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Unit 22. Crime



LISTENING WARM-UP
pair.jpgLook at the pictures. In pairs, answer the following questions:  
•    Why do we have prisons?
•    Do prisons work?
•    What would be the worst thing about being in prison?
•    What other ways of dealing with crime can you think of?
291.jpg

DEVELOP YOUR LISTENING SKILLS
 
flag.jpg
Look at these statements about stress and intonation. Decide whether each one is true or false. Circle T for True or F for False.
Key.1T 2F 3T 4F 5T
1    A speaker usually stresses the most important words.    T / F
2    Words like 'and', 'or' and 'of are usually strongly stressed.    T / F
3    Stress is often used to show contrast with another word.    T / F
4    A speaker's voice usually doesn't go up or down much.    T / F
5    A speaker's intonation can tell us what answer they expect.    T / F

flag.jpgRead these sentences, which have been taken from longer comments on crime. Underline which word you think the speaker is going to stress most. Then listen and check your answers.
Key.Speaker 1: never  Speaker 2: said
Speaker 3: outside  Speaker 4: had
 
Speaker 1    I never thought the outside world would have changed so much.
Speaker 2    I did dо what they said I'd done, but I'm sorry for it now.
Speaker 3    It's when they're on the outside that they have pvoblems.
Speaker 4    When they caught the person who had done it, I was released.

flag.jpgListen to slightly longer extracts and decide which of the two options is true for each speaker. The words they stress will help you decide.
Key.Speaker 1: a
Speaker 2: a
Speaker 3: a
Speaker 4: b
 
Speaker 1 uses stress to show ...
  a how surprised he was by what happened.
  b how sure he is about what happened.
Speaker 2 uses stress to show ...
  a that he accepts that he was guilty.
  b that he wasn't as bad as they thought.
Speaker 3 uses stress to contrast ...
  a life in prison and life outside prison.
  b criminals and ordinary people.
Speaker 4 uses stress to emphasize ...
  a her anger.
  b her innocence.

Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


I never thought the outside world would have changed so much. We'd had TV, of course, but it's not the same as living it.

  Speaker 2 


I only did six months in prison, but that was more than enough for me. I did do what they said I'd done, but I'm sorry for it now.

  Speaker 3 


Most of them are all right when they're in prison. It's when they're on the outside that they have problems.

  Speaker 4 


I said I was innocent for all those years, and finally they proved I hadn't done it. When they caught the person who had done it, I was released.


flag.jpgNow listen to the complete comments. Match each speaker to one point they are making. There is one extra point you do not need to use.
Key.Speaker 1: С
Speaker 2: A
Speaker 3: E
Speaker 4: В
Speaker 1: _________
Speaker 2: _________
Speaker 3: _________
Speaker 4: _________
A    Prison can work as a deterrent.
В    More training might help to prevent mistakes.
С    Some people feel more secure in prison.
D    More sports facilities for criminals might help.
E    Putting criminals with other criminals is not a good idea.
Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


Spending that amount of time inside can really change how you view things. I never thought the outside world would have changed so much. We'd had TV, of course, but it's not the same as living it. I was lost for the first month. They should do something to help prisoners adjust to life outside and to keep in touch with what's happening. It's so easy to just commit a crime and go back because it's safer than trying to live in the real world.

  Speaker 2 


I only did six months in prison, but that was more than enough for me. I did do what they said I'd done, but I'm sorry for it now. It was my first offence, as well. I know that some people say that prison doesn't work. Well, it did for me, I can tell you. If there's one thing keeping me honest today, it's the thought of going back in that place. I don't care how many work programmes and table tennis tables they give you. You're not free, and that's that.

  Speaker 3 


They weren't such a bad bunch of people in there. Most of them are all right when they're in prison. It's when they're on the outside that they have problems. I think we need to spot the people with problems sooner and stop them going to prison in the first place. Once you're in there, you're spending twenty-four hours a day with criminals, even if they are generally nice criminals. It doesn't really help you give up a life of crime.

  Speaker 4 


Nothing can give me back the wasted years that I spent in prison. I said I was innocent for all those years, and finally they proved I hadn't done it. When they caught the person who had done it, I was released. Ten years. I got some money, of course, so I don't have to work, but there was never an apology. What we need is more highly trained police officers who can look out for the kind of evidence that would have kept me out of prison.


flag.jpgListen to these different people say the following words. Underline the word each speaker stresses and match each speaker to the words they are going to say.
Key.Speaker 1: he, a
Speaker 2: shot, b
Speaker 3: young, b
Speaker 4: man, b
 
Speaker 1
   'If hе shot the young man, ...
   a why have they arrested Mrs Simpson?'
   b why did he then stab the old man?'
Speaker 2
   'If hе shot the young man, ...
   a why have they arrested Mrs Simpson?'
   b why can't they find the gun?'
Speaker 3
   'If hе shot the young man, ...
   a why can't they find the gun?'
   b how did the old man die?'
Speaker 4
   'If hе shot the young man, ...
   a why have they arrested Mrs Simpson?'
   b why didn't he shoot the young woman?'

flag.jpgNow listen to the speakers making the statements above and check your answers.
Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


If he shot the young man, why have they arrested Mrs Simpson?

  Speaker 2 


If he shot the young man, why can't they find the gun?

  Speaker 3 


If he shot the young man, how did the old man die?

  Speaker 4 


If he shot the young man, why didn't he shoot the young woman?


flag.jpgListen to these statements about crime. Listen to the intonation used by each speaker and decide whether their tone of voice is going up at the end (rising) or down at the end (falling).
Key.Speaker 1: rising
Speaker 2: falling
Speaker 3: rising
Speaker 4: rising
Speaker 5: falling
 
Speaker 1    rising / falling
Speaker 2    rising / falling
Speaker 3    rising / falling
Speaker 4    rising / falling
Speaker 5    rising / falling

Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


Dave hasn't really been in prison, has he?

  Speaker 2 


Increased sentences will work as a deterrent, won't they?

  Speaker 3 


You wouldn't really commit a serious crime, would you?

  Speaker 4 


The number of people in prison is rising, isn't it?

  Speaker 5 


The number of people in prison is rising, isn't it?


flag.jpgListen again and decide for each speaker whether the following statements are true or false. Circle T for True or F for False.
Key.1T   2T   3F   4F   5T 
1   Speaker 1 isn't sure about the information.    T / F
2   Speaker 2 is expecting the listener to agree.    T / F
3   Speaker 3 isn't surprised by somebody's statement.    T / F
4   Speaker 4 is sure that the statement is true.    T / F
5   Speaker 5 is sure that the statement is true.    T / F

Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


Dave hasn't really been in prison, has he?

  Speaker 2 


Increased sentences will work as a deterrent, won't they?

  Speaker 3 


You wouldn't really commit a serious crime, would you?

  Speaker 4 


The number of people in prison is rising, isn't it?

  Speaker 5 


The number of people in prison is rising, isn't it?
pair.jpg
Look at the following sentences. With a partner, practise saying them with the correct intonation, falling if you are sure of the answer and rising if you aren't sure.
Key.1    rising
2    rising
3    falling
4    falling
5    rising

1  (not sure) You used to be in prison, didn't you?
2  (not sure) It's illegal tо park here, isn't it?
3  (sure) You commited the crime, didn't you?
4  (sure) They should build more prisons, shouldn't they?
5  (not sure) You didn't do it, did you?




WORDPERFECT
Read these sentences and then use the words in bold to complete the sentences below.
Key.1    criminal record
2    in trouble
3    witness
4    break in
5    court
6    arrest
7    justice system
8    verdict
9    first offence
10  victims

•    A court is a place where a criminal trial takes place.
•    My brother has a criminal record because of something he did wrong when he was younger.
•    I've never been in trouble with the police, and I hope I never will.
•    A witness claimed that she had seen the accused leaving the bank with the money.
•    Old people are increasingly afraid of being victims of violent crime.
•    A window had been smashed on the car where someone had tried to break in.
•    The judge read the verdict in a steady voice: 'Guilty.'
•    Because it was Ed's first offence, the judge let him off with just a warning.
•    The burglar ran, but the police managed to arrest him before he got too far.
•    The justice system has been criticised recently for a number of serious mistakes.

1    You aren't allowed to join the police force if you have a ________________.
2    If you find yourself ________________, make sure you call your lawyer immediately.
3    The robbers almost got away, but a ________________ in another house had written down the number of their car.
4    The police believe that the thieves managed to ________________ through the back door.
5    Jane's really worried because her case comes up in ________________ next Monday.
6    The police have announced that they are hoping to ________________ somebody in connection with the crime very shortly.
7    The government has decided to completely change the ________________ to make it fairer.
8    The accused woman lowered her head as the ________________ was read out.
9    The punishment for your ________________ is usually not as severe as it is for later crimes.
10   The ________________ of the crime appeared on television to ask for help.

PRACTISE YOUR LISTENING SKILLS
Listening know-how
• Во время экзамена обращайте особое внимание на слова, на которые падает смысловое ударение. Они помогут вам понять отношение говорящего к предмету разговора. В английском языке ударения также используют, если нужно противопоставить одну идею другой.
• Слушая запись, старайтесь не только понять основной смысл высказывания, но и уловить интонацию, с которой произносится фраза. Интонации говорящего в большой степени выражают его отношение к предмету разговора.


flag.jpgYou will hear five people talking about a prison. For questions 1-5, choose which of the opinions A-F each speaker expresses. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter you do not need to use.
Key.Speaker 1: В   
Speaker 2: D
Speaker 3: F   
Speaker 4: С
Speaker 5: A
 
A I hadn't expected the place to be like it is.
В I think that more could be done with more money.
С I don't believe prison does any good.
D I believe that staff should be better trained.
E I think criminals should be sent to prison more often.
F I don't think the men work hard enough.
Speaker 1  _____________
Speaker 2  _____________
Speaker 3  _____________
Speaker 4  _____________
Speaker 5  _____________

Tapescript

  Speaker 1 


Since I first came here, there have been many changes. Rather than a place of punishment, we see ourselves as a place where correct behaviour is rewarded. As warden, I'm responsible for seeing that we keep control, which we do by keeping the men busy, but also that the men are prepared for life outside. Through our educational programmes, we hope to give the men skills they can use when they get out. Funds are limited, so we're not always able to offer the kind of facilities that we would like to offer, but we do our best.

  Speaker 2 


I guess I just started to hang out with the wrong crowd. In the end, I was caught for burglary and I've been here for three months. I knew all about it from friends, so I think I'm managing to survive pretty well. We keep hearing about education and things like that, but the guards don't know how to teach. They just read from a book and expect you to learn something. We should have people in here who know what they're doing.

  Speaker 3 


As a prison inspector I get to see the inside of many prisons, and I can tell you that this one is by no means the worst. However, where most of them have a fairly strict working regime, here the men are underemployed. Taking money from the library and spending it on tools and materials would certainly achieve better results. Keep them occupied and they have no time to discuss plans or to worry about what's going to happen on the outside. It's the only way.

  Speaker 4 


I came here about ten years ago, so I've seen a lot of life inside. There's a joke amongst the guards that we've been in here longer than most of the prisoners. It makes all the difference in the world to be able to go home at night, though, I can tell you. There's a lot of debate about prison at the moment. What I see is the same faces coming back time and time again. The problem is that they go out, they're unemployed, they steal and they're back in here. As long as they keep sending them, we'll have to keep dealing with them, won't we?

  Speaker 5 


I've been in here ... oh ... about five years now. It's not so bad, I suppose, but it's a long way from my family. The last place I was in, Pentonwood, now that was the place to be sent to. Sports facilities, TV rooms, fully-trained teachers, only half an hour for my wife to come and visit. This place ... well... it was a shock, I don't mind telling you. The warden's not so bad - he's got some good ideas -but the guards in here just never seem to get behind his suggestions. Not what I was used to. [repeated]


flag.jpgYou will hear a radio interview with a man who used to be a criminal. For questions 6-12, decide which views are expressed and which are not. In the boxes provided, write YES next to those views which are expressed and NO next to those views which are not expressed.
Key.6    YES
7    NO
8    NO
9    YES
12  NO
10  NO
11  YES
12  NO
 
6     Prisons used to be much worse in the past. ___________
7     Prisons teach you how to live a life away from crime. ___________
8     Young people should study more to avoid a life of crime. ___________
9     People might turn to crime when they feel hopeless. ___________
10   Criminals are presented in a realistic way in the media. ___________
11   People can be taught useful skills in prison. ___________
12   Prisoners need more entertainment, such as sports on TV. ___________

Tapescript

Presenter       In trouble at twelve, in prison at eighteen and a best-selling author at thirty-eight. My guest tonight is Michael McGregor, who describes himself in his latest book as 'still looking for trouble'. Michael, welcome to the show.
Michael    Thank you.
Presenter       Now, you were released from Parkview prison just over seven years ago. What was it like at Parkview?
Michael    It wasn't too bad for most of the men in there. The
food has improved a lot since the early days, and there's a lot more to do in prison than there was when I first went away at the age of eighteen.
Presenter       Did you feel that it prepared you for life on the outside?
Michael    I'm not sure that any prison really does that. They
might keep dangerous men off the streets and they might prevent some people from committing crimes. You're on your own, though, when it comes to building a life for yourself.
Presenter       So, how did you decide to build a life for yourself?
Michael    I'd been in prison for something like ten years and I decided that I'd had enough of that life and I started to read and study. Someone suggested that I start to put some of my stories down on paper. My idea was that it might help young people stay out of trouble if they knew what had happened to me. Two years later I had a book and it just grew from there, really.
Presenter       Inside Out was a great success while you were still in prison. How did that feel?
Michael    That was a little strange, but very satisfying at the same time. One of the things that pushes people into crime is the feeling that there's no hope in their lives. I think seeing that you could achieve things, even from inside prison, gave some of the people in prison a feeling of hope again. I was very proud of that.
Presenter       Your latest book, Over the Wall, goes back in time to your childhood. What do you think now when you look back at those years?
Michael    I think a lot of things. First of all, I think how stupid I was. My family was always poor, but I don't blame that for the wrong things I did. You know, on TV and in the news, criminals are presented as people who try to blame anybody but themselves for their crimes. In fact, most people I met inside felt very guilty about the things they had done and blamed themselves.
Presenter       You've also been asked by the government to advise on changes to prisons, haven't you?
Michael    Yes, that's right. Some major changes are being planned, particularly to the kind of courses being offered in prisons. It's felt that more education, particularly things like the use of computers, will help people stay out of prison, and I have to say I agree.
Presenter       You also believe that sport can be a useful way of helping people to stay out of trouble.
Michael    Yes. I know from my own experience that sport becomes very important in prison. It gives prisoners an aim and a reason to work together. When you eventually leave prison, it's essential that you know how to work with other people.
Presenter       Now, you mentioned some of your plans for the future before the show. I know that a film studio is very interested in ... [repeated]


GRAMMAR FOCUS
TapescriptNone of the prisoners object to the new rules.
The prisoner was found carrying an illegal object.

Key.object (verb)
object (noun)

 Listen to these sentences being read and underline the stressed syllables in the words in blue.
   None of the prisoners object to the new rules.
   The prisoner was found carrying an illegal object.

When a noun and a verb are written in the same way, they are sometimes stressed the same. Sometimes, though, the stress gives you information about the part of speech.

Listen to these pairs of sentences.
Write the word which appears in both sentences and circle the correct answer.

Tapescript1    The police have asked to see a record of phone calls made on that day.
They've decided to record the interview with the man for future reference.
2    I think the manager is beginning to suspect that something is
wrong.
Police have arrested a suspect who was seen driving the stolen car.
3    Pete was a bit of a rebel when he was young and got into a bit of
trouble.
Many teenagers rebel against their parents for a time.
4    The government are going to reject the report on prisons.
Louise turned to crime because she felt like a reject from society.

Key.1    record, second, first   
2    suspect, second, first   
3    rebel, second, first
4    reject, second, first
Note: Students should notice that the nouns here are stressed on the first syllable, while the verbs are stressed on the second syllable.

1    The verb and noun are: ______________ 
      The verb is stressed on the first / second syllable and the noun is stressed on the first / second syllable.
2    The verb and noun are: ______________ 
      The verb is stressed on the first / second syllable and the noun is stressed on the first / second syllable.
3    The verb and noun are: ______________  
      The verb is stressed on the first / second syllable and the noun is stressed on the first / second syllable.
4    The verb and noun are: ______________ 
      The verb is stressed on the first / second syllable and the noun is stressed on the first / second syllable.

What do you notice about each pair of words?
 

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