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Unit 3. Education



WARM-UP
pair.jpgLook at the pictures. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions:
• What is happening in the three pictures?
• Are there any differences/similarities between the types of education shown in the photographs?
• How do you think the people in the photographs feel?
• Have you ever experienced any of the situations shown?
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DEVELOP YOUR READING SKILLS


flag.jpgYou are going to read some sentences from different texts about education. For each of the sentences, decide what kind of point the writer was making in the previous sentence.
Key.1С 2A 3B 4A 5B 6B 7C 8C 9B 10A
Write in the gap:
A for a point which CONTRASTS (disagrees) with the point made in the second sentence
В for a point which SUPPORTS (agrees with) the point made in the second sentence
С for a point which gives the CAUSE (the reason) for something happening

Example:
     B      Moreover, many educational psychologists argue today that strict classroom discipline is actually a disincentive to effective and efficient learning.

  1. _________. As a result, more and more graduates are leaving university with bank balances deeply in the red.
  2. _________. However, this ignores the fact that mixed-ability classes often discriminate against the more able students in those classes.
  3. _________. In addition, society has to recognise that schools can never totally replace the role of the parent when it comes to moral guidance.
  4. _________. On the other hand, school uniforms do instil in pupils a sense of belonging.
  5. _________. Apart from that, we also need to consider the important issue of whether university lecturers have actually received any training in how to communicate their knowledge effectively to their students.
  6. _________. What's more, it has never been proved that children who are taught by their parents at home receive less of a grounding in social and life skills.
  7. _________. In consequence, it seems clear that the way forward is to have as highly educated a workforce as possible.
  8. _________. Thus, until we deal with the generally inadequate standard of state school teaching, there will always be a market for private schools.
  9. _________. Lastly, the school has recently introduced craft, design and technology courses to the curriculum.
  10. _________. Despite this, teachers are still leaving the profession in droves, fed up with the education system being treated as a political football by politicians.

flag.jpgUnderline the words or phrases in each second sentence which helped you make your decision. Then write them in the appropriate column in the table below.
Key.1. As a result
2. However
3. In addition
4. On the other hand
5. Apart from that
6. What's more
7. In consequence
8. Thus
9. Lastly
10. Despite this
Introducing contrast: However, On the other hand, Despite this
Introducing a supporting argument: In addition, Apart from that, What's more, Lastly
Introducing a result: As a result, In consequence, Thus

  1. _________. As a result, more and more graduates are leaving university with bank balances deeply in the red.
  2. _________. However, this ignores the fact that mixed-ability classes often discriminate against the more able students in those classes.
  3. _________. In addition, society has to recognise that schools can never totally replace the role of the parent when it comes to moral guidance.
  4. _________. On the other hand, school uniforms do instil in pupils a sense of belonging.
  5. _________. Apart from that, we also need to consider the important issue of whether university lecturers have actually received any training in how to communicate their knowledge effectively to their students.
  6. _________. What's more, it has never been proved that children who are taught by their parents at home receive less of a grounding in social and life skills.
  7. _________. In consequence, it seems clear that the way forward is to have as highly educated a workforce as possible.
  8. _________. Thus, until we deal with the generally inadequate standard of state school teaching, there will always be a market for private schools.
  9. _________. Lastly, the school has recently introduced craft, design and technology courses to the curriculum.
  10. _________. Despite this, teachers are still leaving the profession in droves, fed up with the education system being treated as a political football by politicians.
Introducing contrast
Introducing a supporting argument
Introducing a result

 

 

 

 

 

  

flag.jpgHere are some more sentences. For each one, decide what kind of point the writer makes in the next sentence.
Key.1A 2B 3G 4F 5E 6C 7D
Write in the gap:
A   for a point which CONTRASTS (disagrees) with the point made in the previous sentence
В   for a point which SUPPORTS (agrees with) the point made in the previous sentence
С   for a point which gives the EFFECT (the result) of the point made in the
previous sentence
D   for a point which is the writer's own OPINION
E   for a point which is someone else's OPINION
F   for a CONCLUSION
G   for an EXAMPLE
  1. On the one hand, we do have to have a system that adequately tests what has been taught. On the other hand, _________________.  
  2. Firstly, there is no evidence that left-handed students are treated any differently by teachers than right-handed students. Secondly, _________________. 
  3. A number of teachers have managed to reduce the amount of homework they assign their students without it affecting overall performance.
    For instance, _________________.
  4. We have seen in this chapter that there are a number of ways for the teacher to attempt to motivate a troublesome class. To sum up, _________________.
  5. The number of school leavers from disadvantaged backgrounds entering higher education is falling dramatically. According to the Education Research Foundation, _________________.
  6. If education doesn't prepare our children for the realities of modern working practices, then it is failing both our children and our society as a whole. Therefore, _________________.  
  7. Corporal punishment is seen by most people today as being barbaric, unnecessary, destructive and old-fashioned. To my mind, _________________.

flag.jpgHere are some more words, phrases and expressions which we sometimes find in texts. Writers use them to make their argument clearer. What do they tell us?
Write a letter from the list A-G in exercise С next to each expression below.

Key.1G 2B 3D 4F 5C 6A 7D 8B 9D 10В 11D 12D 13F 14С 15G 16A
  1. For example, ____________
  2. Furthermore, ____________
  3. As far as I'm concerned, ____________
  4. In conclusion, ____________
  5. For this reason, ____________
  6. But... ____________
  7. As I see it, ____________
  8. Secondly, ____________
  9. Personally, ____________
  10. Finally, ____________
  11. In my opinion, ____________
  12. It seems to me that... ____________
  13. To conclude, ____________
  14. Because of this, ____________
  15. ... such as ... ____________
  16. Having said that, ____________


WORDPERFECT
Read these sentences and then use the words in bold to complete the sentences below.
Key.1 essay
2 qualifications
3 assessed
4 public school  
5 state school  
6 illiterate
7 nursery (school) / kindergarten 
8 skills
9 graduate
10 degree

  • Qualifications are exam results which prove you have reached a certain level.
  • I'm going to get a job as soon as I graduate from university.
  • The qualification you get when you graduate from university is called a degree.
  • In Britain, a public school is a private, fee-paying school.
  • In the USA, a public school is a state school, which is run by the government and is free to attend.
  • She went to nursery (school)/kindergarten when she was two years old.
  • We're not taking exams this year at school; all our work is assessed.
  • I'd like you all to write an essay entitled 'Deception in Hamlet.'
  • If you are illiterate, you don't know how to read and write.
  • Your skills are the things that you can do well.
  1. I've got to write an _____________ this weekend on the causes of the First World War.
  2. Apart from a GCSE in English, do you have any other _____________?
  3. 35% of this course is examined, and the rest is _____________ throughout the year.
  4. Because Jeffrey had been a boarder at an expensive _____________, he adapted to prison life remarkably easily.
  5. I personally believe that the _____________ system is much fairer, as every pupil, irrespective of how much money their parents have, receives the same quality of education.
  6. There are far too many _____________ adults today; something must be done about it.
  7. Almost all children round here go to a _____________ until they're five years old.
  8. He's got some very impressive qualifications, but do you think he's got the necessary _____________ for the job?
  9. As long as I don't completely mess up my university final exams, I should _____________ from Warwick next July.
  10. I think Helen's got an honours _____________ in German Literature from Hull University.

EXAM PRACTICE - READING PART 3
Exam know-how
When you do Reading Part 3:
• Quickly read the text first to get a general idea about what it is about. Ignore any unknown words at this stage.
• Sometimes sentences have been removed from the text, and sometimes paragraphs. For sentences, make sure that the sentence you think is the answer fits LOGICALLY and GRAMMATICALLY in terms of what comes before and what comes after. Look for any linking expressions that might help you. Leave the most difficult sentences until last.


You are going to read a guide for international university students. Seven sentences have been removed from the guide. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Key.1G 2A 3C 4B 5F 6D
A   Inside, you will find a number of shops, bars and food outlets, as well as a laundrette, two banks and a travel agent.
B   Generally, your course will consist of lectures, seminars and regular meetings with your Personal Tutor.
С   In addition, you are free to join any of the university clubs and societies and attend Union-organised events such as pop concerts and discos.
D   A confidential counselling service is also available.
E   As a result, a number of ethnic societies, such as the Greek Society, the Irish Society and the Jewish Society, exist to fill your cultural and social needs.
F    As an international student, you may have some questions that neither your Hall Tutor nor your Personal Tutor are able to answer.
G    However, they are not expected to do your washing-up or tidy away your things.
   For this reason, we have produced this small factsheet which may make your first few days here a little easier.

Alcot University
Guide for International Students
Welcome to the University of Alcot. We very much hope that your time here will be both highly productive and highly enjoyable, but we do recognise that it is not always easy for students from other countries to adapt to campus life in Britain.  0 - H 

Your Hall of Residence contains twelve rooms, all like yours. The kitchen and bathrooms are communal. In the interests of hygiene and respect for your flatmates, we would ask you to keep these shared facilities as clean and tidy as possible. These rooms will be cleaned by a member of the cleaning staff once a day (Monday to Friday).  1 -     Please be polite and respectful to your cleaners - they have a difficult and unpleasant job to do. Your Hall Tutor will introduce himself or herself to you over the next few days. If you have any problems with anything to do with your life on campus, they are there to help you.

Student social life revolves around the Student Union, which is the large yellow building
opposite the library.   2 -     As a student at Alcot, you are automatically a member of the Union. This entitles you to use all the facilities and to vote in all Union elections and meetings.  3 -     See The Alcot Excalibur, the free weekly student newspaper, for further information regarding upcoming Union events.

Regarding your course of studies, you will receive a letter in the next couple of days from your Head of Department inviting you to attend a welcome meeting for new students. You will be given further information concerning your course at this meeting.   4 -     He or she will be able to deal with any academic problems or questions you may have.

 5 -     If you have any problems, issues or concerns directly related to that fact that you are a non-British citizen, these can be referred to the International Office. Situated next to the Arts Building, the International Office is staffed by one permanent Welfare Officer and a body of trained student volunteers. They are experienced in handling issues related to visas, immigration and police registration.  6 -   

Further information regarding other university facilities, such as the medical centre, sports centre, arts centre and library, can be found in the accompanying Alcot Guide for Undergraduates. This also contains useful phone numbers and a map of the campus.


GRAMMAR FOCUS
We do recognise that it is not always easy for students from other countries to adapt to campus life in Britain. = 'We recognise ...' with extra emphasis.
This is the emphatic present simple.


He did pass the exam. = 'He passed ...' with extra emphasis.
This is the emphatic past simple.

Why did the writer or speaker decide to use the emphatic form in these sentences? Circle the correct reason a or b.

Key.1a 2b 3a 4a 5b
1    However, in the end she did manage to get her essay handed in on time.
      a  to emphasise that it hadn't been an easy thing to do
      b  to emphasise that she had done it easily
2    I think in fact Matthew does want to get better grades, but he finds it hard to concentrate.
      a  to emphasise the reason why Matthew doesn't get better grades
      b  to express disagreement with what someone else has just suggested
3    I really do love physics; it's such an interesting subject.
      a to emphasise how much the speaker loves physics
      b to express disagreement with what someone else has just suggested
4    I hated German at school, but I did enjoy our Latin lessons.
      a to emphasise the contrast between the writer's feelings for German and Latin
      b to emphasise how much the writer enjoyed Latin
5    Many teachers do still believe that students should just sit quietly in the class and listen to them.
      a to emphasise how strongly the teachers believe
      b to show that the writer disagrees with what the teachers believe

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