.
8. There is a large piano in the hall.
9. This is a tree and that is not a tree. It\\\'s a bush.
10. I am a boy. I am a pupil. I study at school.
11. My sister is at work. She is a secretary. She works for a new company.
12. This is a very difficult question. I don\\\'t know the answer to it.
13. Do you see a little girl with a big ball in her hands? She is a pupil of our school.
14. There was a beautiful flower in this vase yesterday. Where is the flower now?
15. Last year we were in Geneva. It is an exciting city to visit, but a very expensive place to live. 12 1. There is a jar of delicious orange marmelade in the middle of the shelf.
2. There is a big box of cereal to the right of you.
3. There is a bunch of bananas on the table. Don\\\'t keep them in the fridge.
4. There is a loaf of white bread on the upper shelf of the fridge. If you want your bread to be fresh, keep it only in the fridge.
5. Is there a bag of flour in the cupboard?
6. There was a bottle of drinking water in the corner of the kitchen.
7. There is a thick red carpet in my room. The carpet is on the floor in front of the sofa.
8. Where is the table in your brother\\\'s room? — His table is near the window.
9. I can see a fine vase on the shelf. There are lovely flowers in the vase.
10. They have no piano in their living room.
11. My uncle is married. He has a beautiful wife. They have a son, but they have no daughter.
12. I can see a nice coffee table in the middle of the room to the right of the door. It is black and red. I like the coffee table.
13. Our TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room.
14. There is a beautiful picture in my father\\\'s study. The picture is on the wall to the left of the window.
15. What a picture! 13 My aunt\\\'s flat is in a new house. There is a living room, a bedroom, a study, a bathroom and a kitchen in the flat. The bedroom is a large room with two windows. The room is light as the windows are large. There are white curtains on the windows. There are two beds with large pillows on them. There are small tables near the beds. There are lamps on them. To the left of the door there is a dressing table with a mirror on it. There is a low chair at the dressing table. There are several pictures on the pale green walls. There is a thick carpet on the floor. The carpet is dark green. The room is very cosy. 14 1. There is a park behind the hospital. There are (some) beautiful trees in the park.
2. There is a good film on TV this evening. I am going to watch it.
3. There is a library between the school and the bank. There are (some) English and German books in this library.
4. There is a sofa in the corner of the room.
5. There are (some) cushions on the sofa.
6. There are (some) books on the shelf. Give me a book, please.
7. What can you see in the fridge? — There is (some) sausage on the top shelf, but there is no cheese there. There is (some) butter in the butter dish. There are (some) tomatoes and (some) carrots on the bottom shelf. There are (some) eggs and (some) apples on the next shelf. There is an orange, a lemon, and (some) jam in a little jar there.
8. There is (some) juice in this carton. May I drink the juice?
9. There are (some) girls in the yard, but I can see no boys. Where are the boys? — Oh, all the boys are playing football at the stadium.
10. There is a peculiar charm in her voice.
11. There is (some) money in the purse. 15 1. Where is the bus station? — The bus station is next to the gas station.
2. There are two pets in the house: a cat and a dog.
3. There is a TV antenna on the roof.
4. There is a mailbox between the building and the bus stop.
5. There is a big dog in front of the fireplace.
6. Do you speak English at work?
7. She had a bad day today.
8. I have a colour TV set. The TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room.
9. There is a book, a pen, and (some) paper on my writing desk.
10. My brother is a teacher. He works at a school. He has very good books. His books are in a big bookcase.
11. There is (some) tea in my glass. There is no tea in my friend\\\'s glass. His glass is empty.
12. Where is the coffee table in your room? — The coffee table is in front of the sofa. There is a cup on the coffee table and a box of chocolates. There is (some) coffee in the cup.
13. There are (some) photographs and (some) newspapers on the sofa.
14. There is a guitar on the chair near the piano.
15. There was a piano in the corner of the living room. He sat at the piano for hours, playing favourite pieces from classical music. He was a wonderful piano player. 16 1. Every day my brother and I get up at eight o\\\'clock and walk to school. I like school. It\\\'s fun. My brother loves football. He hates homework. So he doesn\\\'t like to go to school. Will he go to work in the future?
2. My friend has to get up early in the morning because he goes to school. That\\\'s why he usually goes to bed early in the evening.
3. The weather was very bad in the morning yesterday. The sky was grey and it was raining. But in the middle of the day the weather began to change. The rain stopped and the sun appeared from behind the clouds. In the afternoon it was very warm. I did not want to stay at home and went into the yard. There were boys and girls in the yard. We played in the yard till late in the evening. When I came home, I drank tea, ate a sandwich and went to bed at once. I slept very well at night. 17 1. My brother is a pupil. He goes to school. He goes to school in the morning. He has five or six lessons every day. In the afternoon he goes home. At home he does his homework. In the evening he reads books. He usually goes to bed at half past ten. At night he sleeps.
2. My father goes to work in the morning and comes home in the evening.
3. I get up at half past seven in the morning and go to bed at a quarter to eleven in the evening.
4. When does your mother leave home for work? — She leaves home for work at a quarter past eight.
5. When do you leave home for school? — I leave home for school at half past eight.
6. What do you do when you come home from school? — I do my homework, talk to my friends on the phone and go for walks. I often listen to music. I like jazz best. Sometimes I play computer games. 18 1. We always go to the Russian Museum on Sunday.
2. On Saturday she usually goes to the Philharmonic.
3. In August he has his birthday. He is planning to have a nice party with his friends.
4. There are three rooms and a kitchen in our new flat.
5. My new dress is made of silk.
6. If you want to write something on the blackboard, you must have a piece of chalk.
7. Are there any pupils in the classroom?
8. I have a new English book. I find the book quite fascinating.
9. There is a garden in front of our school. The garden is not large, but it is very nice.
10. May is the fifth month of the year.
11. Saturday is the sixth day of the week.
12. Sunday is a day off.
13. Today is the ninth of May. Anton has got a new mobile phone. He is going to make a phone call to his grandfather.
14. This is a nice place. In June we are going there for a holiday. It\\\'ll be great fun. 19 1. This is a classroom. The classroom is large and light.
2. There is a picture on the wall.
3. What is the date today? It is the seventh of December.
4. The third lesson today is a lesson of English.
5. Pete, go to the blackboard.
6. After school I usually go home.
7. My father always comes from work late: at eight o\\\'clock or at half past eight. But on Friday he comes home early: at half past four or at a quarter to five. On Saturday and on Sunday he does not go to work.
8. My friends live in a small town. It is a new town. The streets in the town are broad and straight. There are beautiful buildings in them. The town is very green, and so the air is fresh. There are (some) beautiful parks and gardens in the town. People like to go there after work. In the evening you can hear the sounds of music from the parks. There are (some) schools, (some) libraries, a supermarket, a hospital, a theatre, (some) cinemas, (some) clinics and (some) kindergartens in the town. 20 I go to school in the morning, so I get up early. I usually get up at a quarter past seven. I go to the bathroom, turn on the water and wash my face and hands. My father and mother also get up early in the morning. My mother works in an office. She is a typist. My father is a doctor. He works at a hospital. We have breakfast in the kitchen. We eat porridge and eggs. We drink tea. My father and mother leave home for work at half past eight. My father goes to the hospital, and my mother goes to the office. I don\\\'t leave home with my parents: the school where I study is near our house. I leave home for school at a quarter to nine. My granny stays at home and cooks dinner. I have lunch at school after the third lesson. My father and mother have lunch at work. When we come home, we have dinner. 21 1. Every day my husband goes to work, my son goes to school and I go to the institute.
2. There is a new school at the corner of our street.
3. My daughter came home from school on Monday and said to me, "There will be a parents\\\' meeting on the tenth of February at six o\\\'clock in the evening."
4. The teacher read us a very interesting story at the lesson.
5. When the bell rang, the pupils went into the classroom.
6. We are usually at school from nine o\\\'clock in the morning till two o\\\'clock in the afternoon.
7. We don\\\'t go to school on Sunday.
8. We stay at home and relax. I like to read books for relaxation. 22 1. What do you do after breakfast? — After breakfast I go to school.
2. My granny likes to read a book after lunch.
3. People usually have breakfast in the morning. They have dinner in the afternoon. In the evening people have supper.
4. There is a proverb: "After dinner sleep awhile, after supper walk a mile."
5. Who cooks dinner in your family?
6. Yesterday father told us a very amusing story at breakfast.
7. What did you have for lunch at school on Wednesday? — We had salad and tea.
8. My mother never has supper with the family because she does not like to eat in the evening.
9. When do you clean your teeth in the morning: before breakfast or after breakfast?
10. I make cakes for tea. 23 1. For breakfast I have coffee with milk and sugar. I have jam, too. There are different things on the dinner table. There is (some) bread, (some) butter and (some) ham. There are (some) cups and (some) glasses there. There is a jug on the table. The milk in the jug is hot. There is a teapot on the table. There is tea in the teapot. The tea is hot, too. There are (some) plates, (some) forks and (some) knives on the table.
2. The lamp is on the table.
3. There is a lamp on the table.
4. Is there a lamp on the table?
5. Is the lamp on the table?
6. Is there a clock on the wall?
7. There are two shelves on the wall.
8. Where are the shelves? — The shelves are on the wall.
9. They have a large flat. There are four rooms in the flat.
10. Is the newspaper on the table?
11. Is there a newspaper on the table?
12. There is (some) butter on the plate.
13. Where is the butter? — The butter is on a little plate.
14. There is (some) white and brown bread on the table.
15. What time do you usually have dinner? — We eat dinner at five.
16. We often have fish for dinner. 24 1. Pete has a small family. He has a father and a mother. He has no brother, but he has a sister. His sister is a pupil. She is a good girl. She has many Russian books, but she has no English books.
2. There is a writing desk in the room. The writing desk is good. There is a lamp on the writing desk.
3. My uncle has a large family. They are six in the family.
4. My father is an engineer. He works in a big factory.
5. We have a good library. Our books are in a big bookcase.
6. Is your sister married?
7. What do you do after breakfast? — I go to school.
8. When do you come home? — I come home at half past two.
9. Do you like to watch TV in the evening?
10. He watches television all day. I never do it. I can\\\'t watch TV very often. But tonight I can spend the evening in front of the box, because there is a very exciting film on. It is "My Fair Lady" with Rex Harrison and Audrey Hepburn. I love it.
11. We bought a new telly last week.
12. Is there anything good on telly tonight? 25 1. My aunt and my uncle are doctors. They work at a hospital. They get up at seven o\\\'clock in the morning. They go to bed at eleven o\\\'clock.
2. I work in the morning and in the afternoon. I don\\\'t work in the evening. I sleep at night.
3. When do you leave home for school? — I leave home at a quarter past eight in the morning.
4. What does your mother do after breakfast? — She goes to work.
5. Is there a sofa in your living room? — Yes, there is a cosy little sofa in the living room. — Where is the sofa? — It is in the corner of the room to the left of the door. I like to sit on this sofa in front of the TV set in the evening.
6. There is a nice coffee table near the window. There are (some) newspapers on the coffee table.
7. There is (some) tea in the cup.
8. When do you watch TV? — I watch TV in the evening. We have a large colour TV set in our room. There is a beautiful vase on the TV set. There are (some) flowers in the vase.
9. I have a large writing desk in the study. There is (some) paper on the writing desk. My books and exercise books are on the writing desk, too. 26 My friend\\\'s flat is very comfortable. There are three rooms in the flat: a living room, a study and a bedroom. The living room is not very large. The walls in the living room are blue. There are (some) pictures on the walls. There is a table in the middle of the room with some chairs around it. To the left of the door there is a sofa. Near the sofa there are two large armchairs. They are very comfortable. There is a piano in my friend\\\'s living room. The piano is to the right of the door. The bedroom and the study are small. The furniture in the flat is brown. 27 1. What colour is your new hat? — It\\\'s red.
2. Is there a refrigerator in your kitchen?
3. Where is the refrigerator in your kitchen? — It is in the corner of the kitchen.
4. There are (some) flowers in our living room. The flowers are in a beautiful vase.
5. I have (some) tea in my cup.
6. He has no coffee in his cup.
7. What book did you borrow from the library on Tuesday?
8. I have (some) books, exercise books and pens in my bag.
9. I am an engineer. I work in an office. I go to the office in the morning. As the office is far from the house I live in, I take a bus to get there.
10. What bus do you take to get to work?
11. Whose pen is this?
12. What colour is your new T-shirt? — It\\\'s white.
13. She is going to a music shop to buy a cassette. — What cassette is she going to buy?
14. That\\\'s the man whose computer was stolen last night.
15. What books do you like to read?
16. I don\\\'t know what music you are listening to. 28 Here is a large window. Through the window we can see a room. Opposite the window there is a door. On the door there is a curtain. In the corner of the room there is a round table. On it we can see (some) books and atelephone. There is a bookshelf over the table. On the bookshelf we can see (some) newspapers and a book by Jack London. There are two pictures in the room. One picture is small, the other picture is very large. There are two bookcases in the room. The bookcases are full of books. There is a large sofa in the room. On the sofa we can see a bag. Whose bag is that? There is no bed in the room. On a small table near the window there are (some) flowers and a glass of water. In front of the window we can see an armchair. It is a comfortable armchair. 29 1. English is a world language.
2. I study English. I attend English classes in the evening. On the days when I have no classes, I stay at home and do some work about the house. I have dinner with my family. After dinner I talk to the members of my family, watch TV and read books, newspapers and magazines. I go to bed late at night.
3. I am thirsty. Give me some water, please.
4. There is a book on the table. Give me the book, please.
5. I enjoy listening to music but I don\\\'t really like the music which that man performs on his guitar.
6. What did you have for lunch? — I only had a tuna sandwich.
7. He is a wonderful teacher. He teaches English.
8. His son is planning to get a degree in computer science. 30 1. When my grandfather was a young man, he studied physics.
2. Do you speak Spanish?
3. My uncle is a great specialist on English literature.
4. Japanese is more difficult than French.
5. We listened to a very interesting lecture on English history yesterday.
6. Yesterday at the lesson of geography the teacher told us (some) very interesting things about famous travellers.
7. My father speaks English and French, but he does not speak German.
8. We had a lesson of mathematics yesterday. We wrote a paper in mathematics. The teacher said, "I shall correct the papers in the evening. Tomorrow you will know the results".
9. My brother is an expert on geology. He enjoys the beauties of nature in Siberia.
10. My friend is studying law. 31 1. Do you play the piano?
2. There is a big black piano in our living room. It is at the wall to the left of the door opposite the sideboard. My mother likes to play the piano. She often plays the piano in the evening.
3. Boys like to play football.
4. What do you do in the evening? — I often play chess with my grandfather.
5. Where are the children? — Oh, they are out of doors. The weather is fine today. They are playing badminton in the yard.
6. What games does your sister like to play? — She likes to play tennis.
7. Do you like to play the guitar?
8. What colour is your guitar?
9. My name is Charlie. I come from a pretty big family. I have two brothers and a sister. My sister plays the violin really well and wants to be a professional musician. She has other hobbies, too, and she often goes swimming with her friends if the weather is nice. After work I like to relax. I play the piano for relaxation. On Sunday my brothers and I play golf if there is time. 32 It was a hot day. The sun was shining brightly in the blue sky. A wolf and a lamb met at a stream. The water in the stream was cool and clear. The wolf saw that the lamb was fat and wanted to eat it. He began to shout, "You, fool, you are making the water dirty!" The lamb was afraid. It looked at the wolf and said in a thin voice, "But, Mr Wolf, I cannot make the water dirty for you from the place where I am standing, because the stream runs from you to me." "Stop talking!" shouted the wolf in an angry voice. "I know you! I met you six months ago, and you were very rude to me."
"You are wrong, Mr Wolf," cried the lamb, "you could not have met me six months ago: I am only four months old." "Never mind," said the wolf, "if it wasn\\\'t you, it was your brother." And with these words he seized the poor lamb and carried it into the wood. 33 1. Bill Robins was a very rich man. He was the richest man in the village.
2. Pete is the tallest boy in our class. Nick is the shortest boy, but he is very strong. He is stronger than many boys who are taller than he. I think Nick is the strongest boy in the class.
3. Granny often tells us long stories. Today her story was still longer. It was the longest story. She began telling it after dinner and finished only before supper. But the story was very interesting. I think it was the most interesting of Granny\\\'s stories.
4. Which was the most difficult exercise in the paper?
5. Which is the best season of the year?
6. February is the shortest month of the year.
7. Do you know the longest river in our country?
8. In May the days are longer than in April.
9. He is the most intelligent person I know. 34 1. Moscow is situated on the Moscow River. The Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is a canal called the Moscow-Volga Canal which joins the Moscow to the Volga. The Volga runs into the Caspian Sea.
2. Several rivers run into the sea at New York. The most important is the Hudson River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Besides the Hudson there are two other rivers: the East River and the Harlem River.
3. In Siberia there are many long rivers: the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenissei, the Lena and the Amur.
4. The Altai Mountains are higher than the Urals.
5. There is a splendid view of Lake Geneva from this hotel.
6. My friends have travelled a lot. This year they are going to fly to the Canary Islands.
7. Which river flows through London? — The Thames.
8. Of which country is Washington the capital? — The United States.
9. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
10. Chicago is on Lake Michigan. 35 Veliky Novgorod is the most important city of North-Western Russia and the administrative centre of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along the Volkhov River just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen.
Novgorod was the second main city after Kiev in Russia in the mid centuries. It was a rich and powerful city, and the State of Novgorod was as large as the present Sweden. Its power was based on the international trade. Novgorod was the main Russian port for many centuries and was important for Baltic sea trade.
Nowdays, Veliky Novgorod is a small, calm town in the provinces, with splendid old Russian architecture, interesting museums, fresh air, many trees, and nice and helpful people. I like this town very much. I like the people there.
In 2009, Novgorod marked 1150 years since it was first mentioned in 859 in the most ancient national texts — the Russian Primary Chronicles. The event was granted national status and was organized with the participation of the Russian President and the Federal Government. The celebration lasted for a whole week. The programme was filled with performances, exhibitions, and fairs. A fireworks and laser show brought huge crowds to the Volkhov River on Saturday and Sunday nights. Skydivers and a show by vintage planes graced the skies over the river area on Sunday. Many of these events were covered by news media and shown on TV. 36 1. The Thames is a short river.
2. Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north.
3. Kiev is to the south of Moscow.
4. Europe is a continent.
5. Moscow is the capital of Russia.
6. Is Asia an island or a continent?
7. The Black Sea is in the south of our country.
8. The White Sea is in the north of our country.
9. The Philippines are situated to the southeast of Asia.
10. This is a map of the world. Can you read maps? What can you see on the map? What colour are the valleys on the map?
11. Petrov is an architect. He is an experienced architect. He is in the Far East. He has a beautiful wife. His wife is a dentist. They have a son and a daughter. 37 1. The Neva flows into the Gulf of Finland.
2. The Pacific Ocean is very deep.
3. The Urals are not very high.
4. Elbrus is the highest peak of the Caucasus; but it\\\'s the highest mountain in Europe too.
5. The Alps are covered with snow.
6. The Shetland Islands are situated to the north of Great Britain.
7. Is Canada the largest country in America?
8. The Crimea ia washed by the Black Sea.
9. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
10. Is Paris the capital of France?
11. Lomonosov was born in a small village on the shore of the White Sea.
12. Gogol was born in the Ukraine in 1809.
13. The Caucasus separates the Black Sea from the Caspian Sea.
14. Europe and America are separated by the Atlantic Ocean.
15. The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter.
16. There are many small islands in the Pacific Ocean.
17. The North Sea separates the British Isles from Europe.
18. The Balkans are old mountains.
19. The Nile flows across the northeastern part of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.
20. Which are the highest mountains in Russia?
21. When was she in the USA?
22. When was he in Ethiopia? 38 1. Russia occupies the eastern half of Europe and the northern third of Asia.
2. The climate of the northern part of Russia is severe.
3. This winter is a true Russian winter with hard frosts.
4. It is warm in the Crimea and the Caucasus.
5. Washington is the capital of the United States of America.
6. I want to go to New York some day.
7. The best way to know and understand the people of other countries is to meet them in their own homes.
8. Is Australia an island or a continent?
9. The Red Sea is between Africa and Asia.
10. France is to the north of Italy. Paris is the capital of France.
11. There are seven continents on the Earth. 39 The XXI Olympic Winter Games were a major international sport event held on February 12-28, 2010, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada, and the first by the province of British Columbia. Previously, Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. For the first time, Canada won gold at an Olympic Games hosted at home. With 14, Canada broke the record for the most gold medals won at a single Winter Olympics, which was 13, set by the former Soviet Union in 1976 and Norway in 2002. The United States won the most medals in total and broke the record for the most medals won at a single Winter Olympics, with 37, which was held by Germany in 2002 at 36 medals. Athletes from Slovakia and Belorussia won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations. 40 1. This is a pen. It is a good pen. The pen is black. It is on the table.
2. I have got a dog. The dog\\\'s name is Spot.. He is a big grey dog. The dog is very strong.
3. My friend has a sister. Her name is Ann. The girl is a pupil.
4. We have a picture in the living room. The picture is really very fine. It is on the wall.
5. The Irish Sea is between Great Britain and Ireland.
6. There is amap on the wall of the classroom. It is a map of the world. There are many seas and lakes on the map. This is the Mediterranean Sea and that is the Red Sea. These are the Himalayas. They are the highest mountains in the world. Everest, which is 8848 metres high, is the highest mountain in the world.
7. We live in St Petersburg. St Petersburg is a very large city. It is one of the largest cities in Russia.
8. My brother is a programmer. His flat is in the centre of the city. It is in a large building. There are three rooms in the flat. The living room is the largest of all. It is a nice light room. There are (some) pictures on the walls. There is a large oval mirror over the fireplace. There is a round table in the middle of the room. There is a sofa at the wall with a large thick carpet in front of it. The study and the bedroom are small, but very comfortable. 41 1. Did you have a good time in the country? — Oh, yes. The weather was fine. We were out of doors from morning till night. We played football, volleyball and other games. We came home late at night and went to bed at once.
2. Look at the clock! It is a quarter past ten. Go to bed at once.
3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
4. We spent last summer in the Ukraine, in a little village on the bank of a big river with very warm water. There was a wood on the other side of the river. We often went to the wood and gathered a lot of mushrooms.
5. My friend likes to play chess. He is ready to play chess all day long. He is the best chess player in our school. 42 1. Teckle comes from a very old country on the Nile. It is called Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a beautiful mountainous country. Teckle is a young man. He wants to become an engineer. He is very happy to be a student of St Petersburg University. He spends a lot of time at the library reading and studying different subjects. Very often in the evening his new friends and he walk around the city talking about their native countries.
2. Galina lives in the Ukraine. She lives in a small village near Odessa. She is a librarian. She always has a lot of work. Galina wants to enter Moscow University and now she is preparing for the entrance exams.
3. My friend lives in America. He is a student. He studies history at Harvard University.
4. Every year, thousands of students come to Cambridge from overseas to study English. Use, a German student, graduated from Cambridge University two years ago. What a talented girl! 43 James Gordon Brown was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party. Brown became Prime Minister in June 2007, after Blair\\\'s resignation. Immediately before this he had served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour government from 1997 to 2007.
Brown has a PhD in history from the University of Edinburgh and spent his early career working as a television journalist. He has been a Member of Parliament since 1983. As Prime Minister, he also held the offices of First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service.
After an initial rise in opinion polls, Brown\\\'s time as Prime Minister saw his approval ratings fall and the Labour Party suffered its worst local election results in 40 years. On 11 May 2010, Brown officially resigned as Prime Minister and leader of the Labour Party.
He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron. At the age of 43, Cameron became the youngest British Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party. 44 Barack Hussein Obama is the 44th President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office.
With a father from Kenya and a mother from Kansas, President Obama was born in Hawaii on August 4, 1961. He was raised with help from his grandfather, who served in the army, and his grandmother, who worked her way up from typing pool to middle management at a bank.
Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney there and taught constitutional law at the University of Ghicago Law School from 1992 to 2004.
Obama served three terms in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. He cut taxes for working families, and expanded health care for children and their parents. He won election to the United States Senate in November 2004. Obama served as the junior United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008. He was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and sworn in on January 20, 2009. Obama is also the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He and his wife, Michelle, are proud parents of two daughters, Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7. 45 When we want to write a letter, we take a piece of paper and a pen. We first write our address and the date in the right-hand corner. We leave three blank lines between the date and the body of the letter. Then on the left-hand side we write a greeting. We may write, for instance, "My dear brother," "Dear Henry," etc., and then on the next line we begin the body of the letter. We must not forget to leave a margin on the left-hand side of the page. At the end of the letter we write "Yours," and then we sign our name. We put the letter in an envelope and close the envelope. On the envelope we write the name and address of the person who will receive it. We stick a stamp in the top right-hand corner, and then we post the letter. 46 Once there lived a man who was very fond of gold. He used to say, "While I have my gold, I am the happiest man in the world." And so all his life he saved money. One day he was travelling in the desert of North Africa. He lost his way. He had no food or water. He was almost dying of hunger. He was so weak that he could not walk, he could only crawl. The heat was terrible. There were only stones and sand around. Just then he saw a bag lying on the sand. He hoped that he would find food in it and water, too. He crawled up to the bag and opened it. He saw that the bag was full of gold. What is the use of gold to a hungry man in a desert? He left the bag on the hot sand, crying bitterly, "I am the most unhappy man in the world." 47 1. Let\\\'s go to the shop. I must buy (some) bread and milk.
2. I was at the cinema yesterday. — What film did you see? — Oh, I saw a very good film. I think it is the best film of the year.
3. Do you often go to the theatre? — No, I don\\\'t. I like to go to the theatre, but I am very busy. I work from morning till night. I even have no time to play the piano.
4. Oleg has a lot of interesting books at home.
5. A lot of tourists from different countries come to St Petersburg. They want to see one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
6. My new friend said to me, "I am a first-year student at Harvard."
7. We went to the cinema in the evening.
8. What foreign languages does your father speak? — He speaks English. He studied English at school.
9. I am interested in biology.
10. We played tennis at the lesson of physical training yesterday. We had a good time.
11. Did you go for a walk yesterday? — No, we didn\\\'t. The weather was bad, and we went to the cinema.
12. What are your friends doing? — Mary is playing the piano. Tom and Nick are playing chess.
13. Do you go to the market to buy fish and fruit?
14. I usually buy all my vegetables at the market. 48 Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the friends went to the theatre and came back to the hotel very late. "I am very sorry," said the clerk of the hotel, "but the lifts do not work tonight. If you don\\\'t want to walk up to your room, we shall make beds for you in the hall." "No, no," said one of the friends, "no, thank you. We don\\\'t want to sleep in the hall. We shall walk up to our room." Then he turned to his friends and said, "It is not easy to walk up to the forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On the way to the room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories." So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs. At last they came to the thirty-sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have a rest. "Well," said Tom, "now it is your turn, Peter. After all the jokes, I would like to hear a sad story. Tell us a long and interesting story with a sad end." "The story which I am going to tell you," said Peter, "is sad enough. We left the key to our room in the hall." 49 Swift, a famous English writer, was travelling one day on horseback with his servant. The weather was bad, it was raining, and the roads were muddy. In the evening the two men came to an inn. Before going to bed Swift told his servant to clean his boots. But the servant was lazy and did not do it. In the morning Swift asked the servant why he had not cleaned the boots. "What\\\'s the use cleaning the boots now?" said the servant. "The roads are muddy, and the boots will soon be dirty again," "All right," said the writer. "Let\\\'s go. We must continue the journey." "But I haven\\\'t had breakfast," said the displeased servant. "Well, what\\\'s the use giving you breakfast now?" said Swift. "You will soon be hungry again." 50 In a small town in the East there once was a man who had a parrot. The parrot was taught to say the words: "There is no doubt about it." It used to repeat these words, all day long. Every time it was asked aquestion, it gave the same answer, "There is no doubt about it." One day the man decided to sell the bird; so he put the parrot into the cage and went to the market with it. "Twenty pounds for a very clever parrot!" he cried. A man who was passing by heard this and turned to the parrot. "Are you worth twenty pounds?" he asked. "There is no doubt about it!" answered the parrot. "What a clever parrot!" said the man and bought the bird. He took the parrot home and invited his friends to look at the clever bird. The friends came and looked at the parrot and talked to it. Now you must know that the man was not rich. In fact, he was often short of money. So a week or two later, sitting in an armchair and looking at the parrot, he said, "What a fool I was to throw away such a lot of money!" "There is no doubt about it!" cried the parrot. And this time the bird was right. 51 A train stopped at a little station. A passenger looked out of the window of a train carriage and saw a woman selling cakes. The man had not had breakfast in the morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy a cake. The woman was standing rather far from the carriage. The man did not want to go and buy a cake himself because he was afraid to miss the train. He saw a boy who was walking along the platform near the carriage. He called the boy and asked him, "How much does a cake cost?" "Threepence, sir," answered the boy. The man gave him a sixpence and said, "Bring me a cake, and with the other threepence buy a cake for yourself." The boy took the money and went to the woman. A few minutes later the boy returned. He was eating a cake. He gave the man threepence change and said, "The woman had only one cake, sir." 52 A crow once said to her children, "It\\\'s high time for you to look for food." With these words she turned them out of the nest and took them to the field. But the crow\\\'s children did not like the idea. "We\\\'d rather go back to the nest," they cried. "It\\\'s so nice when you bring food to us!" "Indeed!" said their mother. "You are big enough to feed yourselves. My mother turned me out of the nest when I was much younger, and I had to take care of myself." "But people will kill us with their guns," said the young crows. "No fear of that," answered their mother. "Before people shoot, they take aim, and that takes time. When you see a man raising a gun to his face, you must just fly away." "That\\\'s a simple thing to do," said the children, "but supposing a man or a boy wants to throw a stone at us: in such a case he won\\\'t have to take aim." "Well, then he will have to bend down to pick up a stone," said the crow. "But what if he carries a stone in his hand ready?" "Why, if you are clever enough to think of that," said the mother, "you are clever enough to take care of yourselves." And she flew away leaving the young crows in the field. 53 Russia is such a large country that when it is night in one part of the country, it is day in another part, when it is winter in one part of the country, it is already summer in another. Imagine it is the beginning of May now. It is spring in St Petersburg. The weather is fine. It is still cool at night, but it is quite warm in the afternoon. It sometimes rains, but the rain is warm, too. The ground is covered with soft green grass, and the trees are covered with green leaves. But while it is spring in St Petersburg, it is still winter in the north of our country at the beginning of May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, the rivers and seas are covered with ice. The ice does not melt in some places even in summer. The ground is covered with deep snow. In the south of our country the weather is quite different. It is already summer in the Caucasus. It is much warmer than In St Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. The sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here. People wear summer clothes. They enjoy gardening. You should see their gardens in the summertime — they are beautiful. 54 1. Is this an interesting book? Is this a very interesting book? Is this the very interesting book you have spoken about so much? It is such an interesting book. Is it the same book you have recommended to us?
2. She is a teacher. She is a good teacher. She is a teacher of our school. She is a teacher of English. Here is the teacher, ask her about the questions which interest you.
3. There is a word in the text which I cannot understand. There is a very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is the word I was looking up in the dictionary. This word is an adverb.
4. The first men were vegetarians.
5. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 19th century.
6. Columbus, who discovered America, was a native of Genoa.
7. Rome is an ancient town.
8. Ireland, Scotland and Wales are parts of the United Kingdom.
9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? — The Pacific.
10. Last summer I visited Switzerland and Germany.
11. Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands. The Hague is a city of the Netherlands where that country\\\'s government is based.
12. It was such a shock.
13. It\\\'s high time to take a break. 55 Once there lived a king. His name was Midas. He had a little daughter. They lived in a beautiful palace with a wonderful garden around it. Now the king was very fond of gold. He loved gold more than anything else in the world. One day, when the king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. "You are a very rich man, Midas," said the young man. "Yes," said the king, "but I would like to be richer. I would like to have a golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into gold." The young man was a magician, and he gave the king the golden touch which he wanted to have. The king was very happy. He touched a table, and the table became gold. He went into the garden. There were beautiful roses in the garden. He touched the roses, and they also became gold. The king\\\'s daughter, who Loved the roses very much, saw it and began to cry. "Don\\\'t cry, dear daughter", said the king and touched his daughter\\\'s head. The next moment the girl turned into a beautiful gold statue. 56 A group of farmers were sitting in a village house, and among other things they began talking about echoes. One of the farmers said that there was a wonderful echo in the field near his farm where there was a large group of trees. All the other farmers said that they would like to hear the echo, and the farmer invited them to come the next afternoon. But the fact was that the farmer did not really have the echo he had told the other farmers about. So when he came home, he sent for the son of the cook and told him to go to the field, hide himself among the trees and imitate everything that was said. The next day the other farmers came, and the farmer took them to the field to listen to the wonderful echo. When they were in the field, he shouted at the top of his voice, "Are you there?" The answer came back, "Yes, I\\\'ve been here for two hours!" 57 It was a nice summer day. The weather was fine, the sun was shining in the blue sky, the air was fragrant with the smell of grass and flowers. A dog which was running about the streets of a little town saw a butcher\\\'s stall with a lot of meat. The dog cautiously approached the stall and, when the butcher turned away to talk to a woman, quickly seized a big piece of meat and ran away with it. On the way home the dog had to cross a stream by a narrow bridge. As he was crossing, he looked down into the stream and saw his reflection in the water. He thought it was another dog with another piece of meat. He snapped at the reflection and dropped his own piece of meat. That\\\'s how the dog was punished for greediness. 58 On Sunday our family went to the country. We got up at sunrise and quickly had breakfast. After breakfast we left home. There is a little village not far from St Petersburg where we have friends. We went there by train. We all had a great time in the country. The weather was nice, the sky was blue and the sun was shining. We stayed out of doors all day long. We played volleyball and tennis. At sunset we stopped playing. There was a beautiful red and golden sunset that evening. We sat watching the sunset. So we returned to town late in the evening. When we came home, we had supper and went to bed at once. 59 1. Look at the sky. It is covered with dark clouds. Let\\\'s hurry home.
2. It was very pleasant to live in the country in summer. The weather was nice and it seldom rained. Summer is a fine season.
3. How lovely the night is! There are no clouds in the sky and the air is so fresh.
4. When spring comes, the sun shines brighter, the snow melts, the days become longer.
5. Winter is a good time for sports.
6. On Sunday my friend and I usually go to the country. We ski, skate, play snowballs and have a very good time.
7. The fog is so dense that it is difficult to walk.
8. My friend is a very good chess player.
9. In summer we lived in the country and went up to town by train.
10. Tomorrow is Sunday. If it is too hot in town, we shall go to the country. And on Monday we shall come back.
11. Autumn is the most beautiful season of the year.
12. Winter isn\\\'t a depressing season. 60 Last Tuesday evening, when the whole family was at home, a burglar came into the house and stole $500! When we discovered the theft, we called the police. Because the burglar\\\'s shoes were wet and dirty, the detective could follow his footprints. Here is what the burglar did. He broke in through the front door. It was locked, so he broke the lock. Dad was reading a newspaper in the study near the front door. He was facing the big window, so he didn\\\'t see the man, and because he was also listening to loud music, he didn\\\'t hear him. It was raining and there was thunder, so there was a lot of noise outside, too. The burglar crossed the hall to the kitchen. Mum was making a pot of tea, so he didn\\\'t go into the kitchen. The man went back across the hall and looked into the dining room. No one was in there. He looked through all the drawers and found $300. But this wasn\\\'t enough. He came out of the dining room and went upstairs. Tom was doing his homework in his bedroom and listening to his Walkman. The burglar went past Tom\\\'s room. Sally was taking a shower and singing at the top of her lungs. He went into the TV room. He opened everything but found nothing. Then he left the TV room, went back down the stairs and into the kitchen. Mum was sitting in the living room with Dad. The burglar was very quiet! He found $200 in an old teapot on the top shelf of the left kitchen cupboard. Then the man went out through the French window in the dining room. It wasn\\\'t locked, so it was easy to get out. The police couldn\\\'t believe it! We never heard the burglar! 61 1. My brother read to me an extract from the book which he had brought the day before. The main character of the book is a young doctor who went to a distant village in Siberia.
2. The weather was very bad in October. We didn\\\'t enjoy the very cool autumn last year.
3. When he came into the room, he saw a man sitting on the sofa. He at once remembered that it was the man he had seen at the theatre the night before.
4. Yesterday I saw the film you are speaking about.
5. He took a taxi and gave the address to the driver.
6. Tower Bridge is the first bridge over the Thames coming from the sea. Built in 1894 it is a suspension bridge. The central portion of it can be opened to admit ships to the docks in this part of the river. When a ship arrives, the traffic is stopped and the great bridge opens in the centre: its two halves go up into the air and the ship passes through. 62 Once a Frenchman was travelling in Sweden. He stopped at a hotel in a little Swedish town. It was evening, the man was tired, so he went to bed at once. In the morning he had breakfast in the hotel restaurant. After breakfast he went for a walk. He walked along the streets of the town, visited a museum and (some) shops. Presently he felt hungry and dropped into a cafe for lunch. He sat down at a table, called a waiter and ordered mushrooms. But the Frenchman did not know Swedish and the waiter did not know French. Nobody in the cafe could speak French. Then the Frenchman took a piece of paper and a pencil and drew the picture of a mushroom. The waiter looked at the picture and left the room at once. Five minutes later he returned with an umbrella. What a funny story! 63 A guide was once showing a group of rich American tourists the places of interest in a little town in the south of Italy. He took the tourists from place to place, but as the town was small, after a while the guide could not think of anything that might be of interest to the Americans. "Tell us something unusual about the weather or the climate of this place," said an American lady to the guide. "What can I tell her about our climate?" thought the guide. Then he had an idea. "Well," he said, "there is one unusual thing about our climate. One can easily notice that the wind here always blows from the west." "Really?" said the lady in a surprised tone, "What an interesting thing!" But another tourist said, "You must be wrong. Look! The wind is blowing from the east now." At the first moment the guide did not know what to say. But he was a clever man and soon found a way out. "Oh," he said, "Is that so? Well, then it must be the west wind coming back." 64 The English king Richard the Lionheart was a tall, strong man. He was very proud of his strength and liked to show people how strong he was. Once, as he was riding on horseback in the countryside, his horse lost a shoe. Luckily he was not far from a village and soon he found a blacksmith. "Give me a good horseshoe," he said to the man. The blacksmith gave the king a horseshoe. Richard took it in his hand and broke it in two. "This horseshoe is no good," he said, "give me abetter one." The blacksmith did not say a word. He gave the king another horseshoe, but Richard broke it, too. The blacksmith gave him a third shoe. This time Richard was satisfied and ordered the blacksmith to shoe his horse. When the work was done, Richard offered the man a coin. The blacksmith took the coin between his fingers and broke it in two. Now it wae Richard\\\'s turn to be surprised. He took a larger coin out of his pocket and handed it to the blacksmith. The man broke it, too, saying, "This coin is no good, give me a better one." Richard smiled and gave the man a gold coin. 65 In the fifteenth century people knew only three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about such a big continent as America. The man who discovered America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus. He became a sailor at an early age. Knowing that the Earth was round, he decided to reach India sailing to the west. He tried to arrange an expedition, but did not have money, and nobody wanted to help him. At last the king of Spain gave him money for the expedition. He set sail in 1492. The voyage was very dangerous and difficult. On the 12th of October his ship reached land. When they landed, they saw strange trees and flowers. Olive-skinned men and women gathered around the sailors and looked at them with great surprise. Columbus was sure that he had discovered a new way to India. Some time later another sailor reached America. The name of the sailor was Amerigo Vespucci. He understood that it was a new continent. 66 1. He\\\'s looking for a plain shirt, but all the shirts are striped.
2. I\\\'m looking for a pair of black pants.
3. She\\\'s looking for a blouse. Polka-dot blouses are very popular this summer.
4. I bought a new hat yesterday. The shop assistant said it was the latest style.
5. I want to ask you to accompany me to the shop. I must buy a dress.
6. Where did you buy this overcoat? — I bought it at a big store in Nevsky Prospect on Tuesday.
7. My sister bought a blue hat on Wednesday. The colour suits her very nicely as she has got blue eyes.
8. I must buy a pair of new gloves.
9. Where is the shoe department? — It is on the third floor.
10. I think the coat is a little tight.
11. We came to a big tailor\\\'s shop to find out if we could have a business suit made to order.
12. I don\\\'t like the hat you have chosen. The colour is not becoming to you.
13. Here is the department of ready-made clothes. Let\\\'s go in and see if we can buy a nice pair of trousers for you.
14. I am going to give him a silk tie as a birthday present. He likes ties. 67 1. Everyone in our country knows Lomonosov, the founder of the first Russian university.
2. Nekrasov, a famous Russian poet, described the life of Russian peasants.
3. I don\\\'t want to miss the concert which will take place at the Philharmonic on the 15th of April.
4. He graduated from the University of London six years ago. Now he is a scientist. And though he is a young scientist, his name is well known.
5. My aunt is a teacher of physics.
6. Yesterday I read a book by Dickens, a famous English writer.
7. I am sorry, I don\\\'t know the way to the nearest cafe. I am a stranger here myself.
8. The town I was born in is on the Volga.
9. Who is the author of this book?
10. A quarter of an hour was left before the beginning of the concert. We entered the hall and saw a group of pupils of our school. We joined them. 68 1. During the vacation I attended some interesting lectures. I remember two of the lectures best of all. They were about Russian music.
2. I am sure he won\\\'t stay in town for the vacation.
3. Two weeks are left before the end of the school year. The examinations are coming. On the first of June we shall take an exam in literature.
4. Today is my day off. I am going to spend the day in the country.
5. My brother brought a new book yesterday. When I looked at the title, I was very glad: it was the book which I had wanted to get for along time.
6. My sister is acquainted with the actor who played the leading part in the play you saw yesterday.
7. What river is the longest in Europe? — Why, what a strange question to ask! Any schoolboy can tell you that it is the Volga.
8. I am afraid you will have a lot of trouble with this business.
9. The day was not bright yesterday. The sky was covered with clouds.
10. What a pity! I can\\\'t come to the party tonight. 69 I knew a man who had travelled very much in his life. He had visited many countries in the east and in the west. He loved children and often told them interesting stories. I remember some of the stories which he told me. One of the stories was about an adventure he had had in London. He was a young man at that time and was interested in the history of architecture. One day he visited one of the towers of the Houses of Parliament. He came out on to the balcony of the tower and began to look at the ornaments on the walls. Then he climbed up on the roof. Suddenly a man came running to him and seized him by the arm. He began shouting something in English, but my friend knew only a few words of English and did not understand him. The Englishman called a policeman. The fact was that he thought that the Russian tourist wanted to kill himself by jumping from the top of the tower. Later, when everything became clear, they laughed a lot over it. 70 One day a father and his rich family took his son on a trip to the country with the firm purpose of showing him how poor people can be. They spent a day and anight at the farm of a very poor family. When they returned from their trip, the father asked his son, "How was the trip?" "Very good. Dad!" "Did you see how poor people can be?" the father asked. "Yeah!" "And what did you learn?" The son replied: "I saw that we have a dog at home, and they have four. We have a pool that reaches to the middle of the garden; they have a river that has no end. We have imported lamps in the garden; they have the stars. Our patio reaches to the front yard; they have a whole horizon." When a little boy finished speaking, his father was speechless. His son added, \\\'Thanks, Dad, for showing me how poor we are." 71 The room in which the boys were fed was a large stone hall, with a copper at one end, out of which the cook took gruel which he put into each bowl at mealtimes. Each boy had one portion of gruel and no more, and on Sundays they had two ounces and a quarter of bread besides. The bowls never needed washing — the boys polished them with their spoons till they shone again. At last the boys got so wild with hunger that one boy said he was afraid he would some night eat the hoy who slept next to him. The boys believed him. A council was held. Oliver was chosen to go up to the cook that evening after supper and ask for more. The evening arrived, and the boys took their places. The cook stood at the copper. The gruel was served out and disappeared. Then Oliver rose from the table and advancing to the cook, said in a weak voice, "Please, sir, I want some more." The cook was a healthy man, but he turned pale. "What?" said he in a trembling voice. The man could not believe his ears. 72 Many years ago a London theatre performed a play in which there was a great storm on the sea. In those days theatres had no machines. That is why the manager engaged several boys to make the waves of the sea. They jumped up and down under a big piece of sea-green cloth. The boys received a shilling a night for their work. They worked for several weeks. But then the manager decided to pay them less money — only sixpence a night. So the boys decided to go on strike. During a performance, when the storm began, when the wind blew and it was raining, the sea remained calm — there was not a single wave on it. The angry manager lifted one corner of the "sea" and said to the boys, "Make waves, boys, make waves!" "Do you want waves for a shilling or for sixpence?" asked a boy in aloud voice. "Oh, for a shilling," answered the manager. The boys began to jump up and down, and did it so well, that the storm looked quite real. 73 In the old days it was necessary for all the parts of a city to be close together, in order that a defensive wall might surround it, and the streets, therefore, were made as narrow as possible. Many European cities began with walls round them. But in America there was little need for defensive walls, and that\\\'s why many American cities have been built on a regular plan, modified a little according to natural surroundings. The streets in American cities, instead of having names, are numbered, and so when one has once understood the plan of an American city, it is very easy to find one\\\'s way from one part of it to another. The old part of New York lies in the southern half of Manhattan Island, and there the streets are narrow and twisted, as in the towns of the Old World. But the rest of the streets, with but few exceptions, all run in straight lines. There is one street in the city, however, that does not follow a straight line. And that is Broadway, New York\\\'s most famous street. It starts within sight of the dancing waters of the harbour and runs between tall skyscrapers in the northwestern direction. This great street is the longest in the world. 74 Africa is a very large continent lying to the south of Europe and to the southwest of Asia to which it is joined by the Isthmus of Suez. Less than one hundred years ago men knew almost nothing of the middle of the continent. Travellers from Europe made long journeys into the centre but they met with terrible difficulties, for the continent is covered with forests full of fearful wild animals. Some travellers died of hunger or thirst or strange illnesses, others were killed by lions, still others by natives; but nevertheless bold men were found ready to go along rivers into the heart of Africa. The merchants who came from European countries had much to sell, and here were millions of people ready to buy; here was a country, the richness of which was unimaginable. 75 Robert Burns, the son of a small farmer in Ayrshire, was born on the 25th of January, 1759. His parents were poor, so Burns did not get a good education. He worked hard as a ploughboy. He was fond of reading and always had a ballad book before him at dinner. After the death of his father Robert and his brother and sisters took over the farm together.
Working in the fields Burns wrote many wonderful songs. However, things became so bad on the farm, that the poet decided to go to Jamaica hoping to get a job on a plantation there. Luckily some friends helped Burns to publish a book of poems. The book was noticed and praised highly.
In 1786 Burns went to Edinburgh, and his book of poems unlocked the doors of rich Edinburgh houses to a peasant with such a wonderful talent. In 1788 he married Jean Armour and spent a peaceful and happy year. The rest of his life story is a tale of the poet\\\'s hardships. The hard life ruined the poet\\\'s health, and on the 21st of July, 1796, he died at the age of thirty-seven. 76 "Is there a post office near the house you live in?"
"Yes, there is. Go to the corner of the street along which trams run. Then turn to the left and walk a short distance down the street. Do not cross the street, of course. You will see a sign over a door which says \\\'Post and Telegraph Office\\\'."
"Thank you very much. I am sure I shall find it without difficulty. I must buy (some) stamps, send a telegram and ask whether they receive parcels there. I want to send a parcel to an old friend. It will be her birthday in a week. Perhaps you can tell me where I can find a shop that sells nice things that one can give as presents?"
"Yes, certainly. There\\\'s a very good shop not far from here. You can easily walk there in a few minutes. Go straight down the street that you will see directly in front of you when you come out of the post office till you come to a wide street along which buses and trolleybuses run. Then turn to the left again and almost immediately you will come to a beautiful shop with big windows full of all sorts of things. I am sure you will find nice presents there." 77 Until near the end of the 19th century it was the law in England that if a man was unable to pay a debt, even a small one, he could be imprisoned. This imprisonment might very well be for life, as it was impossible for the people in prison to work at their ordinary occupations and so make money to repay the sum they had borrowed. If they had friends who could bring them materials to work with, they might work with their hands, sewing or making boots, for instance.
The great English novelist Charles Dickens knew a great deal about the debtors\\\' prisons from personal experience, for when he was about ten, his father was imprisoned for debt, and the whole family had to go and live with him in the prison because they had nowhere else to live. The mother and the children, however, could leave the place when they wished; but at ten o\\\'clock every evening the great gates were shut for the night, and no one could leave or enter until morning.
Dickens described the life in the debtors\\\' prisons in some of his novels. It was largely because of Dickens\\\' sharp criticism that the English Government was finally forced to do away with debtors\\\' prisons. 78 At the beginning of the 19th century a little boy was born in the family of John Dickens, a clerk at an office in Portsmouth, and was named Charles. He had a sister who was older than himself, and there were several other children in the family.
When Charles was seven, he was sent to school. He was not a strong child. He did not like to play cricket or football and spent all his free time reading. In 1821 the family went to London, and little Charles left behind him the happiest years of his childhood.
His father was in money difficulties, and the family became poorer and poorer. The boy had to give up his studies. Mr Dickens was put into a debtors\\\' prison. Little Charles learned to know all the horrors and cruelty of a large capitalist city. He had to go to work at a blacking factory. He worked there from morning till night. When his father came out of prison, Charles was sent to school for some time.
Soon he got work as a clerk. Then he learned stenography and became a reporter in Parliament. In 1836 at the age of 24 Charles Dickens published his first book. It was a collection of stories. The title of the book was "Sketches by Boz." These were followed by "Pickwick Papers" and "Oliver Twist" and many other famous novels.
Charles Dickers is one of the greatest writers of the 19th century. His novels are now translated into most languages of the world. 79 During the American War of Independence, the commander of a small unit of soldiers was giving orders to his men about a heavy cannon that they were trying to lift to its place at the top of some fortifications. It was almost beyond their power to lift the weight, and the commander kept shouting encouraging words. An officer, not in uniform, was passing by, and he asked the commander why he did not help the soldiers.
Greatly surprised, the man turned round and said proudly, "Sir, I am a corporal" "Oh, you are, are you?" replied the officer: "I did not know that. I beg your pardon, Mr Corporal." Then he got off the horse he was riding and, taking hold of the rope that the men were pulling at, he pulled with all his strength. And when the cannon was in its place, he turned to the little great man and said, "Mr Corporal, when you have another job like this and have not enough men, send for your commander in chief, and I shall gladly come and help you."
The corporal was struck with astonishment. The man who had helped his soldiers was George Washington. 80 William Shakespeare, the greatest English playwright, was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Stratford is a small country town in a farming district near the centre of England.
The Avon, which is a pretty river with grass and trees all along its banks, runs through Stratford. Not much is known of Shakespeare\\\'s father. He was a farmer who, at different times of his life, sold meat and bought aлd sold wool. He was poor and was often in money difficulties.
Also very little is known about the life of his only son William. The little house in which the great writer was born still stands. It is now a museum. William went to school in Stratford.
In 1586 he went to London. Probably the first work he did there was at one of the two theatres that were in London at that time. Then he became an actor and soon began to write plays for the company of actors to which he belonged.
Shakespeare bought the largest house in his home town in 1597, but he did not spend much time there till 1610. He spent the last years of his life mostly in Stratford, but he often visited London. He died in 1616. 81 The financial crisis of 2007-2010 has been called by leading economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economist Peter Morici has termed it "The Great Recession". It contributed to the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth estimated in the trillions of U.S. dollars, substantial financial commitments incurred by governments, and a significant decline in economic activity.
Many causes have been proposed. Both market-based and regulatory solutions have been implemented or are under consideration, while significant risks remain for the world economy over the 2010-2011 periods. 82 Rarely has the economic ascent of two relatively poor nations been watched with such awe. The postwar era witnessed economic miracles in Japan and South Korea. But neither was large enough to power worldwide growth or change the game in multiple industries.
China and India, by contrast, possess the weight and dynamism to transform the 21st century global economy. Never has the world seen the simultaneous, sustained takeoffs of two nations that together account for one-third of the planet\\\'s population.
What makes the two giants especially powerful is that they complement each other\\\'s strengths. Technical and managerial skills in both China and India are becoming more important than cheap assembly labour. China stays dominant in mass manufacturing, and is one of the few nations building nuiltibillion-dollar electronics and heavy industrial plants.
India is a rising power in software, design, services, and precision industry. Its software industry barely existed 15 years ago but is growing rapidly today. How these Asian giants integrate with the rest of the world will largely shape the 21st century global economy. 83 1. George Bernard Shaw, a well-known English playwright, was born in Ireland in 1856. He was the son of a clerk and had to begin working at an early age. At the age of twenty he moved to London where he became a journalist.
2. The play "Widowers\\\' Houses" shows the egoism and hypocricy of some businessmen who got their profits from the London slums where the poorest people lived.
3. While travelling in Germany Harry Trench, a young English doctor, got acquainted with Mr Sartorius, a respectable-looking gentleman, and his daughter Blanche. The young people fell in love with each other and were going to get married. Trench knew that Sartorius was rich, but he did not know what kind of property he had. He learned about it from a conversation with Lickcheese, Sartorius\\\' rent collector. It turned out that Sartorius was the owner of some tenements in the London slums, and that all the property he had was built by getting money out of the poor people who lived there. Trench was greatly shocked. He did not want to take money from Blanche\\\'s father. But Blanche said she could not live on the small income Trench had. They had a quarrel, and Trench left the house. After some time Trench learned that the land on which Sartorius\\\' houses were built belonged to Trench\\\'s aunt and that he himself was living on the money got in the same way. Everything comes out "all right" in the end: Trench marries Blanche and becomes a partner in Sartorius\\\' business. The author shows that in fact Trench is no better than Sartorius, Lickcheese and the like. 84 My husband picks up the local newspaper every morning from a vending machine on our way to work. The other morning, a girl who appeared to be about six was in front of him in line, buying the paper for her mother, who was sitting in the car. The child put the money for one paper in the slot and took two newspapers!
My husband said to her, "Oh, is this two-for-one day?" The child did not reply. She just took the two newspapers to her mother.
This is stealing, pure and simple. I wonder what this mother is going to think when her daughter becomes a teen and gets arrested for shoplifting at the mall? I suppose she\\\'ll wonder where her daugter got the idea that it is OK to take something without paying for it.
The mother missed an opportunity to teach her child right from wrong. If the child took the extra newspaper in error, the mother should have instructed her to put it back. However, if she put the child up to it — shame on her. 85 Three bank robbers got a surprise last night. This is what happened. The three robbers, who all work as cleaners at a hospital, drove up to the bank on Main Street. The three men, wearing masks over their faces, got out of the car and ran into the bank. Inside the bank, they pointed guns at the customers and bank tellers. One of the men told all the customers to lie down on the floor. And then one of the other men said something like, "Quick, the money! Give me money!" So one of the tellers handed them some bags. After leaving the bank, the three men jumped into their van and drove off. One mile down the road, the robbers parked their van next to an ambulance they had parked before the robbery. They got into the ambulance and drove off. They went straight to their hospital. After leaving the ambulance in the hospital parking lot, the three men went together into a small room. There, they opened the bags of money they had been given — and got a very unpleasant surprise! The bank teller had given the robbers special bags containing bright red ink! The red ink is released when the bag is opened, and it can\\\'t be washed off. So suddenly, the men found themselves covered in red ink! As the men left the room and tried to leave the hospital, an emergency room doctor saw them and she thought, "Oh God, they\\\'re all covered in blood." So she tried to help them but they refused her help and ran off. The doctor realized something funny was going on and she called the police. The police caught the robbers — guess where? Outside the bank on Main Street. 86 A tsunami is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. It is also a very large dangerous ocean wave caused by an underwater explosion, earthquake, etc. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastation.
The magnitude 9.0 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake triggered a series of lethal tsunamis on December 26, 2004 that killed over 310,000 people (more than 220,000 in Indonesia alone), making it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. The tsunami killed people over an area ranging from the immediate vicinity of the quake in Indonesia, Thailand and the north-western coast of Malaysia to thousands of kilometres away in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and even as far as Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in eastern Africa.
The disaster prompted a huge worldwide effort to help victims of the tragedy, with hundreds of millions of dollars being raised for disaster relief. 87 The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will take place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 27 July to 12 August 2012. London will become the first city to officially host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.
London was elected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating Moscow, New York City, Madrid and Paris after four rounds of voting.
The Olympics prompted a redevelopment of many of the areas of London in which the games are to be held.
A total of 12,500 athletes are expected to compete in 300 events in 26 sports. 205 nations are reported to participate in the 2012 Summer Olympics. 88 The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games or the 22nd Winter Olympics, will be held in the Russian Federation for the first time; the Soviet Union hosted the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow. The host city Sochi has a population of 400,000 people and is situated in Krasnodar, which is the third largest region in Russia.
The Games will be organized in two clusters: a coastal cluster for ice events in Sochi, and a mountain cluster located in the Krasnaya Polyana Mountains. This will make it one of the most compact Games ever, with around 30 minutes travel time from the coastal to mountain cluster.
The Sochi Olympic Park will be built along the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinskaya Valley, where all the ice venues such as the Bolshoi Ice Palace, the Maly Ice Palace, the Olympic Oval, the Sochi Olympic Skating Centre, the Olympic Curling Centre, the Central Stadium, the Main Olympic Village and the International Broadcast Centre and Main Press Centre, will be built anew for the 2014 Games.
There will be an average distance of 6 km between the Olympic Village and the other coastal venues. The mountain cluster in Krasnaya Polyana will be home to all the skiing and sliding sports. There will be an average distance of 4 km between the mountain sub-village and the venues. There will also be a sub-media centre in the mountain cluster.
89 A lioness, a tigress, an actress, a poetess, a woman, an aunt, a wife, a sister, a grandmother, a daughter, a mistress, a baroness, a countess, a shepherdess, a hostess. 90 A lord, a boy, a nephew, Mr Smith, a widower, a father, a Frenchman, a cock, an ox, a king, a prince, a duke, a steward. 91 Pens, classes, stories, roads, days, cats, bushes, desks, tables, plates, foxes, rooms, ladies, knives, chairs, buses, heroes, matches, ways, houses, families, flags, towns, wolves, countries, lions, parks, plays, dictionaries, thieves, keys. 92 Babies, plants, lemons, peaches, bananas, brushes, stars, mountains, trees, shillings, kings, the waiters, the queens, men, the men, women, the women, eyes, shelves, boxes, the cities, boys, geese, the watches, mice, dresses, toys, the sheep, teeth, children, the oxen, deer, the lives, tomatoes, secretaries, crowds, the airports, theatres, the tornadoes, shops, the tragedies. 93 These magazines, those stickers, these stamps, those sandwiches, these posters, these teacups, these eggs, those walls, those pictures, these feet, those mountains, these ladies, those windows, these men, those matches, these knives, these books, these families, these pies, those answers, those apartments, those teachers, those comedies. 94 1. These are spiders.
2. Those are snails.
3. These are stars.
4. These are film stars.
5. Those are cartoons.
6. These are boys.
7. These are babies.
8. Those are plates.
9. Those are flowers.
10. Those are bookshelves.
11. Are these sofas?
12. Are these bookcases?
13. Are these men?
14. Are those balls?
15. Are those trains?
16. Are those planes?
17. Are the windows open?
18. Are the doors closed?
19. Are the boys near the window?
20. Those are not kings.
21. Those are not queens.
22. Those are not buses.
23. These aren\\\'t mountains.
24. Those aren\\\'t geese.
25. These aren\\\'t mice.
26. They are sheep.
27. They are calendars.
28. They are cats.
29. They are not girls.
30. They aren\\\'t bags.
31. They aren\\\'t trees.
32. They are not bad eggs.
33. They are good eggs.
34. Are those flowers?
35. Are these roses?
36. These are teapots. 95 1. These men are engineers.
2. Those women are my sisters.
3. These children are my sons.
4. Those geese are big.
5. These mice are white.
6. These men are doctors.
7. Those women are my cousins. They are teachers