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Unit 19. The Environment



SPEAKING WARM-UP
pair.jpgLook at the pictures. Match them with the types of housing below. Now, in pairs, discuss which of these you would prefer to live in. Give reasons for your choice.
Key.flat A
detached house D
terraced house B
bungalow E
semi-detached house С

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flat _____, detached house _____, terraced house _____, bungalow _____, semi-detached house _____
 
DEVELOP YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS

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Look at task H. Which of these are good things for you to say or do in this task? Write Do or Don't before each one.
Key.1 Don't 2 Don't 3 Do
4 Don't 5 Do 6 Do

If you are not sure exactly what the picture is, ...
1     _______________ panic.     
2     _______________ stop talking.  
3     _______________ say that you are not sure.      
4     _______________ say that you can't do the task.
5     _______________ use words and phrases that express doubt and possibility.
6     _______________ give reasons when you express your opinion.

flag.jpgYou're going to hear two students talking about a photograph. They are unsure exactly what the photo is, and they express their uncertainty. Which of these words and phrases do they use? Listen and tick the ones you hear.
Key.Student 1 uses 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9
Student 2 uses 1, 3, 5 and 7
 
Student 1
1    It must be ...
2    It maу be ...
3    I think ...
4    I believe ...
5    pvobably
6    dеfinitely
7    maуbе
8    I hope that ...
9    I don't really understand ...   
Student 2
1    maуbе
2    I maу be ...
3    It might be ...
4    I know ...
5    I think ...
6    I can't tell you if ...
7    I can't really understand if ...

flag.jpgNow listen again. Each student uses one other good phrase for expressing uncertainty. Write their phrases on the lines provided.
Key.Student 1: I can't really make out what there is in the second picture. Student 2: I suppose that... 
Student 1: ______________________________________
Student 2: ______________________________________


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Here are some words and phrases you could use in H. Write each one in its correct box. The words and phrases already in the boxes are from the previous exercises.
Key.uncertainty: It's not clear... / It's difficult to tell, but.../ I'm not really / totally sure, but ...
possibility: I would imagine that... / It could be ... / I guess that... / Judging from ... / It's quite likely that...
certainty:
It can't be... / It has to be ...

It can't be...
I would imagine that...    
It could be...
I guess that...
Judging from...
It's not clear...
It's difficult to tell, but...  
I'm not really / totally sure, but...
It has to be ...
It's quite likely that...
Expressing uncertainty
   I can't really make out       
________________________       
________________________
________________________

Expressing certainty

    It must be                       
    definitely                         

________________________
________________________
Expressing possibility
   It may be ...                     
   It might be ...                   
   probably                          
   maybe                             
   I think ...                          
   I suppose that ...              

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
 
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Look at these two photographs, and make notes on the lines provided to answer the questions.
252.jpgPicture A
1    What is this a picture of? ________________________________________
2    What are the two or three most important things in the picture? _________________________________________
3    Can we tell if it's a town or a city? ____________________________________________
4    Which do you think it is? Why? ____________________________________________
5    Do you think it's a town / city in your country? ____________________________________________
6    Why / Why not? ____________________________________________
7    Do you like this place? ____________________________________________
8    Why / Why not? ____________________________________________

Picture В

1    What is this a picture of? ____________________________________________
2    What are the two or three most important things in this photo? ____________________________________________
3    Where do you think the photo was taken? ____________________________________________
4    Why? ____________________________________________
5    Do you like this place? ____________________________________________
6    Why / Why not? ____________________________________________
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Both pictures
1    What is the main difference between the pictures? ____________________________________________
2    Which place would you prefer to visit? ____________________________________________
3    Why? ____________________________________________
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In pairs, look at the photographs again and practise comparing and contrasting using the useful phrases in D, and your notes in E. One of you should read the examiner's words and then listen. When you have finished, swap roles.
Here are two pictures of different places. I'd like you to compare and contrast these pictures, saying which place you would prefer to visit, and why. Remember you only have one minute for this.




WORDPERFECT
Read these sentences and then use the words in bold to complete the sentences below.
Key.1    CFCs
2    diesel
3    ban
4    waste
5    safari park
6    eco-system
7    country(side)
8    rainforests
9    industry
10  recycled

•    It's very peaceful in the country(side), but there aren't as many facilities as in the town.
•    We went to a safari park last week. It's much better than a zoo as the animals have plenty of room to roam around.
•    The government has decided to ban fox hunting. They believe it's cruel and unnecessary.
•    We should think of the Earth as a targe eco-system. All the animals and plants depend on each other.
•    If the rainforests are all destroyed, millions of different types of insect will become extinct.
•    Are cars that take diesel more environmentally-friendly than cars that take petrol?
•    This newspaper is printed on recycled paper.
•    Too many factories dispose of their waste by pumping it into rivers and the sea.
•    CFCs are the chemicals responsible for much of the damage to the ozone layer.
•    Individuals can't solve the world's environmental problems on their own; governments and industry must change too.

1    Make sure your deodorant doesn't contain harmful _______________; you don't want to increase the size of the hole of the ozone layer!
2    Could you fill the tank up with _______________, please?
3    They're going to _______________ cars from the city centre in an attempt to reduce pollution from exhaust fumes.
4    We should all try to reduce household _______________ by taking all our glass, paper and plastic to recycling bins.
5    Once you enter the _______________, do not get out of your cars. The animals are dangerous.
6    The whole _______________ of the region was changed when the airport was built. Most of the wild birds have completely disappeared.
7    We've decided to move to the _______________ as it's a much safer place to bring up smal children.
8    The _______________ are so far away that it's difficult for us in the West to see the damage.
9    Many people who work in _______________ are trying hard to make their companies more environmentally aware and responsible.
10   This _______________ glass is just as good as brand-new glass.

PRACTISE YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS
Speaking know-how
• Выполняя задание G, избегайте использования фразы I can see при сравнении фотографий. Фразы There is..., There are... звучат более естественно.
• Выполняя задание H, не бойтесь высказывать свои предположения, даже если вы в них не уверены. Используйте различные фразы для выражения разной степени уверенности, например Well, I'm not really sure, but...

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We'd like to know something about you, so I'm going to ask you some questions about yourselves.
What would you change about your home?
How long have you lived there?
What kind of building do you live in?
What are the worst things about living there?
What are the best things about living there?
Do you live in the town or the countryside?
Whould you prefer to live somewhere else? Why / Why not?
Is there anything you would change about where you live?
How environmentally friendly are you?
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Discuss the pictures.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS
Read the following sentences and choose the correct paraphrase in each case.

Key.Sentence 1 a, Sentence 2 b

1 must feel depressed because  
2 must make sure
3 must be of  
4 must have been taken

1    You must find it noisy living in a city.
      a   I think you probably find living in a city noisy. (deduction)
      b   I really want you to find it noisy living in a city. (obligation)
2    You must make more of an effort to recycle.
      a   I think you probably make more of an effort to recycle. (deduction)
      b   I really want you to make more of an effort to recycle. (obligation)

Rewrite the following sentences using the words in bold and the word 'must'. Write between two and five words. Do not change the word given.

1    Because there is a lot of pollution, I think the man in the photo feels depressed.
      feel
      The man in the photo _____________________________ there is so much pollution.
2    The local council is responsible for making sure that the beaches are clean.
      make
      The local council _____________________________ that the beaches are clean.
3    Judging by all the pollution, I think this is a photo of an industrial area.
     of
      This photo _____________________________ an industrial area, judging by all the pollution.
4    The photographer probably took this photograph in a wood or forest.
     have
      This photograph _____________________________ in a wood or forest.

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