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ГДЗ Биболетова М. З. 11 класс "Enjoy English"

БиболетоваНазвание: Биболетова М. З. 11 класс "Enjoy English"
Автор: Биболетова М. З.
Описание: Учебник "Английский с удовольствием" за 11 класс предназначен для старших классов (базовый уровень) общеобразовательных учреждений РФ, в которых обучение английскому языку начинается со второго класса.
Тематика учебника отобрана с учетом интересов учащихся 11-го класса, их речевых потребностей и ориентирована на самоопределение учащихся, выбор будущей профессии и продолжение образования.
Учебник готовит к итоговой проверке уровня подготовки по английскому языку, предусмотренной для выпускников полной средней школы, формирует умения познавательной деятельности, обучает школьников стратегиям самообразования.
Учебник основывается на современных методических принципах и отвечает требованиям, предъявляемым к учебникам начала третьего тысячелетия.

Часть 1. С чем сталкиваются молодые люди в обществе сегодня?
   Раздел 1. Мировые языки: локальные или глобальные? 3Прочитай стихотворение. Выбери фразу, которая лучше всего подходила бы в качестве заголовка. The strange features of English  5Найди примеры фразовых глаголов в последней части стихотворения. Соотнести фразовые глаголы с определениями. a) burn up — to destroy a building or something large with fire, or be destroyed in this way; b) burn down — if it happens to an object, fire completely destroys it; c) fill in — to put something into a gap so that the gap no longer exists; to add information such as your name or address in the empty spaces of an official document; d) fill out — to add information such as your name or address in the empty spaces of an official document.  11Прочитай определение в словаре слова "borrowing" («заимствование») и соотнеси слова со странами, из языка которых они были заимствованы. bistro — French; feng shui — Chinese; graffiti — Italian; kangaroo — Australian Aboriginal; karaoke — Japanese; pyjamas — Indian; sauna — Finnish; scholarship — German; sofa — Arabic; zebra — African; troika — Russian.   14Посмотри на карту мира и покажи, в каких странах говорят на этих языках. Испания; Китай; Франция; Дания; Венгрия; Финляндия; Польша; Россия; Италия.   15Прочитай текст об этих видах языков и найди два имени, которые являются ком-бинациями русского и английского языков. Объясни, как они возникли. Runglish = Russian + English Russlish = Russian + English   16Прочитай текст еще раз и скажи, со-ответствуют ли следующие высказывания тексту. Исправь неверные предложения. 1. Т; 2. F; The names of these languages look similar but they are actually quite different. 3. T; 4. F; Although less widespread than other variants, Runglish is spoken in a number of English- Russian communities. 5. T; 6. T.   18Заполни пропуски словами в нужной форме. 1. In this school we study languages that are less traditional in Russia. 2. If I want to enter the university I must get an excellent mark on the exam. 3. The new method of learning English is very interesting, but I don't think for everyone. I think that the usage of this language is very effective. 5. She is a very responsible person. She will do the task in time. 6. He is extremely ambitious. He wants to learn several languages and become a diplomat. 7. His English is perfect. Some people think he is a native English speaker.   25Заполни пропуски определенным артиклем "the" там, где это необходимо. Найти упомянутые страны на карте мира. На каких языках говорят в этих странах? 1. The United State of America is located in the North America between Canada and Mexico. The official language of the USA is English. 2. China is the world's largest country. The Chinese language is one of the most difficult for Europeans to learn. 3. Croatia lies on the northeast of Adriatic, it borders with Slovenia, Bosnia and Serbia. 4. Cyprus lies in the Mediterranean, 71 km south of Turkey. Most people in Cyprus speak Greek and English. 5. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Its population is about 60,000,000 people. 6. New Zealand is a country in the Pacific Ocean southeast of Australia. About 10% of the population are Maori people who lived there before Europeans came. The language they speak is Maori.   28Прочитайте правила и назовите примеры из текста выше. Passive: be + Vs example
Present simple am/is/are + V3 is written
Present conti-nuous am/is/are being + V3 are being written
Past simple was/were + V3 were written
Past continuous was/were being + V3 was being written
Future simple will be + V3 will be written
Present perfect have/has been + V3 has been written
Past perfect had been + V3 had been written
Future perfect will have been + V3 will have been written
Modals + infi-nitive should/can/... + be + V3 can be written
Modals + perfect infinitive should/can/... + have been + V3 should have been written
  29Заполни пропуски в предложениях правильной формой страдательного залога. 1. During the last lesson students were exposed to some authentic language 2. At the moment the intensive language courses are being organized. 3. A new French textbook has been written recently. 4. Some people think that soon a simplified version of English will be used by many people. 5. They said that the book had been translated from German in 1989. 6. By June 2015 our language research will have been completed. 7. This article was being discussed when he arrived at the meeting. 8. The essay should be finished yesterday.   30Используя правильную форму слова в скобках, заполни пропуски в тексте. "English English" is a term that is applied to the English language that is spoken in England. In English-speaking countries outside the ls\ the term "British English" is more frequently used. However, the term "English English" was introduced some time ago by Peter Trudgill in Language in the British Isles. This term is now generally recognized in academic writing. The term "British English", however, has a wider meaning, and is usually reserved to describe the features common to English English, Welsh English, Hiberno-English, and Scottish English. A lot of people are always interested in the different accents and dialects that exist in Britain. That's why The English Dialect Dictionary that has been completed by Joseph Wright, is now extremely valuable. But the diversity of accents within the nation is still being studied by linguists. Dialect research papers are often sold for hundreds of pounds. People tend to be very proud of their local accent or dialect.   34Прочитай определения и соотнеси их со словами. 1. Dialect — a way of speaking a language that is used only in a particular area or by a particular group of people; 2. Accent — a way of saying words that shows what country, region, or social class someone comes from; 3. Jargon — special words and phrases that are only understood by people who do the same kind of work.   40Прочитайте текст и добавьте к вашему списку еще причины, по которым вы изучаете английский язык. Поделитесь своим списком с другими учениками. Learning a second language is beneficial to all. Learning to speak foreign languages may be the best thing you can do to improve your life and open new doors. First of all, you get access to knowledge. What are you interested in? Is it science? Music? Computers? Health? Business? Sports? Today's media, such as the internet, television, and the press, give you almost unlimited access to knowledge about your favorite subjects. After all, we live in the information age, don't we? There's only one problem. Most of this knowledge is in a. foreign language. If you can communicate in other languages, you can: Contact people from all over the world. Talk about your ideas and opinions on internet discussion groups. Send e-mail to interesting people. Learn about their life and culture. Travel more easily. Communicate with people wherever you go. Ask directions, have a conversation, or... ask for help. Who knows, may be a foreign language will save your life someday! Language competence in a second language increases your job opportunities, and pushes your career forward. If you want a good job in business, technology, or science, get out of that armchair and start learning languages now! Knowing a foreign language will let you: Put "excellent knowledge of English or French" on your CV. Get your dream job, earn more money and create your future. Gain technical knowledge. If you're going to read about technology, computer science, genetics or medicine, you'll probably have to do it in a foreign language. So you will understand your subject area even better and become a solid employee. Foreign languages let you experience the culture of the world. You can do wonderful things, such as watch films in their original form. Once you try it this way, you'll never go back to dubbed versions! You can also read great books. There are an amazing number of titles — from classic plays like Hamlet to modern love stories like A Knight in Shining Armor and modern thrillers like Jurassic Park. And what about enjoying music more? Beli-eve us, music is much better if you can understand the words. Learning languages is not only useful, but it also gives you a lot of satisfaction. Making progress feels great. You'll never forget the moment you discover you can speak with foreigners or watch a TV programme in another language. Languages make you a more powerful, happier person. It is not difficult to imagine some of the situations where knowing a foreign language would give you a great feeling.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Какое слово не используется со словом "language"? Вычеркни его. a) bilingual; b) fence. Соедини слова, чтобы образовать устойчивое словосочетание. tongue twister, language skills.   2Соедини предложения, Michael has been learning a foreign language for two years but he can't speak fluently yet. Stuart started learning French when he got interested in the fashion Europeans believe that hieroglyphic writing is the most difficult thing about learning Chinese. Millions of young people throughout the world learn languages for business and academic purposes. Katy is not a particularly diligent student but she's gained proficiency in three foreign languages   44. Выбери правильное слово. 1. are; 2. comes; 3. were; 4. fit; 5. is; 6. was.   11Соотнеси противоречащие идеи. Подчерки союзы. 1. Europeans usually think that the most difficult thing about learning Chinese is hieroglyphic writing, c) However, speaking that language is extremely challenging for a foreigner too. 2. There are lots of electronic devices nowadays which help translate foreign speech, e) Nevertheless, the number of people learning languages is increasing. 3. Even though the idea of simplifying English is popular with students a) most English teachers don't take it seriously. 4. Some students find English spelling very chal-lenging, g) but others think it's pronunciation that causes more problems. 5. On the one hand immersion courses are very good for breaking language barriers, f) On the other hand, they are usually quite expensive and too short and don't meet the expected standards. 6. Though computer-based learning is increasing in popularity, b) it's not used efficiently for learning languages. 7. Some people think that kids usually learn languages more quickly and easily than adult students, d) In contrast, there is an opinion that adults are more motivated and can learn better as they know what learning strategies work better.   12а) Соотнеси мнения и аргументы. А — argument 2; В — argument 1; С — argument 3. b) Напиши эссе на тему "The best way to learn English It is widely believed that learning of a foreign language is something rather simple. We can see a lot of advertisement that offer quick courses of foreign languages after finishing of which you would speak fluently any language you wish. If it is true, why then so humble number of people can really speak foreign languages? From my point of view the only method of studying foreign language is not connected with modern methods such as internet communication or immersion courses. It correlates with the traditional way of learning foreign languages. I mean with a teacher. If you have a good teacher and a good textbook, the only thing you need then is your desire to learn the language that is your motivation. Of course there may be found several arguments against it. First of all it is the same number of people who have the real ability to speak foreign languages that I have already mentioned. We all start studying English at school but can hardly speak English after finishing. The point is that at school there is not much motivation among pupils, but when adults start studying English they make much progress as they understand clearly the reason why they should study it. So I believe that the best way of studying English or the other foreign language is a traditional one; But the key point in this methodology is played by the students' motivation. You should really want to learn a foreign language because only then you could do it.  

   Раздел 2. Жизнь в глобальной деревне 47Заполни таблицу в рабочей тетради.
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  48Заполни пропуски в предложениях под-ходящим словом. 1. increased; 2. falling; 3. deteriorated; 4. rising; 5. decreased; 6. developed; 7. growing; 8. improve; 9. lessen; 10. strengthening.   50Прочитайте текст. Было ли ваше объ-яснение близко, к объяснению в тексте? Globalization Globalization refers to the idea that the world is developing a single economy and culture as a result of improved technology and communications and the influence of very large multinational companies. The world is seen as a global village in which all countries depend on each other and seem to be closer together. There are many arguments surrounding the phenomenon of globalization and they're all quite controversial. Opponents of globalization or anti-globalists say that it exploits workers and degrades the environment. They say that, as multinational corporations become more powerful, they become less accountable for their actions. And there's increasing concern that multinational (mainly American) companies are crushing the cultures of smaller nations. But supporters of globalization, or globalists, argue that world trade makes everyone richer. They say that, as more countries make trade deals with one another, international understanding increases, therefore lessening conflict and improving human rights.   51Прочитай текст снова и догадайся о значениях следующих слов. 1. controversial — a) a point that people disagree on; 2. degrade — a) spoil; 3. accountable — a) in a position where people have the right to criticize you or ask you why something happened; 4. concern — a) a feeling of worry about something; 5. crush — b) completely defeat someone.   53Прочитайте пример глобализации и от-ветьте, были ли ваши догадки верными. Что изменилось? The popularity of western music has spread all over the world. Pop music developed into a global industry in the second half of the 20th century. It started with Elvis Presley and the Beatles, who could be called the word's first rock stars. These musicians created a new era, allowing other singers to become internationally famous. Rock'n'roll was spreading throughout the continents when a small group in the north-west of England appeared. At that time, the group was playing in small halls in Liverpool. They decided to change their name from the Quarrymen to the Beatles and in the following eight years, they sold millions of copies all over the world and became as popular as Elvis. Both music professionals and fans agree that Elvis Presley and the Beatles are the most valuable phenomena to have entered the pop music world of the 20th century. They started a new era that then created a new global industry. But pop music changes quickly. It is sometimes difficult to understand why a group or a singer is successful and why the public buys their music. For this reason, the industry is constantly changing.   54Выполни задания. Посчитай число пра-вильных ответов. 1. Прочитай текст и выбери несколько глаголов. Соотнеси глаголы со временем. Present simple — agree, changes; Present continuous — is changing; Past simple — developed, created; Past perfect — ...; Past continuous — was playing; Present perfect — has spread. 2. Какие из этих предложений описывают временную ситуацию? А какие — постоянную? a) permanent (постоянная); b) temporary (временная); a) permanent (постоянная); b) temporary (временная). 3. Поставь глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. a) Do you like this kind of music? b) What do you think about this song? c) What are you thinking about? You look worried. d) My son is naughty. e) My son has been naughty these days. It is so untypical of him. f) I do not know anything about this band. g) He does not have a MP3 player. h) He is having a talk with the manager. He can't see you right now. 4. Выбери правильные предложения. a) The Beatles have sold millions of records over a period of eight years. a) She has worked in show business for eight years and she likes it. 5. Выбери правильный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. a) They had worked together for several years... before they became successful. b) They have worked together for several years... but they still don't get on well.   56Прочитай тескт о другом мировом из- всетном человеке и заполни пропуски необ-ходимой формой глагола. Dmitri Hvorostovsky is one of the most famous singers in the world. He often takes part in performances in different countries and always becomes the centre of attraction. Some fans call him the "Elvis of opera". When Hvorostovsky heard about this, he thought it was a huge compliment since to him, Elvis had been a kind of revolutionary. Hvorostovsky was born in Krasnoyarsk in Siberia — there he studied at school, and for some time had been the singer in a rock band where he had been laying heavy metal. After Hvorostovsky won several professional contests in Russia, Irina Arkhipova encouraged him to take part in the Cardiff Singer of the World competition in 1989. He won it and his world career launched. His manner of singing is very lyrical and it is sometimes called "old school". He works with theatres and singers all around the world. Some years ago he recorded an album with Olga Borodina. Now Hvorostovsky has a house in London and speaks good English. He works a lot and tries to have a healthy way of life. He confessed that he had given upsmoking and had stopped drinking alcohol many years ago. He knew this would help him perform his best in his profession.   60Раздели слова в рамке на две колонки. Заполни таблицу в рабочей тетради. за - to approve of something, to be in favour of something, to be positive towards something, to support something
против - to be against something, to be negative towards something, to disapprove of something, to oppose something
  61Заполни пропуски в предложениях словами и выражениями из упр. 60. 1. When I decided to enter the technical university, my parents approved of my choice. 2. I strongly disapprove of this plan. It won't work. 3. The government was against the new plan of city reconstruction. It was not realistic. 4. Anti-globalists support multinational corporations. 5. Anti-globalists oppose the international institutions, such as the World Bank, the International Olympic Committee. 6. Those are positive towards our new plan, please raise your hands. The school administration is negative towards the idea of creating a school council. 7. Globalists are in favour of the ideas of close cooperation throughout the world.   68Прочитайте текст и проверьте свои догадки. Who lives in Britain? Britain is a country where people of different nationalities have been historically mixed. Several thousands years ago people travelled from many different parts of the world to live in Europe and Great Britain. In fact, every person in Britain has origins from another country. The official count in 2001 showed that Britain's population consisted of the following different races and nationalities. Here are some of the figures. Thousands of years ago Britain was invaded by different countries, races and nationalities including the Romans, the Saxons, the Normans, the Vikings. And so today many people actually descend from them. Even then, invaders brought slaves. In the 3rd century AD Rome used black soldiers to guard Hadrian's wall. In the 20^ century Britain suffered much during the Second World War and people from other parts of the world were invited to help rebuild the country. Many of them were from different countries belonging to the British Empire. The first ship came from West Indies in 1948. It was called the Empire Windrush and it had hundreds of people on board. Later people continued to arrive and stay in Britain. As a result of these events, Britain has become a country where different nationalities, cultures and religions are mixed. This mixture has influenced all spheres of life, including the country's literature, music, art, fashion and everyday habits and routines. People who were born in other countries have brought their traditions, rituals and food with them. For example, Indian and Chinese takeaways are as popular as traditional British fish and chips. An international influence is also clearly seen in popular music styles. For example, rap and hip hop, types of music extremely popular among teenagers, originally came from Africa. Even in schools different origins have to be taken into consideration, particularly when a school uniform is required.
54,154,000 White
1,053,000 Indian
566,000 Black Caribbean
747,000 Pakistani
231,000 other minority groups
485,000 Black African
248,000 Vietnamese/Mala-ysian/Thai
98,000 Black American and Australian
283,000 Bangladeshi
247,000 Chinese
  69Прочитай текст и определи, соответствуют ли данные предложения тексту или нет. Исправь неправильные предложения. 1. F; Several thousands years ago people travelled from many different parts of the world to live in Europe and Great Britain. 2. T; 3. F; In the 20th century Britain suffered much during the Second World War and people from other parts of the world were invited to help rebuild the country. 4. T; 5. F Britain has become a country where different nationalities, cultures and religions are mixed. 6. T; 7. T.   71Соотнеси слова и страны, из которых они пришли. America potato
Japan sushi
China silk compass gunpowder printing papermaking
Albania Mother Teresa
Italy macaroni
England Newton football
Russia Pushkin Pavlova sputnik
France bicycle
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 3Соотнеси слова с противоположным зна-чением. booming - falling; supporter — opponent; significantly — slightly; national — global; improvement — deterioration; increase — decrease.   4Соотнеси слова. multinational corporations; global village; improved technology; controversial idea; increasing concern; trade deals.   5Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. 1. concern; 2. crush/dependent; 3. inflation/lessens; 4. observe; 5. non-accountable/exploitation; 6. influence; 7. diverse.   6Вычеркни одно слово, которое обычно не используется со словом, выделенным жирным шрифтом. a) technology; b) culture.   8Составь предложения из слов. 1. New technologies improve the standard of living in different countries. 2. The number of people who want to upgrade their qualifications or take retain courses is rising. 3. Communication technologies connect people over very long distances and the number of internet users is growing constantly. 4. Fair competition between companies improves the quality of goods and makes the market more diverse.   12Прочитай диалог и поставь глаголы, выделенные заглавными буквами, в нужную форму. 1. Did; 2. affects; 3. Do they mean; 4. will improve; 5. have gone; 6. have lost; 7. creates; 8. lessens; 9. can require; 10. will be offered; 11. will reinforce.   13Закончи эссе на тему о том, как люди относятся к глобализации. The globalization process is a very controversial and debatable issue. Does it do good or harm to ordinary people? There are different opinions about it. Supporters of the global world believe that the process of globalization is a process that cannot be stopped. It is an obvious stage of the world's evolution. Besides they found a lot of other advantages of globalization. Among them are wide variety of goods on the markets, quick exchange of information and etc. Anti-globalists' arguments are convincing too. First of all it is the threat for national economies. It is clear that industries of small countries may suffer from huge global corporation. The other point is that our world may become less diverse because of globalization. That means more boring. The debates between globalists and anti-glo- balists are likely to continue in the near future. The issue is very controversial and there are lots of arguments for and against the process. Globalization, meanwhile, is progressing and seems to be turning into an irreversible process.  

   Раздел 3. Ты знаешь свои права? 82Прочитай текст и догадайся о значении слов в рамке. Используй контекст, чтобы правильно определить значения слов. decent — пристойный; abuse — оскорбление; neglect — отсутствие заботы; torture — пытка, издевательство; uphold — сохранять, поддерживать.   86Закончи следующие предложения. 1. Both globalists and anti-globalists think they are right. 2. Right, you should have the interview before getting a new job in this company. 3. Her responsibility makes her work hard and do everything in time. 4. The Ministry of Education gives students a right to choose some of the final school exams. 5. Nobody wanted to take responsibility for the accident so the police started an investigation. 6. School rules say that it's a student's responsibility to study well, be organized and act politely. 7. The officer in the airport is within his rights to ask them to show their passports. 8. Our work plan was agreed on by everybody and I think we should follow it. Everything else is by right. 9. We have a responsibility to future generations is to prevent serious damage to the environment. 10. You have no rights to talk to me in that way!   87Соотнеси части предложений. Consequences result from not accepting responsibilities
If you don't accept responsibility other people can lose their rights
Equal opportunity is a right
Everyone has a right to feel safe
One right is freedom of speech
Following the rules is a responsibility
  89Соедините предложения и их значения. 1. Can/Could/May I use your phone, please? a) Asking for permission. 2. We were allowed to/could wear jeans at school, e) Permission in the past. 3.1 have to bring all my course books to school. b) External obligation. 4.1 must work harder, f) Personal obligation. 5. You don't have to pay for this course, c) Lack of obligation or necessity. 6. We had to go to bed at 10 p.m. d) Past obligation.   90Перепиши предложения, не изменив зна-чения. Используй модальные глаголы. 1. Do you have to wear formal clothes? 2. They said I didn't have to write an essay. 3. They said I could hand in the essay later. 4. You must not wear trainers at school. 5. Teachers don't have to stay late at school. 6. We are allowed to use the swimming pool free of charge. 7.1 had to stay after school to do the test again.   92Выбери одну цитату и переведи ее на русский. Кларенс Дерроу: В этом мире Вы можете защитить свою свободу, только зачищая свободу другого человека. Вы можете быть свободным только тогда, когда свободен я. Роза Люксембург: Свобода есть всегда, и только для того, кто думает по-другому, отлично от остальных. Элеанор Холмс Нортон: Единственный способ быть уверенным в том, что люди, с которыми ты согласен, могут говорить, — это поддерживать права людей, с которыми ты не согласен.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Используйте правильный предлог из рамки, чтобы закончить фразы. 1. be tolerant to other cultures; 2. object to construction plans; 3. be financially independent from parents; 4. argue with opponents; 5. be dependent on imported raw materials; 6. fight for social rights; 7. be responsible for financial collapse.   2Образуй прилагательные из следующих существительных и запиши их в соответ-ствующую колонку. -ive: effective; exclusive; expensive, -ic: allergic; authentic; periodic. -ent: confident; different; dependent. -able: accountable; comfortable; acceptable. -al, -ial: conversational; political; controversial. -ing: caring; appealing; booming.   3Перефразируй предложения, используя пассивную конструкцию. 1. You should write your suggestions and submit them to the tutor by next Tuesday. Your suggestions should be written and submitted by the tutor by next Tuesday. 2. You should never neglect your pets as they are not able to take care of themselves. Your pets should never be neglected by you as they are not able to care of themselves. 3. We should discover the truth and publish the story immediately. The truth should be discovered and the story should be published immediately. 4. The authorities shouldn't keep people unaware of their political and social rights. People shouldn't be kept unaware of their political and social rights by the authorities. 5. Nobody should abuse people because of their nationality or religious beliefs. People should not be abused because of their nationality or religious beliefs. 6. The government should protect elderly people's right to a decent standard of living. Elderly people's right to a decent standard of living should be protected by the government.   4Используй подходящий модальный глагол. Most people are aware of their rights, but they should not forget that rights entail responsibilities. If a person has the right to education, this means that society must provide him with the opportunity to get it. The individual, in his turn, should do his best to acquire knowledge and skills and to contribute to a good working environment in the classroom. Otherwise, he can abuse the rights of other people: — those of the classmates, who may be deprived of their right because of inadequate working conditions; — those of the staff, who may work in non-en- couraging environment; those of lots of taxpayers, who may feel that their money is being wasted.   5Сгруппируй соединительные слова из списка в упр. 94 на стр. 33 согласно их функции. introducing: first of all, firstly, to begin with; sequencing ideas: also, next, secondly; expressing contrast: but, however, yet, nevertheless; stating results: as a result; giving examples: for instance, for example; adding: moreover, besides, furthermore; concluding: in summary, so, finally, thus, to conclude, in conclusion, to summarize, to sum up.   6Закончи эссе. Используй подходящие слова-связки. Some people are not aware of the rights they have. For example, most of my friends have never thought about the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. While, in fact, there are lots of rights listed there. Some of them are vitally important. I personally think that the most important right, apart from the right to live of course, is the right to get education. Our world sets strict requirements for people and the most crucial one is obtaining good knowledge. I believe that a child should have the opportunity to study as it will help in the future. Unfortunately, in our country this right does not work everywhere, as there are lots of children who do not attend school. To summarize it all, I want to highlight the idea that different people would nominate different rights for Right No 1. That's why every right should be observed and none of them should be neglected.  

   Раздел 4. Действуя в обществе 107Прочитай текст о Дмитрии Лихачеве и скажи, что означают следующие цифры. 1 — the first person to be named an Honorary Citizen of St. Petersburg; 5 — the number of years he spent in the Solovki Special Purpose Camp; 500 — the number of scholarly works; 1928 — the year of his graduation from the Leningrad University; 1953 — the year of his admittance into the Soviet Academy of Sciences; 1993 — the year of his becoming of an Honorary Citizen of St. Petersburg.   108Прочитай текст и скажи, соответствуют ли данные высказывания тексту (True), нет (False) или не даны в тексте (Doesn't say). 1. Doesn't say; 2. True; 3. False; 4. False; 5. False; 6. True; 7. Doesn't say; 8. True.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Вычеркни слово, которое не может ис-пользоваться со словом "politics".
realistic
  4Используй слова, написанные заглавными буквами, в нужной форме. A: Hi! What are you doing? В: Just browsing the internet, can't you see? A: What for? Are you looking for anything? B: Yes, I need to write an essay on a political leader. I have been browsing for an hour already but I really don't know whom to choose. A: This means that you are quite indifferent to politics, aren't you? B: That's right. I used to be interested in it a couple of years ago. I even analyzed the results of elections and felt disadvantaged that I had not had the right to vote yet. However now I think there are more important things than politics. A: I see. But whom are you going to write about, after all? В: I don't know. Have no idea at all. A: Well, it's just occurred to me... If I were you, I would write about Benazir Bhutto. B: Who is he? A: Not he but she. She was a prominent politician and a charismatic person. B: Tell me more about her. To be a politician is a tough job, for women especially. A: Well, Bhutto's biographers think that she was born to become a politician as she was the eldest child in the family of Zulfikar AH Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was the first woman who was to rule a Muslim state — she chaired the Pakistan Peoples Party and occupied the post of Prime Minister twice in 1988-1990 and in 1993-1996. В; Sounds impressive. Go on. A: Her political career wasn't smooth. She had lots of opponents and experienced both success* and failure. Politics is a very controversial thing — you never know what's true and what's not. Once Benazir was accused of corruption but then the allegations were withdrawn. I think it was her opponents' trick. B: And is she still in politics? A: Unfortunately, no. She was the leading oppo-sition candidate for the general elections in 2008 and, I think, had a good chance to become President of Pakistan. But Benazir Bhutto was murdered two weeks before the Pakistani general elections. B: Do you mean that it wasn't an accident? A: Oh no! It was an assassination, a murder for political purposes. Several shots were fired at her car. One of them caused her death. В: I feel that I want to find out more about that outstanding woman. Could you spell her name — I'll type it into the search bar.   5Реши политический кроссворд. По вертикали: 1. conservative; 2. negotiations; 3. republican; 4. vote; 5. revolution; 6. independent; 7. political. По горизонтали: 1. controversial; 7. parliament; 8. democratic; 9. tolerance; 10. crisis.  

   Раздел 5. Чувствуя себя в безопасности 113Используй рабочую тетрадь. Прочитай текст. Найди и запиши слова, которые обо-значают следующее: 1. things can be called this when they can exist or be used together - kit; 2. designed to be thrown away after you have used it once or just a few times - disposable; 3. extremely - exceedingly; 4. made of waste materials - recycled; 5. to put an amount of something into a container but not for the first time - put into; 6. a flat piece of plastic, metal, or wood with raised edges, used for carrying things such as plates or food - tray; 7. a date printed on something you buy that shows that it may be less safe to eat or less effective after this date - use-by date.   116Закончи текст, вставляя артикли, где это необходимо. What is happening to our weather? Although most of us say we love the hot weather, I wonder if we would feel the same if every day was the same with predictable sunshine and heat. Never having lived in a hot country for more than a few weeks I am not sure what my opinion would be. Maybe I would miss the rain? There is something about freshness that is in the air after a summer rainfall. When I was younger I was scared of a thunder and my mum used to tell me it was only God moving his furniture around! To pass the time we counted between lightning flashes and thunder, the number we got to was supposed to be the number of miles away we were from the storm. It is shame that today we don't have those heavy snowfalls, these should be part of everyone's childhood! Sledging down the nearest slope until your fingers feel as though they will drop off was all part of fun! These days with the first flurries of snow we are given weather warnings and told not to go out unless our journey is "essential". There is an outcry if schools are closed, but is the journey to school "essential" in such weather conditions? A debatable point! I remember having to struggle through deep snow to get to school, but as it was only a short distance from home and the teachers all lived locally, that was no problem. Nowadays it is somewhat different. Our seasons seem to have disappeared — or have they merged into each other?   119Заполни пропуски предлогами. Проверь ответы по тексту. Переведи выражения. Используй рабочую тетрадь. 1. an addition to the Convention — добавление к Конвенции; 2. to engage in trading — быть вовлеченным в торговлю; 3. the agreement came into force — соглашение вступило в силу; 4. to deal with climate change — иметь дело с изменениями климата; 5. to contribute to socio-economic growth — вносить вклад в социально-экономический рост; 6. changes are required for many reasons — изменения требуются вследствие многих причин.   120Выбери правильный предлог. Раскрой скобки. 1. A new computer-operated heating system was created in addition to the existing one. 2. Representatives of different countries were engaged in the discussion of environmental problems. 3. The new school rules will come into force next year. 4. Governments of all countries must deal with environmental issues. 5. Everybody should contribute to the solution of the problem. 6. We can't solve the problem now for this simple reason: it requires time and investment.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова, чтобы получить устойчивые словосочетания. harmful to the environment; soap foam; plastic container; organic food; waste of energy; disposable cloth.   4Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. 1. Yes, I'm buying this vase. Could you wrap. 2. I've packed everything for the picnic. We've got chips, drinks, some meat and disposable dishes and glasses. 3. I wanted to install this computer game, but it's not compatible with my computer software. 4.1 wanted to apply some perfume, but changed my mind — my friend is allergic to it. 5. Have a look, these books are made from recycled paper, but the quality is very good.   5Заполни пропуски артиклями там, где это необходимо. Alice: You look so tanned in the middle of winter! What do you do for that? You look as if you were just from the sunny seaside resort. Monica: I wish it were true. But no, it's more prosaic. This is an artificial suntan — I've got It in solarium. It's available at a reasonable charge, and it's right near my house. Alice: I've never been to a solarium. What's it like? Monica: Oh, they can be different. The solarium I've been to is very small and there is a bed there and a few bright lamps. You need to lie on your back, with your eyes closed, and than roll around and lie on the belly. Alice: And are you sure that getting tan in a solarium is safe enough? I'm afraid that it can be dangerous for the skin, can't it? Monica: It certainly can. That's why it's very important to make sure that you don't exceed the time recommended for each session. Don't try to get everything in one time. Alice: But I heard that safety also depends on the equipment used in the solarium. If lamps are old or haven't been maintained properly, you can be burnt. Monica: You may be right, to some extent. I know that doctors do not recommend using a solarium very often. But I like it when my skin looks tanned... Alice: You, probably, can consider using cos-metics instead. You know, there are some creams that can give your skin a touch of tan if you use them regularly.

   Итоговый контроль 2Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски в предложениях словами из текста. Используй не больше трех слов для каждого пропуска. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in recycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English. 1. Poverty and racism are the two main problems of Irish Travellers. 2. The Irish Travellers are mistakenly taken for the nomadic Romani, another ethnic group widely spread in Europe. 3. Although both groups are nomadic, their cultures are not related. 4. In the past the Irish Travellers went around by horse-drawn wagon in caravans. 5. They were called Tinkers, which is now a name for them. 6. Irish Travellers have mobile homes pulled motor vehicles now. 7. Today, the Irish Travellers mainly work in recycling. 8. They have low... and their infant mortality rate is life expectancy/higher than average. 9. People distrust their culture and their lan-guage. 10. People think that the Irish Travellers have a secret language that helps them trick people.   3Заполни пропуски правильной формой слова, написанного заглавными буквами в конце каждой строки. Most linguists believe that writing was invented in China during the latter half of the 2nd millennium ВС. Chinese is written with characters. Each character represents a syllable of spoken Chinese and also has a meaning. The characters were originally pictures of people, animals or other things but over the centuries they have become increasingly stylized and no longer look like the things they represent. The Chinese writing system is limited. The largest Chinese dictionaries include about 56,000 characters, but most of them are archaic, obscure or rare variant forms. Knowledge of about 3,000 characters enables you to read about 99% of the characters in Chinese newspapers and magazines. To read Chinese literature, technical writings or Classical Chinese, though, you need to be familiar with about 6,000 characters. There are currently two systems for Chinese characters. The traditional system, still used in Hong Kong and Taiwan, comes from standardized character forms dating back to the late Han Dynasty. The Simplified Chinese Character System, was developed in 1954 to promote mass literacy, simplifying most complex traditional characters to fewer strokes.   4Прочитай текст и выбери наилучший вариант ответа, чтобы заполнить пропуски 1. В; 2. С; 3. А; 4. А; 5. D; 6. В; 7. С; 8. С; 9. D.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 1 2АРеши «Политический» кроссворд, используй словарь если необходимо. По горизонтали: 1. globalization. По вертикали: 1. migration; 2. opposition; 3. generation; 4. politics; 5. population; 6. militarism; 7. concordat.   Разминка 1 2Bа) Прочитай следующие мнения и используй слова в необходимой форме. Young people are not interested in politics, I don t see any reason why they should. There are lots of other things that are really exciting and beneficial for people of our age, such as sports, friends, music and certainly education. I don't watch political programmes on TV as I don't like them anyway. Politicians use a very difficult language, which I don't always understand. I certainly watch news from time to time, but I don't enjoy it very much. It's all about military conflicts, antiglo- balists' protests and other depressing things. I'm convinced that we shouldn't ignore politics. If young people are indifferent to it, they can't influence it. Someone else is shaping their future and they will have to accept the results, whatever they are. I'm not saying that we should take part in all kinds of movements. Politics is a very controversial thing and it's often very difficult to say who is right and who is wrong. I never support people who protest aggressively, no matter how good their intentions are. I think we should analyze information and think for ourselves.  
   Тест 1 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы с за-головками. Есть один лишний заголовок, который не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Letter В А F D Е G
  Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй нужные формы слов. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. Mike became interested in politics when he was at school. When his schoolmates were partying or camping or just watching TV, he was reading about different political systems and movements. It was a weird hobby for a teenager, but he obviously enjoyed it. When I entered his room for the very first time, my attention was attracted to a little bookcase in the corner. The collection of books there was quite unusual — biographies of famous politicians, political reviews, textbooks on politics and international relations and no feature books at all! Mike proudly said that the unique collection was gathered in just two years. He also showed me several files with articles and printed internet materials that related to different political parties and political events. Now Mike works as a political analyst. He can easily forecast which party will win the elections, whether the unemployment rate will rise or fall, and whether our economy will grow or whether we'll have to survive through a recession period. His articles are often published in serious newspapers and now it's me who cuts out his articles to make a collection. 1. was reading; 2. enjoyed; 3. was attracted; 4. was gathered; 5. showed; 6. are often published; 7. cuts out.   Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментирую следующее высказывание: В некоторых странах существует полиция по охране животных, которая защищает права животных, а также защищает их самих от жестокости и от участи быть брошенными. Сторонники защиты окружающей среды считают, что полиция по охране домашних животных должна быть учреждена во всех странах. Protection of all social spheres is a feature of highly civilized countries. The fact that in a particular country there is Animal Police says that in this country the government supports its citizens and guarantees their rights. Unfortunately, in many countries human rights are often neglected. There are a lot of problems considering poverty, children's abuse, social discrimination. In such situation government does not have a chance to protect the other spheres of people's lives such as animals or environment. Certainly, we all should do our best to help each other. Moreover the tolerant and caring attitude towards animals may help us bring tolerant attitudes towards each other. Animals need our help. Looking after home pets may teach us a decent treatment towards our neighbours or colleagues or trees, air and water, in other words environment. In conclusion, I would like to tell that the innovation in the field of Animal Police is one more sign of civilized society. It reveals the fact that such a society is problem-free. And it may serve as an example for the others to strive for.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 2 1АОзаглавь разные типы графиков. A) table; В) bar chart; С) diagram; D) pie chart/ circle graph; E) line graph.   Разминка 2 2АИзучи диаграмму, прочитай описание и подчеркни глаголы, которые описывают изменения. The bar chart shows how the number of foreign students has been changing in our university over the last ten years. We can see that ten years ago, in 2000 we had 30 foreign students, which made a very little per cent of the total number of students who studied at the university. Then the number of foreigners began rising gradually and four years later, in 2004, it reached the peak of 55. Then, as we can see, the situation deteriorated and the number decreased dramatically. It fell to the minimum of 22 students five years ago and stayed at that low level, without any significant change, till last year. Last year the situation improved very rapidly and we welcomed 80 foreign students, the number is growingnow — we have already received 90 applications which have been approved by the examination board. We hope that the year of 2010 will break the record. Thus we can see that the number of foreign students has increased significantly for the last ten years and there is a tendency for its further growth.   Разминка 2BИзучи график, который построен на основе информации о студентах принимавших участие в программах по обмену. Опиши этот график, используй фразы справа в качестве опоры. The chart shows the number of students taking part in exchange programmes. It shows that the number of these students has increased between 2004 and 2010. As you can see the number of the students taking part in exchange programmes is just about twenty when in 2010 it is sixty. We can judge that the growth is about 65%. But we cannot say that this increase was stable. As you can see in 2008 there was a falling compared to 2007 and 2006. Moreover it should be mentioned that in those years and in 2005 the number of exchange programme students did not change at all. It was 40. In conclusion it is important to remark that the general tendency is optimistic. In spite of all difficulties in recent days the number of students who take part in exchange programmes has increased sufficiently.   Разминка 3АИспользуй глаголы в нужной форме. This is my first year at university and I have not got used to a new style of life yet. I know that it's going to be easier in several months when I will learn how to deal with tasks and activities which format is unfamiliar to me and how to plan the day to ensure that everything is written and submitted on time. The right strategy is very important. I wish someone could help me to choose the best one. In my turn I could share my personal experience with those who are still at school. I have been learning at school for 11 years, which gives me a reason to consider myself an expert on most school matters. And as an expert, I think that it's very important to work out your own strategy on how to deal with school assignments. Everyone wants to spend as little time as possible on homework and yet to get the maximum result. Unfortunately, not everyone manages to. When I was not/get used at junior school, I started my homework with the subjects I liked most of all. Naturally, they were the easiest and most enjoyable subjects like drawing and reading. More challenging maths and grammar were put off till later. When Mum came from work, she found that the most important, in her opinion, tasks had not been done yet and we used to spend evenings over my notebooks. She kept telling me that the priorities had to be changed to her words but I ignored. Unfortunately, my strategy did not change at senior school. Not long before the exams I realized that the difficult subjects like physics and geometry had been neglected by me for years. Desperate measures needed to improve the situation and to avoid the exam fail. Fortunately, I passed the exam, but it taught me a lesson for the rest of my life.   Разминка 3BОтметь галочкой утверждения, с которыми ты согласен. Верные утверждения: 1. When I have to write a long-term assignment, I do it on the very last day. 2.1 usually start with the least enjoyable task. 3. I call my friend and suggest that we do homework together. 4. I never go out before my homework is done.
   Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и заполни пропуски фразами. Есть одна лишняя фраза, которую не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. 1. D. International eating habits. Both economists and politicians claim that glo-balization cannot be stopped — people have to accept it and adapt to the new environment. Anti- globalists, in my eyes, just have lost touch with reality, whatever they do — they cannot stop the logical development of our society. Economic development requires boarder free zone, as companies cannot perform their best in the cramped conditions of local markets. National economies are integrating into the international economy and the process is accelerating rapidly. 2. E. The world may turn boring. One may think that the process of globalization was caused and launched mainly by economic forces, which is not quite correct. It is caused by a combination of economic, social, cultural, political and technological reasons. Communication technologies created new unprecedented business opportunities, which boosted economic processes. In fact, telecommunicating and teleconferencing enable business people to trade across the continents. Multimillion deals can be negotiated and signed using electronic means, money can be transferred in seconds, and goods can be delivered in hours from one continent to another. 3. F. Cultural and informational exchange. The cultural life of people has changed too. Due to global TV broadcast and the internet they can exchange information quickly and easily. Nowadays, people living in Europe are well informed about the cultural traditions and mentality of people who inhabit South America or Australia and vice versa. And if they want to learn something new, they can easily find the information. Some national cultural objects had turned into global. No one can say now that the Beatles is just an English group — it is a global phenomenon, which belongs to the whole world. 4. B. The natural process of evolution. Another example of integration of national cultures is the spread of culinary traditions. Italian dishes may be cooked and served in America, there are lots of Indian and Greek restaurants in Paris, and no one in Moscow considers hot and spicy Chinese food as something exotic. We have an opportunity to taste various dishes regardless of the country where we live. Due to globalization people have a much wider choice than they used to have, and they find it very beneficial. 5. G. All in the same boat. However, there are two sides to every medal, and it refers to globalization too. In spite of the obvious advantages, its negative consequences shouldn't be neglected either. Getting global, unfortunately, means losing your national identity. Global music, fashion, mass media make us more and more alike. The world is getting less diverse and therefore less interesting. 6. A. Factors responsible for globalization. Furthermore, the global world gets more vulnerable as crises and catastrophes become global too. That is they can affect anyone in any country. Having started in one country the financial and economic crisis expands via multinational banks and corporations all over the world causing bankruptcy and unemployment across the globe. The negative impact on the environment is not local anymore either — it affects everyone living on the planet.   Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполните пропуски верными словами. Затем перенеси ответы в таблицу. Mike became interested in politics when he was at school. When his schoolmates were partying or camping or just watching TV, he read about different political systems and movements. It was a weird hobby for a teenager, but he obviously enjoyed it. When I entered his room for the very first time, my attention was attracted to a little bookcase in the corner. The collection of books there was quite unusual — biographies of famous politicians, political reviews, textbooks on politics and international relations and no feature books at all! Mike proudly said that the unique collection would be gathered in just two years. He also showed me several files with articles and printed internet materials that related to different political parties and political events. Now Mike works as a political analyst. He can easily forecast which party will win the elections, whether the unemployment rate will rise or fall, and whether our economy will grow or whether we'll have to survive through a recession period. His articles are often published in serious newspapers and now it's me who cuts out his articles to make a collection.   Часть IV. ПисьмоВы получили письмо от вашего английского друга Терезы. Напишите ей ответ. В вашем письме ответьте на ее вопросы и задайте свои о ее школьной жизни. Dear Teresa, I am happy to receive your letter. It is so nice to hear from you and learn that everything is ok. I am also very glad for Timothy. I am pleased that he has chosen Russian as a second language. Well, it is a shame that there are not too many Russian speaking people in your country. But the idea to spend a year in Russia is great. It will certainly help Timothy to improve his language skills. In fact, there are no many differences between Russian and English system of schooling. The one, may be, is in the fact that the Russian system is more theoretical and requires students to obtain a wide range of knowledge. We normally spend two- three hours a day for our homework and of course we need to use computer and internet as there are a lot of projects to be done. As for mathematics, we normally write one paper a month and it is forbidden to use any reference materials during the tests. But the tasks are not very difficult as they are based on the material that has been covered during quite short period of time. And what about you? Is it possible in your country to use reference material during tests? And what is the range of languages that you can study at school? I am asking that because in Russia the situation is different: there are few languages that we may study at school. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Best wishes, XXX  

Часть 2. Работа мечты
  
Раздел 1. Выбирая профессию 3Соотнеси характеристики работы с опре-делениями. 1. well-paid h) awarding enough money; 2. stressful d) extremely irritating and often overwhelming; 3. challenging f) stimulating, interesting and thought-provoking; 4. enjoyable a) giving pleasure and joy; 5. boring c) dull and tiresome; 6. rewarding g) meeting all requirements and conditions; 7. complicated e) difficult and complex; 8. satisfying b) giving satisfaction and profit. 9. Соотнеси слова и выражения в рамке. Некоторые из них могут оказаться сразу в двух категориях. Используй рабочую тет-радь.
Personal qualities: imaginative, well-organized, knowledgeable, able to work to tight deadlines, cre-ative, interpersonal skills, able to make decisions, able to solve problems, negotiation skills, initiative, enthusiastic, responsible, competitive, persistent, inspirational, able to cope with stress, able to take risks, motivated, committed.
Professional qualities or knowledge: well- educated, professional, knowledgeable, computer literate, able to work in a team, telephone skills, able to do research, negotiation skills, competent.
  11Заполните таблицу правильной формой слов. Используй рабочую тетрадь. noun adjective verb imagination imaginative imagine
profession professional —
creativity creative create
competence competent —
enthusiasm enthusiastic enthuse
responsibility responsible respond
competition competitive compete
persistence persistent persist
inspiration inspirational inspire
  18Прочитай диалог и выбери правильный вариант ответа. Прослушай запись и проверь свои ответы. — I've applied for several jobs already. — Have you got any? — Oh, yes. I'm in advertising now! — You know, I left my job after an argument with the boss! — How long have you been out of your job? — For a month already. But I'm going to a job interview this morning! — Good luck! — I've taken a job at a hotel in the city centre. — Congratulations! Is it full-time job? — No, it isn't. It's part-time. — Have you heard the news? Helen is holding one of the top jobs in the company now! — It's not surprising. She's very experienced: she's been doing the job for years.   21Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. — What does Sophia do for a living? She is a freelance photographer. — Does she like her job? Why? She likes her job as she tells passionately about photography the sphere where she works. — Do you think she has made a success in it? Why? She is very successful as she was one of 12 pho-tographers from around the world be selected by the World Press to attend the popular Photography Master class.   22Прочитай текст и поставь события в хронологическом порядке. c) A boyfriend gives Sophia a camera. g) Sophia gets interested in photography. a) She gets her degree in Latin American studies. h) Evans goes to Latin America to become a journalist. f) She is put in jail in San Salvador. d) Evans travels around Mexico, Haiti and Texas. e) She realizes that she wants to be a professional photojournalist. b) Sophia works as a photographer for The Observer and The Sunday Telegraph.   23Найди в тексте слова и выражения, соответствующие определениям. 1. enthusiasm and determination to work hard — commitment and energy; 2. provide money, food, clothes, etc, that one needs in order to live — to support; 3. find something so interesting that you want to do it as much as possible — to become hooked on something; 4. admit your mistakes and draw the right conclusions from them — to learn through one's mistakes; 5. start a journey in a particular direction — to set off for; 6. finish a course of study at university and get a qualification — to complete a degree.   24Заполни пропуски словами из упр. 23. 1. We ate breakfast, collected our bags and set off for school. 2. What are you going to do to support yourself? 3. If you learn through your mistakes, you are not likely to make them again. 4. Many city dwellers are becoming hooked on country living these days. 5. It takes up to six years to complete a degree in Medicine. 6. The commitment, energy, drive and innovation of staff are essential to our success.   27Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски одним из вариантов ответа. 1. В; 2. D; 3. А; 4. А; 5. С; 6. А; 7. С; 8. В; 9. А; 10. D  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполните пропуски прилагательными из рамки. Вы можете использовать слово только один раз. 1. Jill is qualified and she had no problem when applying for the job. Now she can afford a new flat as her job is very well-paid. 2. The only person who can help you complete this difficult job is Bertie. He enjoys challenging tasks. 3. Mary doesn't earn much but she is very happy with her job of a music teacher. She says it's very rewarding to work with children. 4. Jim says that he'd rather do a simple but exciting job than a prestigious but boring one. 5. Jenny is not very good at languages and she gets very nervous when she has to negotiate contracts with foreign partners. Actually, she finds her job too stressful for her and is going to quit.   4а) Посмотри на картинки внизу. Распредели фразы по колонкам. Ты можешь использовать одну фразу больше, чем один раз.
Advantages of:
working for a large company: good promotion opportunities, meeting new people, health insurance, focus on your personal responsibilities, an opportunity to learn what other people do
working for a small company: supportive workmates, a family atmosphere, health insurance, an opportunity to learn what other people do, a good salary   
being self employed: a good salary, nobody can ever fire you, being your own boss, a large range of responsibilities, an opportunity to plan your day
  6Заполни пропуски словами из рамки, чтобы описать людей в следующих ситуациях. 1. It's nice to work with James. He is always ready to help and explain things to other people. He is very supportive. 2. Cathy takes every chance to gain additional qualifications. Career means a lot to her. She is very ambitious. 3. Michael believes that taking different professional courses is essential to update qualifications and to be competitive on the labour market. 4. Mary has always worked in education and has never thought about changing the job. She is committed to teaching. 5. We are sure that James will manage to find new arguments and make the boss change the decision. When James wants something, he is very persistent. 6. It's very unwise to fire Alan. He's been working for the company longer than many others and knows all the ins and outs of the job. He is very competent.   9Прочитай письмо Софии в местный журнал и дай ей свой совет. Аргументируй свое мнение. Dear Sophie, The choice of future career is one of the most important for teenagers. In this aspect it is impossible be ruled only personal preference. If I were you I would talk to your daughter and learn why she has made such a choice. Then I would try to speak to her and explain why it is so important to be careful in the process of choosing job, how it can reflect her whole future. I hope you can persuade your daughter not to hurry up in this choice and not to be so persistent in her decision until she chooses for good. Best regards, XXX  

   Раздел 2. Что происходит после школы? 32Соотнеси слова и их определения к ним.
1. alumnus (pl. alumni) (АmЕ) b) a former student of a specific school, college or university
2. graduate (АmЕ) e) someone who has finished their studies at the high school, college, or university level or someone who has a degree from a university
3. postgraduate g) a student who continues his/her studies after graduation
4. undergraduate d) a student in a university or college who has not received a first degree (esp. a bachelor's)
5. Bachelor/Bachelor's f) someone who has completed at least one year of graduate study and was awarded such a degree by a graduate school or department
6. Master/Master's c) someone who has completed his/her undergraduate studies and was awarded such a degree by a college or university
7. retraining course a) a study course for people who want to get a new qualification that's different from their previous one
8. refresher course i) a study course which serves as a review of previous education
9. major (in) (AmE) h) to study some subject as an academic specialty (AmE)
  33Заполни пропуски в предложениях словами из упр. 32. 1. My qualification turned out to be so unpopular that I had to do a retraining course in order to become a web designer. 2. Josh is in his first year at university. He's only an undergraduate student. 3. She's always been academically minded. She decided to do a postgraduate course and become a Master of Science. 4. Vicky's about to graduate from university. She's going to get her first university degree: a Bachelor of Arts. 5. Every five years doctors and teachers have to do a refresher course to keep up with new developments in their areas. 6. Do you know any St Petersburg State University alumni who have become really famous? 7. He's interested in environmental protection, that's why he has chosen to major in ecology.   34Прочитай веб страницу и ответь на вопросы. 1. What have you learnt about Russian educational tradition? Novgorod is the cradle of Russian education. 2. How did Novgorod University get its name? This University is the successor of the educational institution which was established by Prince Yaroslav.   43Поставь галочки в таблице, чтобы об-разовать верные выражения. Используй рабочую тетрадь.untitled-3.gif   44Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски. 1. f; 2. g; 3. а; 4. d; 5. b; 6. с; 7. е.   53Прочитай отрывки из радиопрограммы о профессионально технических колледжах. Затем соотнеси ответы и вопросы. Переведи слова, выделенные жирным шрифтом, на русский язык. 1. Who can enroll in a vocational college? d) Anyone who's got a secondary school certi-ficate. 2. Are there entrance exams? c) Actually, we've got an "open admission" policy which means we don't have exams, only an interview before the start of the course. 3. Describe a typical student of the college. a) Oh, that's not so easy. We have so many different students from school-leavers to professionals with graduate degrees. 4. Why do university graduates come to the college? b) Many feel they might become more employable if they get additional qualifications. enroll — поступать; entrance exams — вступительные экзамены; open admission — открытый прием; interview — собеседование; graduate degrees — диплом о высшем образовании; university graduates — выпускники университетов; employable — работоспособный; additional qualifications — дополнительная квалификация.   62Соотнеси картинки и предложения. Picture 1: 1. By June, 27 all the school-leaving exams will have been taken; 2. By June, 10 the two most difficult exams will have been taken; 3. On June, 10 the 11^ graders will be getting ready for the rest of the school-leaving exams. Picture 2: On June, 27 the ll**1 graders will be having a school-leaving party.   63Заполни пропуски в предложениях, используя будущее простое или будущее завершенное. 1. This assignment will have been written by the 1st of November. 2. Don't worry! Everything will have been done on time. 3. The test will have been checked by tomorrow. 4. I am sure I will be offered a new job by September. 5. He will be given a chance to re-sit the exam by the end of the school year. 6. We will have been given our school certificates by then.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания. 1. higher education; 2. undergraduate student; 3. educational background; 4. retraining course; 5. Bachelor's degree; 6. major subject.   2Заполни пропуски предлогами там, где это необходимо. My elder brother has always been interested in computer technologies. When he left school, he didn't think much about what to do further, the goal was obvious to him — he wanted to go to university. However, he was a bit unlucky with the entrance exams and failed. It was a shock for him, but he didn't give up. He enrolled in the foundation course to be better prepared the next year and succeeded. His first year at university was not easy but he managed and completed it with very good results. He majored in Information Technology and Programming Languages, as far as I remember. When he graduated from the university, he had already gained some work experience in his field as he had been doing a part-time job in a software company. Later he was involved in several international projects and benefited on challenging tasks and teamwork with foreign experts. He says that he was lucky to make the right career choice and has never regretted it.   4Прочитай разговор между хозяином Еже- годного Праздника Университета и его гостем Мистером Кларком. Заполни пропуски правильным вариантом ответа. Event Host: We are happy that among our guests we can see Dr Clark. He's one of the most famous alumnus of this university, a person, whose name is well-known not only in this country, but widely abroad. Dr Clark, do you remember your university years? Dr Clark: Who can ever forget university years? I entered the Faculty of Biology thirty years ago. It was my dream faculty. I'd been thinking about it since my mid-school, when I came across a fascinating book on biology about tiny organisms that live in our bodies. Unbelievable, but I enjoyed reading a scientific stuff about bacteria and viruses! I remember neither the title of the book nor the author, but it was the reason to choose microbiology as one of my majors. Event Host: Had you ever regretted your choice since then? Dr Clark: Never. I know that I'm a lucky person. All my life I've been doing things I really enjoy. I'd been spending nights over the microscope in the lab and was thrilled to bits! Researching was like driving a sports car to me. Event Host: If I remember it right, you discovered a new virus when you were still a student, haven't you? Dr Clark: Yes, that's true. And later a vaccine to fight it was created. Event Host: You headed the international team working on it. It was a challenging project. Dr Clark: Challenging, and very rewarding too. It's nice to know that lots of people can benefit on your work. But university life is not all about studying. I remember our parties, trips and even exams. Lots of brilliant ideas came during exams! I bet you'll remember your exams too.   7Поставь глаголы, выделенные жирным шрифтом в нужную форму, чтобы выразить будущие действия (в активном или страдательном залоге). My neighbour is an incredible optimist. He believes that all his ideas are brilliant and never considers them twice. When he starts talking about his brilliant plans, he doesn't let anyone challenge them. This is what he said to me last Monday: "The teacher told us to submit our written assignments in December, but mine will have been written by November, because I have more important things to do in November. At the beginning of November I will be studying the Japanese language and then I will watch films about martial arts in Japan in the original. After that, I will go to Japan for New Year holidays. By December I will have bought the plane ticket and I will have been granted with the Japanese visa by then. When I come back, I plan to enroll in a driving course. So, I will have got a driving license by the end of January. It's a pity that I won't have bought a car by then."  

   Раздел 3. Заключительный экзамен 66Соотнеси экзаменационные вопросы и ответы студентов. 1. What causes the tides in the oceans? — c) There is a fight between the Earth and the Moon. All water tends to flow towards the moon, because there is no water on the moon, and nature hates vacuum. I forget where the Sun joins in this fight. 2. Name the four seasons. — a) Salt, pepper, mustard and vinegar. 3. How can you delay milk turning sour? — b) Keep it in the cow. 4. Who discovered radioactive elements? — e) Madman Curie discovered radium. 5. Name one of the processes by which water can be made safe to drink. — d) Filtration makes water safe to drink because it removes large pollutants like grit, sand and dead sheep.   67Поставь предложения в правильном порядке, чтобы восстановить историю о строгом профессоре. 1. b) An economics professor at school had a strict policy that the hourly examinations were to be completed at the bell. 2. a) He insisted that anyone who kept writing on their exam after the bell would take a zero on the exam. 3. g) Well, one guy kept writing on his exam for a while after the bell and then confidently strode up to turn it in. 4. h) The professor looked at him and said, "Don't bother to hand that paper in... you get a zero for continuing after the bell." 5. с) The guy looked at him and said, "Professor, do you know who I am?" 6. f) The professor responded, "No, I've no idea who you think you are." 7. d) The guy, with an enraged look on his face, shouted, "You mean you have no idea who I am?" 8. e) The professor replied, "No, and I don't care if your dad is the president of the United States... you get a zero on this exam!" 9. i) And with that, the guy said "Good!" and plunged his exam into the middle of the stack with the other students' exams, and made a hasty retreat from the examination room!   68Прочитай, что говорят эти молодые люди о своих экзаменах, и заполни пропуски в диалоге. Jenny: Have you talked with any classmates about the exams? What have they said? Mike: Yes, I have. They've all said different things. Maria said she quite liked tests because the classroom is always so quiet and it helps to concentrate and do your best! Jenny: That's funny! You know, she's so clever! And what about George? Mike: Oh, he told he was so scared. He was not going to pass it. Jenny: I'd have expected something like that. What did Denis say? Mike: Denis said he had had his exams all last week, and it had been very stressful Jenny: Poor thing, he must be so tired! And Nelly? Mike: Yes, she said she was just enjoying herself. She is never worried before the exam. Jenny: Oh, Nelly is Nelly! What about Anna? Mike: Anna told it's good to have exams. Sometimes it's a nice surprise to see that you've done better than expected. Jenny: And what did Chris say? Mike: Chris said he had just finished Maths and had already started revising for his next tests. Jenny: Oh! He's right as usual! Now let's get down to studying!   72Соедини предложения. 1. She was very busy last week. She missed our meeting. Example: She was so busy last week that she missed our meeting. 2. Peter was very late. We decided to start our conference without him. Peter was so late that we decided to start our conference without him. 3. He was embarrassed. He could hardly understand the explanations. He was so embarrassed that he could hardly understand the explanations. 4. They were making noise. They were turned out. They were making such noise that they were turned out. 5. His speech was brilliant. I felt extremely proud of him. His speech was so brilliant that I felt extremely proud of him. 6. She gave us a very good example. We understood the rule at once. She gave us such a good example that we understood the rule at once.   73Заполните пропуски словами "so" и "such". 1. I was so tired that I couldn't go to the stadium. 2. She spoke in such a loud voice that we heard everything from the last table. 3. You talk such nonsense, I refuse to listen to you. 4. These are such trifles that you shouldn't feel unhappy. 5. Their story was so frightening that we couldn't sleep. 6. She talked to him in such a tone that he became extremely angry. 7. He drew such a wonderful picture that everybody congratulated him on his success. 8. The trip appeared to be so expensive that we decided we couldn't afford it.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2Закончи параграф и опиши, что ты чув-ствуешь перед экзаменом. Most people worry about their exam results and it makes them feel nervous and even depressed before any test. As for me, I do not differ from all these people. I am nervous before an important exam, but I try to calm myself down. To feel confident is an essential point in being examined. You should be confident about your knowledge only then the examiner will feel the same about you. By the way, it is much easier to take the exam when you are actually taking it. You usually feel very frightened before your turn to answer but as soon you start speaking you feel much better. The secret is just to overcome this dead point.   3Распредели слова no трем колонкам. Types of exams: test; computer-based exam; internet-based exam; oral exam; pen and paper exam; finals; written exam; entrance exam; quiz. Students' exam-related actions: sit an exam; take an exam; pass an exam; fail an exam; study for an exam; read for an exam. Exam-related people or things: exam questions; exam board; exam results; exam papers; exam supervisor.   4Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. Используй каждое слово больше, чем один раз. 1. Jim felt so nervous during his literature exam that he wasn't able to name a single American writer of the twentieth century. 2. Tom's teacher-distracting-tricks seemed such a good plan that no one bothered to do any revision before the exam. 3. The examiner read the task so quietly that people sitting in the last row were not able to write it down. 4. Most students found the exam questions less difficult that they expected. 5. Angela enjoyed the exam procedure. The teacher spoke to her in such a friendly and encouraging way that she forgot her fears and produced very smart answers. 6. The exam task required more time than I allocated for it, so I failed. 7. I find oral exams as difficult as written ones. Everything depends on whether you know the subject or not.   5Используй подходящую форму сослагательного наклонения. 1. I would have helped you yesterday with your exam paper if I had known the answer myself. 2. If I knew the computer better, I would apply for a part-time job in the computer call centre. 3. If I were sure what I really want, it would not be a problem for me to choose a career. 4. If he were more ambitious, he would try to sit the exam once more for a better result. 5. If I had more time, I would enroll on a Spanish course. 6. If you had not warned me about change in the exam date, I would have missed it.  

   Раздел 4. Существуют ли альтернативы современным технологиям? 79Прочитай текст и ответь на вопрос, в чем заключается опасность. The danger is in the increasing popularity of e-learning.   80Ответь на вопросы. — What is e-learning? E-learning is such a form of education that allows students get a degree by means of Internet learning. — What subjects do you think can be learned online? Almost all subjects can be learned online. — Do you think e-learning can compete with traditional universities and colleges? It is competing right now. Moreover many leading universities have this form of education.   81Прочитай описание веб сайта и ответь на вопросы. Second Life is a virtual world based on the internet. There are more than 6 million people who have already signed up to it. In this cyberspace you can become a new person by choosing your appearance, age, gender and colour. Just type in your character's password and meet with others who have the same academic interests. You can use this cyberspace for learning, teaching and doing research. 1. Why do you think the site has this name? The name of the site reveals the main idea of its creators — to make up a new virtual life. 2. Is it a popular site? How do you know? It is a very popular site as 6 million people have already signed up to it. 3. Who is this site for: students, teachers, researchers? This site is for everyone as it connects different people from different places. 4. How do you think this site can be used? This site may be used according to your personal purposes: communication, teaching, research or just for fun. 5. Would you like to use this site? Why?/Why not? I would not like to use this site because the users of this site create the personality that differs much from the one they have in reality. To my mind it's a waste of time to communicate with people who hide themselves.   82Прочитай мнение людей no поводу этого сайта, и соотнесите их с высказываниями. Есть одно лишнее высказывание.
1. Some universities won't be able to use it because they have old computers. Tony: It's a great idea but you should be aware that Second Life uses a really advanced technology. You won't be able to use it effectively unless you have a top-range computer. Even university computer laboratories may not be up to it.
2. This site makes teachers and students feel equal. Gilly: We do hope that Second Life will become a place where every student feels comfortable about taking part in academic discussions. As you will be able to choose your appearance there won't match them with the statements. There would be the typical discrimination found in normal communication. And the teacher and the student will be on the same level.
3. Some students might find it strange to find their professors in this particular cyberspace. Hamish: My concern is that students may be taken in by the fake personalities of their tutors who they may expect to be of their own peer group. This could be like bumping into an aged uncle in a disco.
4. Some universities will run their own cyber- worlds and not need this site.
5. Some universities may not be interested in using this site yet. Andy: There are some university professors and lecturers today who are interested in Second Life but I don't think they all are planning to partake in it. Not yet, at least. It could be the right thing for those who are disabled, have problems with communicating or are not confident enough in a real life classroom.
6. This site makes shy students feel more confident. Rosanna: The character you design for yourself helps you feel more confident and involved. You can actually create the person you have always dreamt of being. For example, I made myself look fitter and younger.
  84Заполни таблицу. Используй слова из списка и добавь некоторые свои. Используй рабочую тетрадь.
E-learning: blogs, computer-aided assessment, e-mails, electronic voting systems, web-based teaching materials, exchange of printed or electronic media, mobile technologies, online learning, laptop.
Distance learning: CD-ROM, regular mail, software, television, courses.
Traditional learning: Classroom, Television, tape recorder, face-to-face teaching, group work, interactive exercises, MP3 recordings, multimedia, radio broadcasts.
  87Прочитай текст и измени глаголы справа так, чтобы они правильно заканчивали предложения слева. Modern distance education had been around at least since Isaac Pitman taught shorthand in Great Britain via correspondence in the 1840s. Since the development of the postal service in the 19th century, commercial correspondence colleges provided distance education to students across the country. Computers and the internet made not only distance learning easier, but also many other day-to-day tasks. One of the oldest distance education universities is the University of South Africa, which has been offering correspondence education courses since 1946. The largest distance education university in the United Kingdom is the Open University founded in 1969. There are now many similar institutions around the world, often with the name "Open University" in English or in the local language. Distance education programs are sometimes called correspondence courses, an older term that originated in nineteenth-century vocational education programs that were conducting through the post. This term was replaced by distance education, and has expanded to encompass more sophisticated technologies and delivery methods. The first subject taught by correspondence was the Pitman Shorthand, a tool of stenography. Primary and secondary education programmes were also widely available by correspondence, usually meant for children living in remote areas.   88Перечисли преимущества и недостатки разных методов обучения. Используй рабочую тетрадь.
E-learning: feeling of isolation, globally reso-urced/unlimited data.
Distance learning: flexibility media literacy.
Face-to-face classes: adaptability to learner's needs face-to-face human interaction expensive, teacher's help and support, group/team work, peer assessment.
  92Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. 1. According to the author of the text, when does learning stop? Why? Learning never stops. You should be open to new ideas throughout your life because technological progress happens quickly. 2. Do the author's ideas correspond to your ideas? Sure. Contemporary life requires constant learning. 3. Choose the best title for the text and explain your choice: b) Lifelong learning In the text there is a lot of information on what types of lifelong learning exist and why it is important for the modern society.   93Прочитай текст и определи, соответ-ствуют ли следующие высказывания тексту (Т) или нет (F). Исправь неверные утверждения. 1. F; Lifelong learning is based on the idea that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, or behaviours throughout one's life. 2. Т; 3. Т; 4. F; Lifelong learning can be accomplished through distance learning or e-learning, continuing education, home-schooling or correspondence courses. 5. T; 6. T.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Вставь пропущенные слова.untitled-2.gif   2Соотнеси слова. 1. competitive advantage; 2. imaginative writer; 3. rewarding job; 4. challenging task; 5. stressful situation; 6. inspirational speech.   3Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой слова. E-learning is winning more and more due to its obvious support nowadays competitive advantages over in-class education. The advantages are obvious: e-students can learn at their own pace, they don't need to travel long distances to their classroom and can combine learning with a full-time job. However people who want to enroll in some online courses need to be aware that e-learning differs from traditional learning significantly. The flexibility of the courses and the absence of deadlines can work against the students. The thing is that some people find it quite difficult to make themselves work regularly. They cannot be attentive without a strict and encouraging teacher beside them. In other words, one can't work effective unless he is able to plan the day, allocating enough   4Поставь глаголы в нужную форму. 1.1 wish I had a new guitar. 2. I wish I knew all the answers to the exam questions, but I don't. 3. She's always very lucky with her exams. I wish I knew her secret. 4. If I had any exam task I would cope with. 5. If she had your brains, told us about her worries, we would have invented something to help her.   8Прочитай отрывок письма Джона и напиши ему ответ. Dear John, Not only you feel frustrated thinking about learning during the whole life. It may seem strange and frighten but in fact it is true. The pace of our world is so rapid that changes happen very quickly. To be successful you have to learn constantly only then you could compete as a professional. You should be open to new ideas, new concept and be ready to get information 24 hours a day. Besides when you retire you just could not stop learning. You will want to discover something new, you will understand that it is really interesting to learn something "fresh" instead just doing the same set of actions. I hope you will find pleasure in lifelong learning and you will not be frightened of it any more. Best regards, XXX  

   Итоговый контроль 22 а) Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их с за-головками 1.Е; 2. А; 3. С; 4. В; 5. D.
b) Прочитай тексты и определи в каком текст упоминается:
1. was easier than combining full-time work and housework. В
2. prevented the family from having social life. С
3. helped someone to pursue his/her own interests. В
4. made someone very happy. A
5. has become a worthwhile career. E
6. gave someone much freedom. В
7. is hard work with long hours. A
8. made for a financially difficult period. D
9. is beneficial for the family. E
10. helped the family to establish a certain routine. В
  3Заполни пропуски в тексте, используя верную форму глагола в скобках. 1. have seen; 2. have been; 3. arrived; 4. am moving; 5. will have finished; 6. would come; 7. come.   4Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой слова. Making a career choice is one of the most difficult and most important decisions we will ever make in our lives. It has to be made with much thought and deliberation. Moreover, career choices cannot be made based on just a few criteria alone. Your job may carry great monetary benefits and perks, but if you do not enjoy what you do then you are folly wasting a large part of your life. At the same time, remember that money is also important for you need it to survive. So, if a job is all satisfying but no pay, things can get difficult. Before you start choosing a perfect career, you need to know yourself first. But sometimes all this self-analysis leads to nowhere. We end up more confused than we were at the beginning. Then, the best way to deal with the dilemma is to think about consulting a career counselor. A career development professional will use various tools to help you evaluate your interests, personality, skills and values. He or she will then show you how all these things, combined, play a role in choosing a career. You can also learn about a career by interviewing people who are already in that profession. Once you have all the information you need, list out all the pros and cons of that particular job. Look at the various alternatives. Check to see if the job gives you what you want from a career. Passion is the key word in selecting a career. Select something because you feel passionate about it, not because it is the latest thing in the job market.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 11 А. Прочитай, что люди говорят о своих профессиях. Просмотри список профессий ниже и подумай, кто мог мы сказать следующее.
1. A baker: What do I like about my job? I think it's the most important job in the world though someone may say it's an overstatement. Well, my days always start early, at about 4 or 5 am. I work early hours because bread, buns, pastries of all kinds need to be ready by the time people have their breakfast. And I don't mind early starts at all. It's great waking up before the sunrise to a delicious smell of freshly baked bread which is a great start of a day, isn't it?
2. An electronics technician: I work shifts and sometimes I feel tired when I have to work at nights. But we need to be available to our clients round the clock as they may have problems with their computers any hour. When they experience problems, they call us for help and advice. The most difficult thing to me is to get them to explain what the problem is. Instead of a detailed explanation they may just scream: "It doesn't work! It bleaks, makes strange noises and refuses to work!" At first I used lots of computer jargon when I spoke to the customers, but then I realized that they didn't understand me at all and switched from professional vocabulary to simple language. Now even non-experienced computer users understand m instructions and cope with most minor technical problems.
3. A fashion designer: When I was at school, I enjoyed arts and crafts. I liked making things by myself. Once I made a dress from lots of little pieces of cloth. I wore it for a party, just for fun, but my friends said that it was a gorgeous dress. I was very surprised but it was very inspirational. I made some more dresses, blouses and accessories and they were a success too. Not only my friends, but also my parents said that I was creative and should pursue that hobby! Later the hobby became a job, and I find it very satisfying.
4. A police officer: When I was considering my career, I wanted my job to be exciting and adventurous, probably dangerous, to add thrills and chills into my very ordinary life. Now I've got it all. Hut a real job is different from the way it's usually depicted in books and films. I was surprised to find out that it implies lots of routine paper work, which I don't really enjoy The best thing about my job is the feeling that I can rely on my mates and colleagues, as we always work as a team. And certainly I like the feeling that my job makes the world a safer place for those who are not able to defend themselves. As for adventures — I can tell you a couple of thrilling stories, but they don't happen very often.
5. A fiction book translator: I think my job is just fun. No, I'm not saying that it's not difficult, or that I don't lake it seriously. Actually it requires good knowledge of the language and good writing skills. My job is very important for people who don't speak English but enjoy reading books written by Kingfish authors. The most challenging part of the job is to transmit the writer's message to people without changing it. It may be difficult because the author and the reader not only speak different languages, but have different backgrounds and mentalities. Anyway, I've always liked studying languages and linguistics, so I find my job very rewarding and enjoyable. And one more thing — I really enjoy reading new books and because of my job I can do it before all the other people in this country.
 
   Тест 1 Часть II ЧтениеПрочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. The Association for Improving the Standards in Education (AISE) is a profit-free, non-governmen- tal organization whose aim, as its name suggests, is to promote new innovative educational technologies and creative ideas that can stimulate school and university education. The organization unites people of different ages and different backgrounds who want to attract society's attention to problematic and controversial issues in education. Recently it has conducted a survey of university students in order to find out their opinion about part-time jobs for full-time students. The Association does not claim that the results of the survey are fully reliable as the data may vary from university to university and may depend on its type, on the economic situation in the region and other factors. However, the information displayed on the Association page gives food for thought. According to it, about forty per cent of students attending universities have jobs during term-time. "If you live in a big city, a job is not an option but a necessity for any student," Andrew Kaminsky, a fourth year student, says. "I'm very lucky as I don't have to pay for my education, it's free for me, but I still have to pay rent and transportation expenses, buy books, food and other things. I enjoy going out, but clubbing and outings cost a fortune. It would be unfair if my parents had to pay for all that." Another student Julia Kennan has a different opinion. "I think that job commitments on top of the studies is too much for me. And this is not because I'm lazy. I just can't do two things at a time. Working students miss lectures. If I were working, it might affect my studies, and I wouldn't get the expected results. My parents think the same and, fortunately, they can afford to support me now. I think that when I graduate and get a good job, I'll be able to do something for them too — to pay for their travelling for instance or cover other expenses if necessary." Anna Glenn, a twenty-year-old working student, presents a moderate viewpoint on the issue. "I know that some teachers do not approve of students who combine job and studies. But I don't think that a job is necessarily bad for studies. On the contrary, if you do a simple but career related job, it's very beneficial. It helps you understand how everything works and academic information stops being purely theoretical. You understand how to apply your theoretical knowledge to practice. It is motivating and it often inspires you to study harder." Opinions differ but education costs together with young people's desire to succeed in a competitive world will inevitably increase the number of working students. Universities should consider the tendency and help their students find part-time jobs in related industries.
Number 1  2 3  4 5  6 7
Letter    D С В A С С A
  Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй верную форму слова. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. I've been in our family business for thirty years already. Our company was founded by my great-grandfather in 1920 and since then we've been manufacturing the most beautiful furniture in England. We create wardrobes, writing tables, coffee tables, chairs, bookcases and other pieces, all of which are of the highest quality. Our furniture is designed in traditional English style and we apply traditional technologies to make it. The furniture is hand-made and that's why it takes several weeks to make a chair or a coffee table. It's a difficult job and we employ very skilled craftsmen who usually work for the company for many years. Two of our workers have worked with us for more than fifty years already and they say that they love their work and are not going to retire yet. I'm also proud of our business because money is not everything for us. Making furniture inevitably implies cutting down trees. If we don't think about the environment now, our forests will have been cut down by the middle of the century. To prevent it we plant trees in our greenhouse and then put them in the forests. I don't know what my life would be like if I chose some other career, but I'm glad that I didn't. I really think that a family business is a great responsibility but a great privilege too. 1. was founded; 2. most beautiful; 3. is designed; 4. craftsmen; 5. have worked; 6. will have been cut down; 7. chose.   Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание: Некоторые родители думают, что студенты не должны работать во время учебного семестра, так как это может негативно сказать на их успеваемости. It is a widely spread tendency when students have part-time jobs during their studies. There several reasons for this. But the fact remains that this job-and-study sharing may affect academic performance, and not only good. First of all it is need to be said that students find part-time jobs because they want to support themselves, they want to be independent. There is nothing wrong in the wish to have spare pocket money. The other side, of course, is that it may have a negative impact on students' performance at university. On the one hand, students may pay more attention to their work as they may judge it more important (they are paid for it). And then the studying may be neglected. At this point parents should have all rights to criticize their children. But on the other hand, if a student is engaged in the activity that correlates with his professional sphere of interest it may be quite useful for him or her. At such work a student can get the practical skills that help him or her in the process of studying and the general understanding of his or her specialty, speaking nothing about the experience that is valued so much by employers. In conclusion, it should be said that part-time job for students may be both positive and negative. All depends on students themselves whether they can cope with studying and working simultaneously or not.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 21A. Поставь глаголы в нужную форму. 1. If I knew foreign languages better, I would consider a career of an interpreter or translator. Unfortunately, my language skills are not good enough for this job. 2. Public speaking is part of my job, but I'm not very good at it. I wish I had attended some drama classes in school. 3. If I were more adventurous, I would choose some other job. But I'm quite happy working as a librarian. 4. Choosing a career will be easier, if I have more information about specialists who are going to be in demand in the future. 5. My parents would be happy if I had the slightest inclination to join the family business, but I don't want to be a lawyer. 6. If I had more time, I would take a distant course on business communication. 7.1 wish I had thought about my future education earlier.  
   Тест 2 Часть II. Чтение Прочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы и заголовки. Есть один лишний заголовок, который не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. D. Significance of money in modern life Euros, pounds, dollars, franks, yens — you are unlikely to escape these words if you have your TV on in peak times for financial news or economic reviews. Lots of people all over the world discuss falls and rises in share prices, currency exchange rates, interest rakes and credit markets. Economists and bankers consider changes in money flows and their possible implications on the domestic and global economy. Governments step down and political parties come to power because of successful or unpopular financial policies. There's no need to deny that financial issues have a considerable impact on states, businesses and industries. People experience their influence too, regardless of their status, education and political views.
2. A. History of money Why does money mean so much to us? Isn't it weird that we are so dependent on something we invented ourselves? There's no money in the natural world and it happily survives without it. Money appears in a certain phase of human society when barter, a direct exchange of goods, becomes ineffective, and it accompanies us through our development. Sometimes ball and even domestic animals were used as money, but it wasn't mint, and people had to look for something easier to carry around. Then they used shells, pieces of metal or semi-precious stones. The first and the most researchers believe, appeared in Asia in 640—630 ВС, and the first money was used in China in с 960 AC.
3. E. Money — good or evil? Money always played a significant role in social development and its meaning was both stimulating and devastating. The stimulating effect of money is indisputable — it often motivates people to develop new technologies, to look for new lands and to invade other peoples' territories. Sadly, but the real reason of any war is money — people are ready to kill each other for money or its resources — gas, oil, precious metals and other resources. They are usually enough but people, who created money, have always said that money is evil and dreamt about a money-free society.
4. F. Can society function without money? Different socioeconomic Marks (the communist theory is the most famous among them) said that money would disappear in the near future and people would be able to live without it. However, is it possible for an industrial society to function effectively without money? Most economists are not optimistic about it, but there is no evidence that it is absolutely impossible either.
5. B. Types of money In different society's money existed in different forms, depending on what people considered the most valuable thing, which was easy to keep and carry around. Forms of money nowadays are, probably, not so diverse as they used to be in ancient times, but the variety is still impressive. Apart from conventional coins and banknotes we can use the so-called plastic money or banking cards. More and more people find this way of paying for goods and services very convenient — it's quick, there's no need to wait for change and it lessens the risk of having your money lost or stolen. Banking cards allow us to buy things online, which, as some prominent economists think, will soon replace traditional forms of selling via shops, stores and agencies.
6. G. Money of the future The internet can change not only the way we sell and buy things, but money circulation too. Though plastic money has become customary, we still use coins and paper money a lot. But those forms of money may cease to exist quite soon. Online trade will probably enhance the significance of cyber money. Cyber money is already in use, but it's accepted by internet shops only. According to some forecasts, this type of money will dominate — people will not only be buying online but will be earning online too. They can also keep their savings in electronic purses in cyberspace.
  Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполни пропуски необходимыми словами. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. When school is over, young people need to make a choice of what they want to do further. Our grandparents often say that life used to be safer and less complicated when they were young. That may be true, but I think that our generation has more opportunities than they had. We have a wider career choice and we can shape our life according to our inclinations and abilities. I'm sure that there are no good or bad jobs but there are right and wrong ones for every particular person. One and the same job could be very rewarding and enjoyable for one per-son and absolutely inappropriate for another one. It's also natural that different people have different job preferences.. Some of for a well-paid job, and some people prestige — us seek a prestigious job, some look ourselves want to work freelance and don't care about money or they just want to be their own bosses and plan their own days. Distance jobs are gaining popularity for the same reasons. You see that we can choose not only the industry we want to devote.
Number 1  2 3  4 5  6 7
Letter    А С D А С D А
  Часть IV. ПисьмоПрочитай объявление и напиши письмо. В письме покажи свой интерес к предоставляемой работе и выясни: — когда необходимо начать работу и сколько времени займет работа; — с какими животными тебе придется иметь дело; — предоставят тебе отдельную комнату или же тебе придется ездить на работу в другой город. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to you in order to respond to your advertisement in the magazine. I am interested a lot in the job you offer. I am fond of animals and ready to work as a volunteer. I would be very grateful whether you give me more details about this job. First of all I would like to know when I should start and how long the moving will last. It is important to me because I am a student and I do not like to miss classes. Secondly, could you tell me with what animals I will have to deal with? I believe that special tra-ining is required for working with big and exotic animals. And finally, is it possible to be provided with a room in a near-by location or I will have to commute? I would like to thank you beforehand for your most useful answer. I look forward to hear from you soon. Yours faithfully, XXX  

Часть 3. Навстречу новому лучшему миру
   Раздел 1. Насколько сильно ты зависишь от современных технологий? 4Прочитай мнение Уилла и ответь на вопросы. 1. Which sentence describes a change or an action in the past but that is linked to the present? What grammar tense is used for this? Technology has really advanced over the years. Present perfect. 2. How is the action that happened only in the past described? These actions are described in the Past simple tense. For example, when I was little we didn't use to have computers and I spent most of my time playing outdoors with my friends. 3. How are the things that happen regularly in the present described? They are described by means of Present simple. While these days children spend most of their time indoors playing computer games. 4. How is a habit or state that happened in the past, but is not connected to today, shown? What phrase is used for this? It is shown with the help of the structure "used to" in the negative form. We didn't use to have computers.   5Составь предложения, используя правильные времена. Используй рабочую тетрадь. 1. People have learnt much from behaviour of animals. 2. People thought the Earth was flat. 3. Many years ago people used to live with very few things and used to have a lot of time to think. 4. Today people have many electronic devices at their homes and use them every day.   7Соотнеси аббревиатуры с их расшифровкой. PDA: Personal digital assistant; DVD: Digital video disk or digital versatile disk; PVR: Personal video recorder; PC: Personal computer; CD-RW: Compact disc — rewritable.   10Соотнеси глаголы из интервью с их определениями. 1. take out с) to remove something from a box, bag, etc; 2. get down to a) to start doing something seriously; 3. set up d) to make a piece of equipment ready for use; 4. plug in b) to connect a piece of equipment to an electricity supply.   14Прочитай текст и выбери наилучшее заглавие к нему. Teens and technology. Today's American teens live in a world surrounded by communication technologies. The internet and cell phones have become a central force that drives the rhythm of daily life. The number of teenagers using the internet has grown by 24% in the past four years, and 87% of those teenagers between the ages of 12 and 17 are now online. Compared to four years ago, teenagers' use of the internet has intensified and broadened as they continue to log on more often and do more things when they are online. Among other things, there has also been significant growth over the past four years in the number of teens who play games, get news, shop, and get health information, all on the internet. Not only has the number of users increased, but also the variety of technologies teens use to support their communication, research, and entertainment preferences. These technologies have enabled a variety of methods and channels by which youth can communicate with one another as well as with their parents and other authorities. E-mail, once the cutting edge "killer app", is losing its privileged place among many teens as they express preferences for instant messaging and text messaging as ways to connect their friends. In focus groups, teens described their environ- ment. To them, e-mail is increasingly seen as a tool for communicating with aids such as their teachers, and institutions schools. They also see it as a way to con lengthy and detailed information to large grow Meanwhile, teenagers use IM for every conversations with multiple friends that from casual to more serious and private exchanges. They also use it for their personal expression. Through buddy icon: other customization tools, teens can experience themselves with a particular look and feel differentiate themselves from one cannot. Other IM tools allow for the posting of personal profiles, and even "away" messages, which others know when a user is away from computer but wishes to remain connected their IM network.   15Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. 1. с; 2. b; 3. b; 4. а; 5. с.   21Посмотри на диаграмму и придумай предложения, которые описывали бы пред-сказания подростков. As the diagram shows 22% of teens believe that desktop computer will become obsolete in the near future. Approximately the same percentage of teenagers — 26% — thinks that compact disk won't be used in the future. According to the diagram 33% of adolescents suggest that fuel-powered automobiles would not be used in 2015. Only 17% of teens reckon that land-line telephones will become obsolete in 2015.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 11. а) Соедини линями слова, которые обычно используются со словами "technologies" и "devices Technologies: electronic, modern, advanced, laser, internet, high, environmentally-safe, computer. Devices: electronic, mechanical, environmentally-safe, internet, computer, electrical, technical, multifunctional. 2. а) Отметь галочкой фразы, которые под-ростки 1960х годов сочли бы сложным для понимания. 1. to mail a letter; 2. to check the e-mail; 3. to text messages; 4. to SMS friends; 5. to log on a site; 6. to download music; 7. to visit chat rooms; 8. to run websites.   4Прочитай разговор подростков и поставь глаголы в нужную форму для выражения будущих действий.
A: Have you made plans for this summer yet?
В: Yes, some. Just let me have a look at my planner. Well, in early June I am leaving the Earth to take a short expedition to Mars. The exact date hasn't been fixed yet, but I expect the spacecraft will launch at the very beginning of the month.
A: What will you be doing there?
В: The usual stuff. We are experimenting with new samples of biological matter. We need to find out how it will change its features in the outer earth conditions. There's a good chance that we will manage to prove our theoretical hypotheses by experimental method.
A : And when are you going to be back?
B: If everything goes according to the plan, we will be here at the end of July. And after that we are visiting our grandma on the Moon. It's a must. If we miss our annual family reunion party, Granny will get furious. We have already reserved rooms in the hotel, actually.
A: And what is she doing there? Biological experiments too?
В: No, she's an aerospace engineer. They've got a spacecraft plant there. She's crazy about her job, and says that she will never quit. But the family is her first priority anyway. And you? Where are you planning to go?
A: Shame, but I am staying here. And I don't think I could go anywhere before the middle of August. I failed my history exam and have to resubmit the exam paper. It means that I will have to research into the ancient technologies of the twenty first century. Boring, but I promised my mum that I will do all my exam assignments by her birthday, which is on the 16th of August.
 

   Раздел 2. Выдающиеся умы 27Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. Человек, который мог нарисовать идеальный круг Исамбард Кингдом Брунель был английским инженером. Он родился в Портсмуте, Великобритания, в семье Марка Брунея, морского офицера и инженера. Он работал в фирме отца и помог ему при строительстве Туннеля под Темзой, который был открыт в 1843 году. Он самостоятельно разработал план строения Клифтонского подвесного моста и подвеснго моста Хэнгерфорд над Темзой. Он спроектировал Грейт Вестерн в 1837 году — первый Атлантический пароход, Великобританию в 1837 году — первый океанский лайнер, и Грейт Истерн в 1858 году — самое крупное судно в истории. Он так же был ведущим инженером при строительстве Великой Западной железной дороги в 1933 году, кроме этого построил много доков. Но самое известное его изобретение — это Великая Западная железная дорога, ряд известных пароходов, а также многочисленные важные мосты. Большинство мостов Брунея до сих пор используются. Тоннель Темзы является частью лондонского метро, а Дом Двигателя Брунея на Ротерхит, где когда-то изобретались первые паровые двигатели, до сих пор стоит, как музей, посвященный его жизни и работе. Хотя проекты Брунея не всегда были успешными, они часто представляли собой инновационные решения старых проблем машиностроения. За свою недолгую карьеру, Бруней достиг инженерных «высот», включая оказание помощи в строительстве первого тоннеля и развитие первых винтовых океанских лайнеров, которые были в то время также самыми большими кораблями когда-либо построенными. Он также подал пример для инженеров и новаторов, которые последовали за ним, которых он вдохновил привести свои творческой мысли в действия. И. К. Бруней l.-Who was I. К. Brunnel? 1. К. Brunnel was an English engineer who plan-ned tunnels and bridges. 2. What do you know about his life? He worked at the office of his father where he created a lot of things such as bridges, steamships. Many of his inventions are still used. 3. What kind of person do you think he was? To my mind he was an outstanding person who sometimes was understood by his contemporaries. 4. Why is he famous? He is best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway.   28Прочитай текст и отметь верные (Т) и неверные (F) предложения.
1. Т; 2. F; 3. F; 4. Т; 5. F; 6. F; 7. Т.
  29Прочитай текст и отметь информацию, которая в нем содержится.
1. dates of life; 2. main accomplishments; 3. things he is famous for; 4. personal qualities; 5. social recognition.
  32Догадайся о значении слов из текста.
1. а; 2. а; 3. b; 4. а; 5. а.
  33Переведи предложение из текста на русский язык. Ответь на вопросы.
The Great Eastern до сих пор один из самых важных судов в истории кораблестроения — был проложен Трансатлантический кабель, что означало, Европа и Америка стали связаны телекоммуникационной связью.
1. How many actions does the sentence describe? What are they? Three actions — remains, had been laid, had.
2. In what chronological order did they happen? How do you know? Firstly, the cable had been laid, secondly Europe and America had a link, and thirdly, The Great Eastern remains one of the most important vessel in the history of shipbuilding. It is seen in the usage of tenses.
3. What tenses are used to describe the actions? Present simple, past simple, past perfect passive.
4. Do we know specifically who performed the actions? Why?/Why not? There is no hint who performed the actions.
5. Why is a passive form of the verb used for one of the actions? Because it is not important to say who laid the cable, but it is important that the cable had been laid.
6. Can you find another example of past perfect passive in the text? What is it? The ship had been portrayed as a white elephant.
  34Прочитай пример и отметь галочкой предложения с Past Perfect Passive.
1. They had been stopped by the police before they realized what had happened.
2. After the cat had been chased up a tree, the smart dog relaxed under the tree.
3. We had been taken for a ride by the time the other guests arrived.
4. The circus performer had often been hurt by the old lion that died a week ago.
5. Had he been helped in a long time? He looked very dissatisfied.
6. She told us she had been remembered and helped by her former students.
  35Прочитай анекдот и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
Once a doctor, an engineer, and a programmer were debating what the world's oldest profession was. The doctor said that medicine was the oldest because God made surgery in the removal of Adam's rib. The engineer argued that before that act, God had performed feats of engineering by creating the Earth and heavens from nothing. The doctor agreed that the engineer was right and that engineering was indeed the oldest profession. But then the programmer interjected that programming was even older. He was chided by both the doctor and the engineer saying that: "Engineering had to be the oldest, because before God engineered the Earth and heavens, there was nothing, only the Great Void, only Chaos!" The programmer simply smiled and said:"Where do you think the Chaos came from?"
  45Прочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы и заголовки.
1. С. A distinguishing characteristic of genius is productivity. Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents. He guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas. In a study of 2,036 scientists throughout history, Dean Keith Simonton of the University of California at Davis found that the most respected scientists produced not only great works, but also many "bad" ones. They weren't afraid to fail, or to produce the mediocre in order to arrive at excellence.
2. A. Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gain knowledge about the form of a problem, you begin by learning how to restructure it in many different ways. He felt that the first way he looked at a problem was too biased. Often, the problem itself is reconstructed and becomes a new one.
3. H. Whenever we attempt to do something and fail, end up doing something else. That is the first pr of creative accident. Failure can be productive or if we do not focus on it as an unproductive result. Instead: analyze the process, its components, and you can change them to arrive at other results. E not ask the question "Why have I failed?", but "What have I done?"
4. F. Physicist Niels Bohr believed, that if you held opposites together, then you suspend your thought and your mind moves to a new level. His ability to imagine light as both a particle and a wave led to his conception of the complementarity principle. Suspending thought (logic) may allow your mind to create a new form.
5. G. Aristotle considered metaphor a sign of genius, and believed that the individual who had the capacity to see resemblances between two separate areas of existence and link them together was a person of special gifts.
6. D. The laws of heredity on which the modern science of genetics is based came from the Austrian monk Grego Mendel, who combined mathematics and biology to create a new science. Combine and recombine ideas, images, and thoughts into different combinations, no matter how incongruent or unusual they are.
7. B. When Einstein thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate his subject in as many different ways as possible, including using diagrams. He visualized solutions, and believed that words and numbers as such did not play a significant role in his thinking process.
8. E. Da Vinci forced a relationship bet the sound of a bell and stone hit water. This enabled him to make connection that sound travels in space. Samuel Morse invented relay static telegraphic signals when observing stations for horses.
  46Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их со следующими советами.
1. Try to produce as many ideas as you can. Whenever we attempt to do something and fail, end up doing something else. That is the first pr of creative accident. Failure can be productive or if we do not focus on it as an unproductive result. Instead: analyze the process, its components, and you can change them to arrive at other results. E not ask the question "Why have I failed?", but "What have I done?"
2. You can learn a lot from your own mistakes and failures. Da Vinci forced a relationship bet the sound of a bell and stone hit water. This enabled him to make connection that sound travels in space. Samuel Morse invented relay static telegraphic signals when observing stations for horses.
3. Try to look at a problem in a way in which you have never looked at it before. A distinguishing characteristic of genius is pro-ductivity. Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents. He guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas. In a study of 2,036 scientists throughout history, Dean Keith Simonton of the University of California at Davis found that the most respected scientists produced not only great works, but also many "bad" ones. They weren't afraid to fail, or to produce the mediocre in order to arrive at excellence.
4. If you can't understand why it is white, ask yourself why it is not black. When Einstein thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate his subject in as many different ways as possible, including using diagrams. He visualized solutions, and believed that words and numbers as such did not play a significant role in his thinking process.
5. Think what a problem reminds you of or what it looks like. Aristotle considered metaphor a sign of genius, and believed that the individual who had the capacity to see resemblances between two separate areas of existence and link them together was a person of special gifts.
6. Experiment with unusual combinations. Physicist Niels Bohr believed, that if you held opposites together, then you suspend your thought and your mind moves to a new level. His ability to imagine light as both a particle and a wave led to his conception of the complementarity principle. Suspending thought (logic) may allow your mind to create a new form.
7. Try to see how different things are con-nected. The laws of heredity on which the modern science of genetics is based came from the Austrian monk Grego Mendel, who combined mathematics and biology to create a new science. Combine and recombine ideas, images, and thoughts into different combinations, no matter how incongruent or unusual they are.
8. Illustrating possible solutions or trying to see them with your eyes closed may make them clearer. Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gain knowledge about the form of a problem, you begin by learning how to restructure it in many different ways. He felt that the first way he looked at a problem was too biased. Often, the problem itself is reconstructed and becomes a new one.
  47Просмотри текст на стр. 91 и найди слова или фразы, которые сочетаются со словом "problem". Используй рабочую тетрадь.
to arrive at a solution to a problem
to find a solution to a problem
to gain knowledge abo ut the form of a problem
to look at to think through a problem
  48Закончи предложение, используя только одно слово.
1. That's a nice idea, but it still doesn't solve our problem. 2. The unusually hot weather is creating serious problems for the country. 3.1 don't think I will have problems passing this exam. 4. Let's look at the problem from a different perspective. 5. First of all, I tried to think the problem through 6.1 couldn't find any solution to it.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 1a) Распредели слова no колонкам таблицы.
People of arts: writer, interior designer, sculptor, old paintings restorer, film director, actor, cartoonist.
People of science: engineer, nuclear physicist, environmentalist, ornithologist, biologist, mathematician, programmer, architect.
  2Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. cutting-edge technologies; 2. trial problems; 3. practical trip; 4. technical reality; 5. innovative solutions.
  3а) Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. contain an innovative idea; 2. achieve the goal; 3. inspire other researchers; 4. construct buildings and bridges; 5. be ahead of their time; 6. run over the budget; 7. run behind schedule.
  4Заполни пропуски глаголами. Используй Past Perfect Passive.
1. When Mike was awarded the Young Innovator's Certificate, he said that he had been inspired for the research work by his science teacher. 2. According to the spectrogram, the bridge had been constructed by the time when the modern technologies became available. 3. We had to confess that the research budget had been overrun and asked for an additional investment. 4. Everyone was amazed that the ambitious goal had been achieved in a very short time. 5. No wonder that the device got broken because of your carelessness — it had been designed for smarter people. 6. Due to news leaks the information was not really sensational by the time of the conference — Mr. Jefferson's breakthrough had been described in several scientific journals.
 

   Раздел 3. Наука или Лженаука? 52Прочитай цитату и выбери наилучшее объяснение для нее.
b).
  57Распредели слова по данным категориям: артикли (articles), предлоги (prepositions), относительные местоимения/ вопросительные слова (relative pronouns/question words), слова-связки (linking words), вспомогательные глаголы (auxiliary verbs), сравнительные слова (comparatives), выражения количества (expressions of quantity), безличные местоимения (indefinite pronouns), личные местоимения (personal pronouns).
Articles: a, the.
Prepositions: so, for, on, as, and, from, with, but.
Relative pronouns/question words: who, where, which.
Linking words: was, is.
Auxiliary verbs: have, do.
Comparatives: than, more.
Expressions of quantity: many, few, little.
Indefinite pronouns: anyone, everything, whatever.
Personal pronouns: they, you, it.
  58а) Заполни пропуски.
Secrets of an Ancient Computer Computers go back farther in history than you might imagine. A mysterious mechanism found in a 2,000-year-old Greek shipwreck may have been used to calculate the positions of planets, predict when eclipses were to occur, and solve other astronomical problems. Known as the Antikythera mechanism, the device is about the size of a shoebox. When it was found underwater about 100 years ago, the mechanism was of poor shape. Few metal pieces had congealed into one mass, then broken into pieces. People who studied what was left of the mechanism suspected that it was something to do with astronomy. To find something more, researchers recently used advanced imaging methods, including X-ray computer tomography, to look inside the metal fragments and to check for ancient writing on the device. The researchers discovered the mechanism had at least 30 bronze gears with many as 225 teeth, likely all cut with hand. This fresh look provided clear evidence the device could have been used to compute eclipses of the sun and moon. A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes into Earth's shadow, and a solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the sun and Earth. Scientists suspect that the mechanism was also able to show the motions of the planets. A user could pick a day in the future and, some sort of crank, work out a planet's position on the date. With the added information, the researchers came up with a new model for mechanism operated. All the findings that the Antikythera mechanism was perhaps 1,000 years ahead of anything else discovered from its time period.
b) Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы об изобретении. 1. How old is it? It is 2,000 years old. 2. Where was it found? It was found underwater. 3. How big is it? It is the size of a shoebox. 4. What could it do? It could calculate the positions of planets, predict when eclipses were to occur, and solve other astronomical problems.
  61Проверь значения слов no словарю. Заполни пропуски в предложениях. Измени форму, если необходимо.
1. They claim to have made a new discovery. 2. Stephen was declared the winner. 3. He was frustrated because his colleagues challenged his arguments. 4. Scientists are searching for evidence. 5. The research aims to investigate why the company is not doing better. 6. The survey reveals that most residents are against the new project. 7. Sarah accepted his explanation without question. 8. He later confessed that he had been involved in the trick. 9. They are likely to reject the decision because it was made in a hurry.
  62Соотнеси слова с определениями. 1. fake b) a copy of something such as a painting or piece of jewellery that is intended to trick people; 2. hoax d) a trick in which someone deliberately tells people that something bad is going to happen or something is true when it is not; 3. scandal e) talk or reports in the newspapers or on television about shocking events; 4. fraud a) something that is not what people claim it is, and is designed to trick people; 5. buff c) someone who is very interested in and knows a lot about a particular subject.  
   Рабочая тетрадь 1a) Заполни таблицу.untitled-4.gif   3Запиши слова из рамки, которые могут использоваться со следующими словами.
1. to investigate: facts, details; 2. to provide: evidence; 3. to search for: hypothesis, facts, details, evidence, people; 4. to reject: facts, evidence; 5. to report: the issue, facts; 6. to persuade: people, scientists; 7. to check: hypothesis, facts, details; 8. to present: facts, evidence, solution, hypothesis, details; 9. to contradict: facts, evidence, hypothesis, people.
  7Заполни пропуски фразами из упр. 3. Измени форму, если необходимо.
The hypothesis you have presented is original and looks quite credible to me. However, it contradicts the conventional view on the matter. To persuade the research committee, to allocate money for additional experiments you'll have to provide further details of the research you've done. If your experiments give reliable results, we'll team up leading scientists to investigate the issue thoroughly.
  7а) Соотнеси слова. 1. financial fraud; 2. tax hoax; 3. history buff; 4. bomb scandal; 5. cheap fake.
b) Заполни пропуски фразами, которые получились.
1. — Allan has never been interested in humanitarian disciplines, has he? — On the contrary, everyone in the collage believes he is a history buff
2. — Do you know that John Kenneth was arrested? Some people say that he deliberately concealed his income. — It's awful, isn't it? This means that he was accused of a tax hoax.
3. — I wanted to shop in the central supermarket, but the area was full of policemen and nobody was allowed in. Do you know what it was? — Yes, it was on TV today. There was a bomb scandal. They had received several telephone calls and were checking the area for explosives. It was a false alarm. I hope they find the hooligans responsible for that.
4. — Look! It's a genuine Rolex! I thought it was more expensive. — Don't be silly. A genuine watch in an outlet shop! It's a cheap fake.
5. — The newspapers say that the Mayor has stepped down and we are going to have a new one. What could the reason for that be? — Don't you know? There have been rumors about a financial fraud he was involved in. He persuaded a local bank to invest money in some shady project.
  8Используя глаголы в нужной форме, за- полни пропуски.
Eric: What are you reading?
Maggie: I've found it in my grandma's attic — an ancient scientific journal. Look, it contains lots of old science fiction stuff. It also has some articles where sophisticated scientific issues are explained in simple language so that anyone, even my great- grandma, would be able to understand them.
Eric: Look, there's an article about a solar eclipse. Some photos were published here too. It's a shame that they are only black and white.
Maggie: All photos of those times were black and white.
Eric: And what's that?
Maggie: It's one of the first computers. Looks weird, doesn't it?
Eric: It's huge and doesn't look like a PC at all. It reminds me an old transformer vault.
Maggie: I can t imagine how it is operated — it has neither a keyboard nor a monitor.
Eric: The article reveals some interesting facts about the history of computing from 1939. Good progress has been made since that time!
Maggie: Yes, technology is accelerating rapidly nowadays. Scientists expect an impressive breakthrough that can probably change our life and our understanding of the Universe. Some people think that extraterrestrial life will be found quite soon.
Eric: My uncle has got an electronic archive of articles about extraterrestrials that have been published since 1960. We can have a look if you want.
Maggie: Yeah, I am always curious about all that extraterrestrial stuff. The problem is that the evidence provided by media is never convincing enough. You know there are lots of other reasons that can explain photos, images and strange phenomena. Let alone the fact that a lot of all those facts are man-made fakes. But anyway, if your uncle doesn't mind it, could I have a copy of his archive on my flash disk?
 

   Раздел 4. Клонировать или не клонировать? 71Распредели фразы по колонкам таблицы.
Positive attitude: 1. It's an amazing medical breakthrough. 2. It has allowed medical research to advance at a faster pace. 3. It allows scientists to find alternative methods to cure certain diseases. 4. It will help us in the future.
Neutral attitude: 1. That's a difficult one to answer! On the hand... but on the other hand... 2. I'm not really into the whole cloning thing, but it's interesting...
Negative attitude: 1.1 don't even want to think about it! 2. It makes me worry about the future. 3. This would be extremely dangerous.
  73Посмотри на картинку и ответь на вопросы.
1. Who is the main character of the film? The main characters of the film are the monster and its creator called Frankenstein 2. When was the film released? The film was released many years ago, in the 20th century. 3. Is it an original film or a screen version? It is a screen version. 4. What is the whole story about? The story is about a young scientist who creates a monster and how monster revenges its creator. 5. Have you seen the film or read the story? Did you like it? Why? /Why not? I've read the story. I like it because of the language and the plot. And by the way it is a famous book and the only one written by Mary Shelley.
  74Прочитай отрывок из книги «Франкен-штейн» Мери Шелли (1818). Ответь на сле-дующие вопросы.
1. Who do you think the monster is talking to? The monster is talking to Frankenstein. 2. Who is the narrator of the story? The narrator of the story is the scientist himself. 3. What does the monster want and how does the narrator respond? The monster asks the scientist to create another creature like it, but of a female gender. The scientist refuses to do it. 4. How does the monster want to resolve the problem? The monster is going to reason the scientist. 5. How do we know that Frankenstein had some sympathy for the monster? According to narrator's words about his feelings to the creature after have hearing the story of its peaceful life with cottagers. 6. What emotion does Victor Frankenstein have? How do you know? He is disappointed with his creation. 7. Does Victor accept the request of the monster? How do you know? He is strongly opposed the idea of creation the other monster. 8. Is the monster physically violent toward Victor? How do you know? The monster is not going to torture or threaten Victor. We can judge it referring to monster's words. 9. Why has the monster been violent in the recent past? How do you know? He felt lonely and he blamed his creator for it.
  75Прочитайте краткое содержание книги и обсудите вопросы в парах. Сообщите результаты вашей дискуссии классу.
Известный роман Мери Шелли «Франкенштейн» — это классическая история об искусственно созданном чудовище, который пытается прижиться среди людей, не смотря на свою отвратительную внешность и ужасное воспитание. Виктор Франкенштейн — это великий ученый, который пытается создать идеального человека из различных частей тела, однако его план провалился. Чудовище оказалось крайне ужасным. Стремление монстра завести друзей и влиться в общество не оправдывает его ожиданий снова и снова, и чудовище решает отомстить своему создателю. Сначала оно убивает брата Франкенштейна. Виктор впадает в уныние и чувствует вину за создание чудовища, которое несет только разрушение и смерть. Поэтому Виктор уходит в горы, чтобы найти покой. Но вместо этого чудовище требует его создать женщину, чтобы та стала его подругой. Франкенштейн возвращается в Англию под страхом смерти его семьи. В момент, когда ученый почти закончил, он решает не создавать еще одно чудовище, тогда чудовище убивает друга и новую жену Виктора — Элизабет. Виктор понимает, что единственной его целью в жизни становится смерть чудовища. Виктор гоняется за ним по всей Европе и Северному Полюсу, но внезапно он теряет след. Виктор провалился в трещину во льду. Тогда он встретил путешественника Роберта Уолтона и его команду. История заканчивается смертью Виктора и рас-каянием чудовища. Роберт Уолтон, который обещал убить чудовище, после недолгого замешательства отпускает его, и его никто никогда больше не видел.
1. Did you like the story? Why?/Why not? I liked the story because I find it very interesting and humane. 2. How did you feel after you finished reading the story? I feel pity for the monster because he was not able to love or to have friends. 3. Do you think the story sounds as unreal today as it did when it was written? Why? I think that today the story does nor sound such unreal as it did earlier, because nowadays medical technologies are very developed and may be they already allow to make such monsters. 4. Do you know any other examples of this kind of story? What are they? There are lots of examples when people's dis-coveries kill their creators. For example, there are stories about robots when they become against people and try to kill all of them.

   Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполни пропуски словами из рамки.
1. Andrew knows a lot about computers and is very good at designing programs but he gets furious when we call him a computer buff. 2. The police received several telephone calls about a terrorist attack, but to everybody's relief it turned out to be a hoax. 3. Edward was frustrated when he found out that the vase he had paid a fortune for was not a genuine antique but a cleverly made fake. 4. Some customers don't think that buying goods via the internet is safe. They want to be better protected against computer fraud.
  4Соотнеси слова, чтобы получить устойчивые выражения.
1. technological breakthrough; 2. alternative medicine; 3. identical twins; 4. medical research; 5. developing embryo; 6. marine mammal.
  5Перепиши предложения в пассивном залоге.
1. I can't cook the dish without pepper and salt. The dish can't be cooked without pepper and salt. 2. We can't test the computer without special equipment. The computer can't be tested without special equipment. 3.1 can't write an essay in ten minutes. An essay can't be written in ten minutes. 4. No one can cure this disease without an effective remedy. This disease can't be cured without an effective remedy. 5. We can't accept your plan without Tony's approval. Your plan can't be accepted without Tony's approval.
  6Поставь глаголы в нужную форму.
Anna: I don't really believe that cloning is possible.
Bertie: But there's strong evidence that it's true. Everyone knows about Dolly, the sheep that has been cloned by British scientists.
A: I think it was a fraud. They didn't create Dolly from an adult cell, but from an embryo.
B: What do you mean?
A: Well, you know that there are natural identical twins. They might have taken one of the twin embryos to freeze it. Then they had waited until the other embryo developed, was born naturally and grew into an adult animal.
В: And then?
A: Then they got the early embryo out of the freezer and put it in an infant incubator. Dolly was born much later than her twin sister, because she had been kept in a freezer for years. And they claimed that it was a clone, which it wasn't.
B: Don't be stupid! That fact of cloning has been accepted by scientists all over the world. And there have been lots of other similar experiments since that time.
A: OK, if you don't want to listen to my reasons — it's your right. I am always very skeptical about cutting-edge discoveries like cloning, artificial intellect, UFOs, perpetual mobile and others. Seeking fame and recognition, scientists claim that they have found something extraordinary, but in most cases the breathtaking discoveries turn out to be frauds.
B: I've never seen such a skeptical person as you are! If all people were like you, science would have died centuries ago and nothing at all had been created!
  7Отметь утверждения, с которыми ты согласен. Выбери одно из выбранных тобой утверждений и прокомментируй его, аргументируя твой выбор.
1. Scientists should be very careful when experimenting with genes. 2. Scientists should focus on cloning human organs but not on cloning people. 3. People can benefit a lot from cloning technologies. I agree with the idea that scientist should focus on cloning human organs but not on cloning people. There is a serious problem with organ transplantation in medicine nowadays. Sometimes it is really hard to find a donor for a sick. I think that cloning human organs and tissue may solve this problem. As a result a lot of people could recover.
 

   Раздел 5. Старая или современная: медицина как новая технология 83Прочитай предложения. Переведи их на русский.
— His health improved once he stopped smoking. Его здоровье улучшилось, когда он перестал курить.
— Eating junk food can seriously damage your health. Питание нездоровой пищей может нанести серьезный вред твоему здоровью.
— Stress is definitely bad for your health. Стресс определенно плохо сказывается на твоем здоровье.
— What helps you to stay in good health? Что помогает тебе оставаться здоровым?
— Не has been in poor health lately. В последнее время он был в плохой форме.
— A balanced diet helps to maintain health. Сбалансированная диета помогает поддерживать здоровье.
— Не stopped working because of ill health. Он перестал работать из-за плохого здоровья.
— It can take you several years to regain your health. Может потребоваться несколько лет, чтобы восстановить свое здоровье.
— You can have a free health check if you work for this company. Если ты будешь работать в этой компании, ты сможешь получить бесплатный медицинский осмотр.
— Living in the city centre can be a hazard to your health. Жизнь в центре большого города может оказаться рискованной для твоего здоровья.
  88Прочитайте текст и соотнесите картинки и лекарства.
Простые и эффективные средства домашней защиты от обычной простуды. Если вы чихаете и кашляете, у вас небольшое повышение температуры, слезотечение, боль в горле, насморк, возможно, это простуда. Простуда — это работа вирусных инфекций, которые начинают работать, когда ухудшается сопротивление организма. Она, как правило, поражает верхние дыхательные пути. Очень часто возникает в результате стресса, усталости или недостаточного питания. Чтобы избежать простуды, есть несколько до-машних средств: Питье горячей жидкости может облегчить симптомы простуды. Горячий куриный суп является наиболее эффективным. Больные простудой часто испытывают головную и пазушную отечности, горячая ванна наиболее целесообразна в данном случае. Заполните ванну теплой или горячей водой и добавьте в нее, по крайней мере, 0,5 кг соли. После ванны, лягте сразу в постель и накройте все тело теплым одеялом. Тело будет потеть в ответ на тепло, чтобы вывести болезнь из организма. Долгий сон в теплой постели лечит простуда и помогает организму восстановить силы. Полоскание теплым соленым раствором раз в два часа облегчит боль в горле. Имбирный чай является одним из лучших способов при лечении простуды. Для этого, следует вскипятить свежий корень имбиря в воде. Используйте мед вместо сахара, чтобы подсластить чай. Чай заставит вас потеть. Если вы не хотите пить имбирь, вы можете жевать его, что является еще одним эффективным способом лечения простуды. Если вам не нравится вкус вареного имбиря, попробуйте смешать корицу, молоко и мед. Если вы хотите заменить молоко, используйте шоколад. Вы можете добавить чеснок. Большинство из этих напитков не очень хороши на вкус, но если вы хотите естественным и эффективным образом вылечить простуду, они являются лучшим вариантом.
  89Прочитай текст и заполни таблицу фразами из текста.
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  90а) Соотнеси слова и определения.
1. cure b) a fix for pain or minor illness; 2. treatment a) the process of providing medical care; 3. remedy с) a medicine that makes someone who is ill become healthy.
b) Заполни пропуски.
1. The remedy is all prepared from wildflowers. 2. She is undergoing medical treatment now. 3. The doctors cannot guarantee a cure. 4. It's a popular remedy for toothache. 5. There is no instant cure for this condition. 6. The paramedics are getting training in giving on-the-spot treatment.
  97Что такое нанотехнология? Составь определение.
Nanotechnology is the skill of building very small machines by using computer technology
  98Прочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки и абзацы.
1. В. Naturally nano. But nanomachines actually already exist inside you. They are large molecules, like the enzyme that help power your body, and the ribosome that make the proteins to form your hair a nails. They are present inside the cells of the body, they just don't look like our idea machines. But they are designed to work on the nano scale. If we could learn to copy their design we might be able to build nano-sized robots help heal our bodies.
2. E. Small but dangerous? Some people are concerned that putting such small particles into our bodies may cause us harm. The tiny size of nanoparticles means they do not have the same properties as larger articles of the same material. So a chemical that is safe in its normal state might actually be harmful in its nano- form. Then again, it might remain harmless. We don't really know yet.
3. D. Waiting time A lot of current work is focused on developing sensors that detect diseases and tiny capsules that take medicines to where they're needed most in the body. But it could be a long time before we see the benefits. All new medicines have to go through long trials to make sure they're safe. So we'll probably have to wait years for most nano-s; zed healthcare to reach doctors' surgeries and hospitals.
4. G. What should be done? A recent report by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering recommended further research was needed into the possible damaging effects of nanoparticles. They also suggested that all consumer products containing nanoparticles should be labeled.
5. E. Here and now However, cosmetics and beauty companies are already using this tiny technology to big effect. Skin scientists have designed nano-sized "containers" that can carry a product's active ingredients deep into your skin, where they work most effectively. And some sunscreens now contain zinc oxide nanoparticles. These protect you from the Sun's rays but, unlike larger particles, they don't give you that chalky look.
6. A. Future vision In the future, nanotechnologies could he doctors detect disease earlier, target drugs exact locations in the body, and give us ways to grow and repair body tissue. But what will this "mini" medicine be like? Media images often show extremely small submarines shooting through the blood, but the vision of nano-sized healthcare is unlikely become a reality. Scaled-down metal machine won't work on the nano-scale.
7. C. Early days The arrival of nanomachines that could repair our bodies is a long way off. Before we design these devices, we need to understand how things work on this tiny scale. Most of the research is still at a very early stage. Scientists at Oxford University are study how the tails, or "flagella", of some bacteria work. This type of tiny motor could be used future as a propeller for delivering drugs around the body.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 3Распредели слова в таблице.
Jobs in medical care: nurse, general practitioner, surgeon, dentist, cardiologist, paramedic.
Things patients do: cough, sneeze, lose weight, receive injections, take pills, be operated on.
Things doctors do: provide treatment, give injections, operate on, transplant organs, take somebody's blood pressure, cure.
  5а) Соотнеси слова. Используй четыре из получившихся фраз, чтобы закончить предложения.
1. regain strength; 2. receive treatment; 3. gargle the throat; 4. check the pulse; 5. cure diseases; 6. lessen symptoms.
b) 1. Doctors say that tea with lemon and a good sleep is the best way to regain strength after a long hard day. 2. The paramedic checked the pulse. It was very weak. 3. Painkillers usually lessen symptoms, but don't cure diseases
  6Заполни пропуски.
noun virus, nutrition, liquid, sore, fever, effect 
adjective viral, nutritional, liquid, sore, feverish, effective
  8Заполни пропуски глаголами, обозначающими намерения людей.
1. Jim: Don't forget about my birthday party this Saturday.
Anna: I will certainly come. Jim reminded Anna about his birthday party. She promised to come.
2. Andrea: Will you do me a favour? Could you lend me your laptop for this weekend?
Tom: No problem. I can give it to you till Monday. Andrea asked Tom to lend her his laptop. He agreed to give it to her till Monday.
3. Jerry: Would you like to go out with me Friday night? Tina: Umm, I'm not sure. I may be busy on Friday. But, I think, yes, I would. Jerry invited Tina to go out. She hesitated for a moment and then accepted the invitation.
4. Emma: Can I make you some coffee?
Elsa: No, thank you. I don't normally have coffee so late. Emma offered to make coffee but Elsa refused to have it so late at night.
5. Mary: It's seven o'clock already. I thought you'd be here by six.
John: Oh, sorry. I'm too late I know. Mary expected John to come at six. He apologized for being late.
6. Sophie: Don't worry so much. I think you should contact Max. He'll fix everything.
Andy: Thank you for your advice, darling. You are very supportive. Sophie advised Andy to contact Max. Andy thanked her for her support.
  9Прочитай, что дедушка Майка сказал о себе, когда давал интервью журналистам 15 лет назад. Перепиши его слова в косвенной речи.
1. Mike's grandfather said that he had a perfect health. 2. He said that he had never broken either an arm or a leg. 3. He replied the journalist that the secret of his long and healthy life was eating vegetables and drinking green tea. 4. He answered that he has never exercised too much and that he hated jogging. 5. But he added that he enjoyed walking his dog very much. 6. He remarked that he had always dreamt about working as a professional dog trainer. 7. He said that he wanted to join a local dog trainer's club when he retired.
  10Прочитай письмо, которое ты получил от друга, ответь на него.
Hi, Laura, Don't worry about my printer — I'll manage somehow. As for your symptoms, I think it's flu and you should start treatment immediately to avoid possible complications. The first thing I can advise is to take a hot liquid because it can lessen your symptoms. I strongly recommend you hot chicken soup, it is most useful. Taking long naps on a warm bed also soothes flu and helps the body regain strength. So you should stay in bed and stop worrying about math test. Health is the most precious thing that you have. It is most important. So, take care of yourself. I hope you'll get better soon. Yours, XXX
 

   Раздел 6. Современные технологии и окружающая среда 106Отметить слова «+» или «-» в зависимости от того какого рода эффект они оказывают на окружающую среду.
preserve +
harm -
protect +
damage -
save +
clean up +
improve +
have an impact on -
pollute -
  108Прочитай интервью и расположи утверждения в хронологическом порядке.
Kelly decided to leave the country. Kelly found a job in a laundry of a hotel. Kelly moved to a flat on a main road. Kelly moved to a block of flats. Kelly found a job in a factory. Kelly's neighbours moved out.
  111Закончи предложения, используя слова справа.
Shopping for clothes involves tricky decisions about fit, colour, style, and price. And if a growing number of companies have their way, you'll soon start checking labels for another key detail: environmental impact. Earth-friendly fabrics are in. It's already possible to buy shirts made from bamboo and socks made from corn. Shopping malls of the future might also carry clothes made from chicken feathers or rice straw. The companies that make such fabrics are interested in sustainable development. This means trying to provide things that people need while protecting natural resources and preserving biodiversity. "A fully sustainable business would be one that creates no negative impact on the environment," says Gordon Rands, an environmental business expert at Western Illinois University in Macomb. "I don't think such a business exists yet, but theoretically it's very possible. And companies are moving in this direction." So, scientists are now looking for new ways to make fabrics for clothes that are good both for your imagination and for the Earth.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Распредели слова и фразы по двум колонкам таблицы.
Words and phrases we are likely to use when we talk about environmental problems: noise pollution, air pollution, lead to deforestation, use chemicals, destroy the ecosystem, fumes from the traffic, upset the ecobalance
Words and phrases we are likely to use when we talk about protecting environment: reduce carbon emission, develop ecotourism, reduce consumption, use less packaging, wind energy technologies, protect species from extinction, solar energy devices
  4Составь из букв слова, обозначающие природные и человеческие катастрофы.
1. drought; 2. earthquake; 3. deforestation; 4. flood; 5. famine; 6. tornado.
 

   Раздел 7 Давай возьмем цифровой 116Прочитай тексты, какой факт не со-ответствует истине.
The typewriter was invented by Hungarian immigrant Qwert Yuiop who left his "signature" on the keyboard of a modern computer. This statement is wrong.
  118Прочитай тексты и вставь части пред-ложений обратно в текст.
Text 1 Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos grew interested in online retailing in 1994 while working as a business analyst in New York City. After researching the success of different mail-order companies, Bezos decided that books were the perfect product to sell via the internet. That year he left New York to establish his new company in Seattle, chosen for its proximity to major booksellers and the booming high-tech industry. In July 1995 Amazon.com launched its website, and has since expanded to offer many other retail products in addition to books.
Text 2 Charles Babbage was a British mathematician and inventor, who designed and built mechanical computing machines on principles that anticipated the modern electronic computer. Babbage's concepts led to the modern computer and earned him the title "father of the computer". In the 1820s, Babbage began developing his Difference Engine, a mechanical device that was supposed to mechanize the production of mathematical tables. Bab.bage started to build his Difference Engine, but was unable to complete it because of a lack of founding. In the 1830s, Babbage began developing his Analytical Engine, which was designed to carry out more complicated calculations, but this device was never built.
  121Выбери правильный вариант для пред-ложений.
1. You can check your e-mail at the internet cafe in the square. 2. Thousands of people logged on to view the live internet broadcast of the concert. 3. To set up a company you first need to register an internet domain name. 4. I have unlimited internet access via broadband internet connection. 5. You need special software for downloading internet files.
  122Соотнеси слова из левой колонки со словами из правой колонки.
1. connect to b) the website; 2. type in a) the website address; 3. click e) on a link; 4. browse/search c) the internet; 5. download d) the information.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Запиши верное слово для приведенных определений.
1. То do the necessary actions on a computer system that will allow you to begin using it: to log on/in; 2. To stop using a computer system by giving it particular instructions: to log off/out; 3. The physical equipment used in a computer system, such as the central processing unit, peripheral devices, and memory: hardware; 4. The programs that can be used with a particular computer system: software; 5. A unique name, corresponding to one or more numeric IP addresses, used to identify a particular web page or set of web pages on the internet: domain name; 6. A service provided on the internet enabling users to search for items of interest (e.g. AltaVista, Google, Rambler, Yahoo!): search engine; 7. A computer program that finds information on the internet and shows it on your computer screen (e.g. Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer): web browser.
  2Используй слова из рамки и соотнеси их с картинками.
А — CD-ROM drive; В — speaker; С — web camera; D — monitor; E — USB port; F — keyboard; G — printer; H — scanner; I — computer; J — screen; К — mouse.
  3Заполни пропуски глаголами.
Emma: Hello! Can I speak to Jonathan, please?
Jonathan: Speaking.
E: Hi, it's Emma. Busy?
J: A bit. I'm explaining to my grandma how to write e-mails. She bought a computer a couple of days ago and asked me to help her understand how it operates. We have just installed the software and at the moment my grandma is browsing the internet.
E: Wow! How's she feeling about it?
J: Absolutely delighted! She's amazed how much information the internet has to offer.
Е: Has she chosen a user's name for her mailbox?
J: Not yet. We need to choose the search engine first. I have never thought that my grandma is so choosy about this stuff — she wants to know the advantages of all existing search engines and wants to compare them! She calls it an informed choice.
E: I won't be surprised if your grandma will become a very advanced user very soon.
J: Neither will I! She's learning surprisingly quickly. Actually, her main problem is that she cannot type fast. She has never had any practice in typing. But I'm she will improve her typing skills soon.
E: Slow typing is absolutely normal for starters. And why does she want to get computer skills? She doesn't need it for her work, does she?
J: No, she retired a year ago. And that's why now she has more time than she used to. So, she wants to give it to self-development and communication. She travels a lot now and e-mailing helps her keep in touch with people she meets. She says that communication is a very valuable thing. And she is also considering an online language course.
E: Good luck to you both! I'd like to meet your grandma one day.
J: Any time. But wait till we will have everything sorted out with her e-mail. She hates distracting.
  5Заполни пропуски фразами.
1. We say that a person has excellent computer skills when he/she can use a computer for their work or studies effectively. 2. A computer virus is a program that can enter the computer and damage or eliminate the information there. 3. A computer programmer is a person who creates special programs that enable users to make electronic documents or play computer games. 4. Playing computer games is a common pastime for present day teenagers. 5. Cracking other people's computers and stealing information is called a computer crime and is prosecuted by law. 6. Doctors say that computer addiction has become another dangerous disorder that threatens people's health along with alcohol and drugs. 7. Computer dating can help shy and unsociable people start relationships and even make families.
  6Выбери одно из высказываний и аргументируй свой выбор.
I think that computer skills are absolutely essential for people who want to gain success and have a sustainable career. Approximately everywhere we have to deal with computers now. They make our work easy and quickly that is why they are widely spread. Thus, you have to be computer literal as if you want to get a good job. You will not just have a choice.
 

   Итоговый контроль 2а) Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их с за-головками.
1. В. This bamboo fan cap works just as you might imagine. Sunlight is absorbed through the disk on the top of the hat, which powers the fan that blows onto the forehead of the person wearing this unfortunate fashion accessory. Ladies don't distress, there is also a more feminine style for those of you who are more apt to go for a floral design. For the joker in you or for those of you just wanting to keep cool, both styles are for sale in the UK at just £11.00 each.
2. A. A solar panel, which is 5 inches by 4.5 inches, powers the fan, which exchanges hot air inside the car for the presumably cooler air outside. If you park in the shade and want to use the fan, there's a plug-in adapter for the car. One retail Website says the fan can reduce your parked car's interior temperature by 25 degrees, though that's not much solace considering another Website cited 160 to 180 degree temps inside a parked car on a hot day. If you want to try to make your car cooler, you can buy this solar gadget online for around $10.
3. F. Direct Sun Lighting is not a single futuristic but a wave of new technology known as Hyl Lighting (HSL). HSL is supposed to reduce for old-fashioned electricity by harnessing to power of the sun. The new lighting system that the light redirected into your home is to the actual light of the sun. There is also to filter the additional natural colors of them and sunset. So when is HSL going to be for commonly in the average household? The model, delivering 50,000 lumen of sunlight to be available for commercial buildings in e and to be tested for residential housing in 2.
4. D. Now almost any common gadget can harness the power of the sun to power itself. Winner of the Mac World Best of Show 2005, the Universal Hybrid Charger recharges any handheld device that you would normally plug into an outlet. The device is sold for $99.95 (USD) and comes in four different colors including a Quicksilver design. Besides the normal cables included in the box, they also throw in different tips which can be used to power a wide variety of cell phone brands. The battery holds energy for up to a year and can be recharged by the sun or, when necessary, a wall outlet.
5. С. For the person who has everything else, this plant holder uses the sun's rays to continually rotate the base so that sunlight is evenly distributed onto the plant. This could be deemed useful to dedicated gardeners lacking time to be fully attentive. Running in at only $24.95 (USD), this solar gadget is affordable and time-saving. b) Прочитай тексты и определи в каких текстах упоминается следующее:
1. the year of a product's commercial launch — С; 2. the year of a product's participation in an exhibition — D; 3. the cheapest price of a device — B; 4. the most expensive price of a device — D; 5. the model of a device — C; 7. the temperature inside a car — B; 8. the amount of light — C; 9. the material used — A; 10. the name of a design — A.
  3Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа для каждого пропуска.
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be available and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines! Currently less than 1% of the Earth's energy needs are supplied by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the cheapest around and it is able to produce on average 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, compared to nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still be used for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest concerns about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are deeply concerned by the numbers of bats being killed, prompting ongoing research.
  4Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой глаголов в скобках.
The internet has changed people's life dramatically. It has allowed people from all over the world to communicate with each other and express their ideas and opinions. In a real life situation it is not easy to start speaking with a complete stranger, a person in power or a child. The internet hides your age, class and looks. It has allowed many people to set up their own businesses. Some of these people are very young, even under the age of 18. The workplace is becoming increasingly stressful for many people, with longer hours and polluted air in big cities. The internet offers other alternatives, such as working from home and online shopping. Today you don't have to go out to buy goods or earn money. The biggest concern about people using the internet is getting addicted to it. This happens because computers are used to compensate for feelings of loneliness, marital and work problems, poor social life, and financial problems. All in all, the internet is here to stay and whether it improves or ruins our life is up to us.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 1 2АЗакончи предложения, используя слова в скобках, а также слова who, whose, which, why, when, where.
1. A genius is a person who has exceptional abilities. 2. An engineer is a person whose profession is to apply scientific principles to engines, machines and different constructions like bridges and buildings. 3. A cyborg is a cybernetic body which has both artificial and natural systems. 4. Curiosity is the reason why people make discoveries. 5. An experimental ground is a place where scientists can test out their new inventions. 6. A computer virus is a little program that inserts itself into a computer system and damages software and information. 7. PDA is a portable computer which can be used as a mobile phone, the internet browser and a little media player.
  Разминка 1 2BЗапиши собственные определения к следующим словам.
Spacecraft — a vehicle used for travel in space; UFO — ABBREVIATION FOR unidentified flying object: an object seen in the sky which is thought to be a spacecraft from another planet; A programmer — a person whose job is to produce computer programs; A submarine — a ship which can travel under water; An iPod — a type of small MP3 player; An alien — relating to creatures from another planet; A laboratory — a room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced; Inspiration — a sudden good idea; A nanotechnologist — a person who is involved in an area of science which deals with developing and producing extremely small tools and machines by controlling the arrangement of separate atoms.
  Разминка 1 3АЗадай вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. Even some scientists believe in extraterrestrial life. — Who believes in extraterrestrial life? — In what some scientists believe?
2. It's believed that Leonardo Da Vinci was the first person who made a drawing of a submarine and explained how it could work. — Who was the first person who made a drawing of a submarine and explained how it could work? — What did Leonardo Da Vinci explain?
3. For some obvious reasons nanotechnologists consider rats the most useful animals in the world. — What considers rats the most useful animals in the world? — What do nanotechnologists consider as the most useful animals in the world?
4. Environmentalists insist on research into alternative energy sources that do not pollute the planet. — Who insists on research into alternative energy sources that do not pollute the planet? — What do environmentalists insist on?
  Разминка 1 3BВыполни социологический опрос. Сформулируй вопросы и представь результаты перед классом.
A. Extraterrestrial life: 1. Do you believe in extraterrestrial life? 2. How do you think when people will contact the aliens?
B. Artificial intellect (robots): 1. Do you believe that robots can experience emotions? 2. When will bio-robots be created?
 
   Тест 1 Часть II ЧтениеПрочитай текст и заполни пропуски фразами. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
E-commerce means selling and buying products online. Nowadays internet shops can compete with retail shops quite successfully. Is online trade just a fashion or a persistent tendency? Will it ultimately cause traditional shops to die out? Everything depends on customers and 1. E their buying habits and preferences. Let us find out how people in the streets feel about e-trade growing opportunities. "I find buying online very convenient," says Allan Brig, a loyal internet customer. "I have unlimited access to the internet and I'm practically always online. If I need to buy something, I try internet shops first and only if they can't offer me what I need, do I go to a store, a shopping centre or a supermarket." "Buying via the internet is a great option," Julia Smith, a busy undergraduate, shares the opinion. "And it's good for ideas too. If I want to buy something, say, a present for my friend, but have no idea what exactly I need, I type the key words "buy" and "original presents" in the search bar and press "enter". Instantly the searching system provides me with a long list of sites which, as the machine thinks, meet my requirements. I look through the list 2. F but click only on the links that seem relevant. Naturally, the results of the search may contain lots of irrelevant links. It's irritating sometimes, but the machine doesn't want to confuse me deliberately, 3. С it just applies mechanical approach to search for information. According to it, if a site contains all three words "buy", "original" and "presents", it'll be selected automatically. Unfortunately, 4. H the searching system is not able to think logically and analyze the content of the site. But I'm sure it'll learn how to do it very soon." Another opinion belongs to Maria Chris, a freelance designer. "I often shop online," she says, "though many of my friends don't think that it's safe enough. That's true, 5. В the internet provides additional opportunities for fraud, but if you are careful, you can feel quite safe. When I buy via the internet, I usually visit several sites to compare prices and delivery terms. I want to know if the delivery is free, to put it bluntly, if the delivery costs have been included in the price already, or if they want me to pay extra for it. As for the ways of payment, there are usually two options. The first one is payment by a credit card, 6. G which means that you need to type in the details of your credit card in a special form. The essential information they need to withdraw the money from your account is the card holder's name, the number written on the card and the expiry date. Alternatively, you can pay cash to the delivery man when you receive the ordered goods. Though paying cash is not very convenient, as the delivery man may not have change, I usually prefer it as a very safe way." John Flint, a sales manager in tourism, doesn't contradict the previous respondents. Actually, he sums up their opinions. "Theoretically speaking", he says, "hackers can break any computer and get access to your personal data 7. A including your passwords, pin codes and credit card details. I'm not a computer geek and I don't know how it can be done, but I'm sure it's possible. In spite of that, I feel that e-trade offers us an amazing opportunity to save our time. Shopping is inevitable and sometimes it's fun, but I'm grateful to the technological progress that now I can devote more time to what I really like — my family, my friends and my rare plants collection."
Number 1 2  3  4 5 6  7
Letter    E F С H В G A
  Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполни пропуски правильной формой. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Last Saturday I was at an air show with a friend. Jeff, my friend, is considering a career in aircraft engineering and that's why he is interested in aviation and the prospects for this industry. Among the planes presented at the show, a light jet caught Jeff's attention immediately. To me it was just a nice elegant blue-and-white jet, but Jeff's description was much more professional. He said that it was a single-pilot jet with two engines, which has an automated cockpit and can carry five or six passengers. He also said that the jet is a very noticeable innovation in aircraft construction for years and it may have a wide application in very different spheres. Its non-disputable advantage is that it can land on a runway much shorter than a runway required by the smallest jet now being flown. Jeff even predicted that the new jet would be used as an air taxi. And he may be right — in the near future business people can be attracted to these jets because they will get where they need to go much faster and cheaper than on a charted business jet. The official at the show said that unfortunately the jets cannot be delivered to the customers immediately as some technical issues still need to be resolved. After the show I was wondering if that jet could become an attractive alternative to daily commuting one day!
Number 1  2 3  4 5 6  7
Letter    С A С A D D A
  Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые считают, что все дети будут учиться в виртуальных школах. Они смогут входить в виртуальный класс из любого места — из дома, Интернет кафе, побережья океана. Через 50 лет не будет традиционных классов и школ.
People sometimes can be very optimistic in their prognosis towards our future. High technology is developing very quickly and new devices are imple-mented in our everyday life. And cyberspace has become an essential part of our real life. Educational system has also undergone serious changes. As for me I do not think that in 50 years children will not have to go to school. I believe that the traditional system of education will remain the same. From my point of view face-to-face contact in the process of learning is most important. I would never refuse replace real classroom by a virtual one. Besides, traditional school involves not only subjects and home tasks but also communication with peers. I reckon that students should get not only knowledge but social skills also. Virtual communication prevents this, to my mind. Though virtual classroom is rather convenient it allows much freedom for pupils. But I think that it is the only advantage of such a classroom. People always tried to simplify their life. Because of it a lot of things were created. But not of them actually simplified our lives. Sometimes vice versa. However, in spite of the fact that modern technology is changing our life greatly we still can choose whether accept or not these changes.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 2 1Bа) Заполни пропуски наиболее подходящими модальными глаголами. Добавь одно или два предложения, чтобы выразить свое мнение.
1. When walking their dog, people shouldn't keep it on a lead. The walking might prove to be useless as the dog won't feel comfortable. 2 Dogs should be walked in special places. If not, dog owners must clean up after their dogs. Other people might be angry if you leave the place after you dirty. 3. If the dog is bog and fierce, it should always wear a muzzle when you walk it. Other people might be scared by your dog or your dog might attack people. 4. Dogs shouldn't be allowed to children's pla-ygrounds, hospital or school gardens. They may do damage and may be disease carriers. 5. The owners should keep their dogs healthy and vaccinate them regularly. Dogs need care and their owners should always look after them. 6. If you want your puppy to become a good guide dog or a guard dog, you should apply to a professional dog coach or train it yourself. Only at early age dogs can learn. 7. When you train your dog, you shouldn't be cruel to it. You should be patient also. You should be ready to the fact that your dog won't remember all the very first time.
  Разминка 2 2AПрочитай письмо Ольги и заполни пропуски необходимой формой слова.
Dear editor, I enjoy reading your magazine as there's lots of information about new technologies, innovative engineering solutions and ideas about how to make our life more and more digital. However, sometimes I doubt that if s all only for good. I think that technological progress affects our lifestyle in a very negative way too. It may be true that our life is much more comfortable now than it used to be. We have lots of devices and gargets that do many jobs for us, like a washing machine and a dishwasher, or entertain us, like computers and iPhones. However, on the other hand, modern technologies deprive our bodies of being active, which causes different diseases and health problems. Furthermore, they develop new diseases and addictions. A friend of mine, for example, has got computer addiction and it worries me a lot. The thing is that he gave up volleyball, he was quite good at, doesn't go out and spends days and nights pattering on the computer keyboard. His school is affected very badly as he doesn't do his homework and even misses classes. His only interest in life is playing computer games, browsing the internet and chatting in the chat rooms. I've been trying to distract him from the computer, but nothing works. He is not conscious of the fact that any addiction is a disease which requires treatment and if not treated, it will cause serious complications. I really think that he should see a doctor, but he doesn't want to hear about that. I don't know what I should do in this situation and would appreciate any advice. Do you think that I'm making too much fuss about it? Should I just leave him alone? What measures can be taken to make him come back to real life?
Regards, Olga
 
   Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Number 1  2 3  4 5  6 7
Letter    A В В С A A В
  Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй слова в правильной форме. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. improvement; 2. painful; 3. overweight; 4. sadly; 5. healthy; 6. injections.
  Часть IV. ПисьмоТы получил письмо от своего англоговорящего друга Тони. Ответь на его письмо. В своем письме ты должен:
— ответить на его вопросы;
— пожелать ему веселого дня рождения и задать ему два вопроса о его вечеринки по случаю дня рождения.
Dear Тоnу, I'd like to wish you many happy returns of this day of you birth. I wish you also good health and happiness. Well, frankly speaking I was a little bit astonished too when I learnt about your present. A puppy! Wow! I have never had a dog at home as a pet, I mean. So I don't really know what I can advise you. I reckon that having a dog is responsibility first of all. As now you have to walk it every day, feed and take care of this little creature. You should never neglect your pet. You should remember that it needs your attention. As for training I think you should ask a professional trainer for an advice. Dogs should be trained from the very early age, so you should not hesitate. By the way, how is your birthday party? Where did you go out with your friends? What did you do? Did you enjoy yourselves? I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Best wishes, XXX
 

Часть 4. Откуда ты?
   Раздел 1. Город против деревни 2Распредели слова по колонкам в таблице.
City: skyscrapers/blocks of flats, the underground, terrible air pollution, some industrial areas, rush hour, crowds of people, traffic jams, litter, huge factories and plant.
Country: a cleaner and safer environment, raising chickens, farming, nice little cottages, producing your own food, sunlight and fresh air, hiking, fishing, spacious apartments, gathering a crop/harvest, swimming, producing goods, growing wheat or rye, trees and forests, convenient parking areas.
  10Найди в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы.
— Where is the best place to live in the author's opinion? According to the author of the article the best place to live is country.
— What kind of community has she moved to? She has moved to a smaller community where people's skills are more practical.
— Does she like it there? How do you know? She likes living in a small town as she tells positively about it.
— What does she like best about her new community? Why do you think so? She believes that living in a small town is more convenient because of manageable space, mild climate and decent environment.
— How does the value of work differ in a city from that in a small town? In a small town white-collar skills become useless. In a small town practical skills are needed.
— Do you agree with the author's opinions? Why?/Why not? It's author's opinion as she has a right to express it. But living in a city or a small town it's a choice of everyone: Tastes differ and everyone will have their own answer for this question.
  11Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант.
1. b; 2. а; 3. b; 4. b.
  12Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы.
— Who are the boys? Boys have escaped from their homes to explore nearby countryside.
— Where are they? They are on an island that is three miles long and a quarter of a mile wide.
— How are they feeling? They feel homesick.
— Why do you think they are ashamed of the way they are feeling? They do not want to show their weakness to each other, they want to look mature.
  13Расположи следующие места в порядке от наименьшего до наибольшего.
1. camp; 2. settlement; 3. village; 4. town; 5. city; 6. capital; 7. megalopolis.
  14Соотнеси слова и определения.
1. camp b) a place where tents or buildings are erected usually for temporary living; 2. city g) an inhabited place usually larger or more important than a town; 3. village d) a settlement usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town; 4. settlement f) a small village or colony, usually historical; 5. town a) a compactly settled area usually larger than a village but smaller than a city; 6. megalopolis e) a very large urban unit; 7. capital c) the main city of a state or country.
  15Прочитай текст и измени слова так, чтобы заполнить пропуски.
1. beautiful; 2. location; 3. live; 4. camping; 5. settlement; 6. arrival; 7. lately.
  18Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски частями предложений внизу.
1. d; 2. b; 3. f; 4. с; 5. е; 6. а.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова с противоположным зна-чением.
1. local - global; 2. reasonable - unreasonable; 3. complexity - simplicity; 4. decent - indecent; 5. agricultural - industrial; 6. ample - insufficient; 7. safety - danger.
  3Вычеркни неподходящее слово.
— inhabitant, city-dweller, villager, local, white-collar worker, resident, settler;
— megalopolis, settlement, city, location, town, village.
  4Обведи правильное слово.
1. Do you enjoy shopping for new clothes? 2. You promised to help me with the essay, but you didn't come. 3. We decided to buy tickets for the show in advance. 4. Would you like having something to eat? 5.I don't want to talk about it now. 6. Some people hate cooking, but I like it. 7. Is it allowed to use cell phones here? 8.I would never recommend using this site. The information is not very reliable there.
  5Прочитай следующие утверждения и напиши противоположное.
1. Living in the country is very boring. You don't have enough people to communicate with. Living in the country cannot be boring, as there are a lot of things to do such as swimming, playing outdoors, and many other things. By the way, it should be borne in mind that the communication does not depend on quantity but on quality. So it is important just to have one good friend. 2. Living in a big city is very stressful. All people who live there are nervous and rude. It is not correct to tell that all people in a big city are nervous and stress. If it were, we would not have any city as no one would live there. People can be happy in different circumstances even in the most stressful. 2. If people live in the country side, they are severed from the political life of the country and don't know what's going on there. In the modern society media has a huge power. Television and internet are everywhere now. People in every corner of a country may be in the mainstream. 3. If people live in cities they are severed from nature and don't care about environmental issues. In modern cities much attention is paid to the environment. In any towns there are beautiful big parks where citizens may spend their free time. 4. Living in the country makes people unsociable and reserved. They don't want to know what's happening outside their little community. In the country people know each other perfectly well. They usually visit their neighbours and get in touch with each other. 5. Living in big cities makes people neglect each other. They don't care about other people's well-being and never help anyone. You can find a lot of indifferent people everywhere, in does not depend on one particular place. In cities there are a lot of examples when people help each other during some emergencies such as a fire or flood.
  6Распредели слова по колонкам. untitled-5.gif   7Закончи эссе.
If I had to choose where to live — in a city or in the countryside, it would be a very difficult choice for me. Both alternatives have many advantages as well as disadvantages. As indisputable advantages of the city is that the city can offer you more perks of modern that the country can do. There are a lot of cafes, theatres and museums in cities, while there is none in the country. In most cases the countryside cannot offer the same, but it can attract with fresh air, quiet and peaceful environment. The worst thing about living in the city is its rapid pace of life. Everyone is in a hurry. People usually do not have time even to look at the sky or to smile to passers-by. In the country I would hate being severed from the rest of the world. Being separated from a megalopolis, from this rapid life is the worst thing for me about living in the country. The most reasonable thing, in my opinion, is to create a new type of settlement which could combine the main benefits of both, i.e. wide range of modern perks and perfect environment and would rid of the drawbacks of the both.
 

   Раздел 2. Какое хобби ты предпочитаешь? 27Прочитай отрывки из книги Кейт Фокс. Озаглавь отрывки.
1. В; 2. Е; 3. D; 4. А; 5. С.
  29Прочитай отрывки и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. b; 2. b; 3. с; 4. а; 5. b; 6. а; 7. b; 8. с.
  30Соотнеси части предложений.
1. gossip publication; 2. do the hovering; 3. glance at the TV screen; 4. have passion for word games; 5. weekly on the phone; 6. social interaction; 7. make eye contact; 8. fill pause; 9. shake hands; 10. kiss cheeks; 11. awkward silence; 12. unwritten rules; 13. widely recognized; 14. essential part.
  34Заполни пропуски в предложениях следу-ющими фразами:
1. It was the first time we'd ever tried skating. 2. I'm usually free at this time of day. 3. Now seems the time to make a change. 4. We just left after midnight, local time. 5. He is too young to tell the time. 6. It was a particularly hard time for her. 7. What were you doing at the time? 8. She did karate for a long time. 9. The fitness centre only opened a short time ago. 10. Do you remember the right time when we first came to school? 11. We had a really good time diving. 12. It's time you started packing for the trip.
  43Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски.
1.С; 2. В; 3. А; 4. D; 5. В; 6. С; 7. В.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 1а) Расположи хобби по двум колонкам.
sporty hobbies: snorkeling, surfing, badminton, fishing, paintball, kart driving,
non-sporty hobbies:
painting,stamp collecting, knitting, cooking, clothes/accessories designing, photography, assembling miniature aircraft/ship/submarine models, collecting butterflies
  2Расположи оборудование в правильные колонки.
knitting patterns from fashion journals, wool, needles,
snorkeling flippers, wet suit, mask, snorkel
skateboarding skateboard, helmet, knee pads,
photography camera, lenses, photo printer, photographic paper
  4Поставь слова в правильную форму.
1. called; 2. lived; 3. made; 4. kicked; 5. was; 6. had arrived; 7. was playing; 8. was invited; 9. had been training; 10. could gain; 11. became; 12. had never seen; 13. could manage.
  9Заполни пропуски. Измени форму, если необходимо.
1. been occupied; 2. sprawl; 3. affected; 4. preferred; 5. interaction; 6. excuse; 7. encourage; 8. essential; 9. awarded; 10. recognized; 11. cares; 12. priority.
  12Прочитай рекламное объявление и напиши письмо, чтобы узнать больше о предложении.
Dear Emmy, I am very interested in taking up dancing classes. I have come across your advertisement about the new dancing school. I would be grateful whether you tell me about it in details. First of all, I would like to know on what day's classes will be. If they are during weekdays, is it an evening time? Lots of people work and it will be more suitable to arrange classes in evenings. Secondly, could you tell me how many people there are in the group? And if it is ok, would you let me know what the price per month is? Is there any discount for students? Finally, I would be happy if you tell me what equipment you provide with? I look forward to hearing from you soon. I am eager to start classes.
Yours sincerely, XXX
 

   Раздел 3. Круг моих друзей 54Прочитай стихотворение и заполните пропуски словами, сохраняя рифму.
"The rain may be falling hard outside,
But your smile makes it all alright.
I'm so glad that you're my friend.
I know our friendship will never end."
  57Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. В; 2. D; 3. В; 4. С; 5. А; 6. В; 7. В; 8. А; 9. D; 10. А.
  59Прочитай текст и ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What is a social networking system? A social networking system is an online network of people linked together. 2. How can you become part of one? You just need to register on a web page and send invitations to your friends to become part of your network or community. 3. What are the benefits of being part of such a system? Everyone in the network is a "friend of a friend" (though perhaps several times removed), you have a greater level of comfort about contacting each other and sharing information. 4. How are such systems different? Some of these networks are geared primarily toward dating, some are strictly for business contacts or employment searches, and still others are more general-purpose — for making friends, finding people to join you in recreational activities, or discussing common interests. 5. What is the most popular system called? How did it develop? The most popular system is called Friendster. Within three months of its debut, Friendster had over a million members. 6. What are the drawbacks of being a member of such a system? All of the networks have percentage of "stale" members; besides the time and effort required using the system, many users have found that "friends of friends" aren't necessarily people they want to have relations with.
  64Прочитай краткое содержание пьесы и расставь абзацы в правильном порядке.
1.С; 2. F; 3. D; 4. В; 5. Е; 6. А.
 
    Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова с противоположным значением.
1. timid - extraverted; 2. ambitious - indifferent to success; 3. trustworthy - unreliable; 4. popular - out of favour; 5. smart - stupid; 6. decent - dishonest.
  3Прочитай диалог и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. С; 2. С; 3. А; 4. В; 5. D; 6. D; 7. А; 8. В; 9. С; 10. В; 11. В; 12. А; 13. А.
 

   Раздел 4. Восток или 3апад? 75Прочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки с параграфами.
1. The "Japanese" way of living; 2. Global trends; 3. Family life 4. Bar culture, cafe and conversation; 5. A simple but aesthetic life; 6. Much work and bad health; 7. Looking for different lifestyle.
  76Прочитай текст и скажи, в каких странах:
1. Family values are important. Italy; 2. The pace of life is rather slow. Italy; 3. Long working days influence one's lifestyle a lot. The USA; 4. People feel depressed because of the fast pace and peer pressure. Japan; 5. The pace of life has increased recently. The USA; 6. Global trends have influenced people's lifestyle. Japan; 7. People have got more interested in travelling. Japan; 8. People are looking for quieter places to live and work. The USA; 9. People combine their love of the arts with everyday things. Italy; 10. New fashion trends have been created. Italy.
  77Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. community renowned; 2. genuine humbleness; 3. is a must; 4. maintain a balance; 5. mutual respect; 6. rapid changes; 7. rapid pace; 8. stressful lifestyle; 9. top priority; 10. tough competition; 11. world values.
  78Заполни пропуски фразами из упр. 77.
1. A lot of people in big cities suffer from a stressful lifestyle. 2. In our company mutual respect is one of the most important values. 3. In traditional societies world values are still a top priority. 4. To be fit one should maintain a balance of exercise and healthy food. 5. Visiting parents and grandparents is a must for me every weekend. 6. When they started their business they faced tough competition.
  80Прочитай высказывания и раздели их по двум колонкам таблицы.
The Western way of thinking 1. Based on ancient Greek and Socratic ideas. 2. Emphasis on indi-vidual rights. 3. The "truth" is important.
The Eastern way of thinking  1. Chinese and Indian philosophy en way of seeing life. 2. Emphasis on social responsibility. 3. Balance is important.
  84Прочитай текст и выбери предложение, которое лучше всего отражает его содержание.
A. Advanced technologies play an important role in the modern world.
  85Прочитай текст и отметь верные и неверные предложения.
1. Т; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. Т; 6. F.
  86Заполни пропуски словами справа.
1. communicate; 2. inventor, appreciation; 3. survival; 4. requirement; 5. solution; 6. existence.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполни пропуски в таблице. Country/ Continent People living there
Australia Australians Asia Asian Europe European Belgium Belgians China Chinese Cyprus Cypriots Egypt Egyptian Italy Italian Greece Greek Hungary Hungarians Japan Japanese Malta Maltese New Zealand New Zealander
  4Соотнеси предложения, которые отражают противоположности в стилях жизни Америки и Италии.
1. Generally Americans work from 8 to 10 hours a day. C. In contrast, Italians are not used to long working hours and usually enjoy long breaks for lunch. 2. Lots of Americans commute to work every week day. Italians would rather quit a well-paid job than put up with traffic jams and long journeys to the office and back. 3. Due to their intense lifestyle Americans have got used to fast food, which actually saves time, and find it quite good. A. Italians, however, would never agree with that. They are extremely proud of their national cuisine and believe that a delicious dinner with family or friends is one of the best things in the world. 4. Most Americans don't spend much time with their families. They often claim that they can't find time for that as their schedule is very busy. E. Italians on the contrary enjoy quality time with their kids as well as their elderly parents. They believe that when there's a wish, there's always a way. 5. When an American family gets together in the evening, they often prefer watching television to talking or going out. B. Unlike them, Italians definitely prefer being outdoors to staying indoors. One can often see large Italian families, their friends and neighbours gossiping or discussing various family matters over cappuccino or espresso in cafes, bars or terraces.
 

   Раздел 5. Сохраняя традиции 98Прочитай тексты и скажи, какой фестиваль: 1. used to be cruel towards animals — The Cat Festival; 2. involves a lot of eating — The Hunger Hooting Festival; 3. requires fast and careful movements — The Keppei Krabtastic World Crab-Tying Championships; 4. involves men only — Naadam; 5. has an unclear origin — La Tomatina; 6. involves a strange use of vegetables — La Tomatina; 7. involves wearing special clothes — Naadam; 8. is compared to another festival — The Keppei Krabtastic World Crab-Tying Championships.  

   Итоговый контроль 2Поставь строчки в правильном порядке.
a) Two men were travelling together, when a Bear i) suddenly met them on their path. One of them d) climbed up quickly into a tree and concealed himself к) in the branches. The other, seeing that he must be attacked, e) fell flat on the ground, and when the Bear came up h) and felt him with his snout, and smelt him all over, m) he held his breath, and feigned the appearance of death as much j) as he could. The Bear soon left him, for it is said he will not c) touch a dead body. When he was quite gone, g) the other Traveller descended from the tree, 1) and inquired of his friend what it was the Bear f) had whispered in his ear. "He gave me this advice," b) his companion replied. "Never travel with a friend n) who deserts you at the approach of danger."
  3Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. С; 2. А; 3. А; 4. С; 5. В; 6. С; 7. А; 8. В.
  4Заполни пропуски словами в правильной форме.
1. performance; 2. prosperity; 3. taught; 4. encouragement; 5. creation; 6. combination; 7. ability; 8. natural.
 
   Тест 1 Часть II. Чтение1. А; 2. С; 3. В; 4. В; 5. А; 6. А; 7. В.   Часть III. Грамматика и лексика1. В; 2. С; 3. А; 4. D; 5. D; 6. В.   Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые думают, что Интернет может быть опасным для детей и подростков, потому что у них может возникнуть зависимость. Такая зависимость может крайне негативно сказаться на их жизни, вот почему Интернет должен использоваться только в образовательных целях.
Internet is an essential part of our everyday life. It serves millions of purposes. Everyone could find something for him or her. But unfortunately, sometimes internet may affect our life in a very negative way especially for children and teenagers. Doctors remark that nowadays a new type of addiction has appeared, i.e. internet addiction. The most vulnerable group of people who suffer from this addiction is children and teenagers. They absorb completely in cyberspace. They stop socializing with their peers in reality; they spend a lot of time playing computer games. Of course it affects their studying performance. But should not forget that internet may bring a lot of positive moments also. It is not only an endless source of information which can be used in educational purposes but also a place where there is no limits for communication. Timid teenagers may find friends with the help of internet as it helps them feel more confident. In conclusion, I would like to give some advice parents. It is very important to be attentive to your children and monitor all the changes they undergo. If you notice any symptoms of internet addiction, it will be easier to cure it at an early stage. Internet is not a source of world evil, it is not very smart to forbid your children use it.
 
   Рабочая тетрадь 2Разминка 2 1АВыбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. I suggest arranging our farewell party in the nearby cafe. 2. Modern technologies allow people to have more time for themselves and their hobbies. 3. I wouldn't recommend you going to that country if you don't speak their language. 4. I don't mind wearing traditional dresses for traditional cultural events. 5. Colonists often wanted to make local people accept their religion. 6. Most people enjoy travelling, but only some of them can afford to do it often. 7. E-mailing got very popular because it lets us use less money on telephoning.
  Разминка 2 2AРаспредели глаголы no колонкам таблицы.
Verbs that are normally followed by an infinitive: manage, plan, refuse, afford,
Verbs that are normally followed by a gerund: suggest, mind, recommend, enjoy, admit
  Разминка 2 2Bа) Закончи диалог. Используй инфинитив глагола или герундий.
1. staying; 2. living; 3. to stay; 4. to pay; 5. to change; 6. having dinner; 7. walking; 8. to stay.

   Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки и параграфы. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. F; 2. В; 3. А; 4. С; 5. Е; 6. D.
  Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаПрочитай отрывок из письма и заполни пропуски. Используй глаголы в правильной форме. Перенеси варианты ответа в таблицу
1. has found; 2. worked; 3. will not see; 4. admitting; 5. gets; 6. have been writing; 7. have not sent.
  Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые считают, что все тесты должны быть компьютеризированными. Компьютеры не могут быть предвзятыми, и поэтому результаты будут более объективными.
New innovations are coming into our life. Even the system of education has become more innovative. New technology is widely used in all schools. They include computers, DVD, overhead projectors and many other devices. The system of assessment is also changing. New computer based test have been implemented. But has it made results more objective? The supporters of this idea are convinced that the machine is absolutely unprejudiced. We hardly can argue this statement. Using computers allows us to speak about absence of any chance to cheating. In this case we can rely on computers. But on the other hand, computers may break down. All the results of the candidate may be lost. The only solution is to create methods how to save the information the candidate has entered. Additionally we should not forget that for some people it is more preferable, more convenient to take a paper-based test as it is just more typical. Certainly, all time there are supporter and opposition of innovations. But again the decision will be made by the majority. And from my point of view, this decision will be positive for computers.
 

Приложение 1.
   Школьный английский Что изучает географическая экономика? 4Прочитай текст и выбери предложение, которое лучше всего отражало бы основную идею текста.
D. Economic integration is an essential and a reality in today's world which lead to new prospects but also problems for national economies.
  5Соотнеси колонки с фразами, чтобы по-лучились устойчивые словосочетания.
1. The proportion of imported goods... d) is increasing constantly. 2. Due to economic integration... e) we have much more variety in our consumer goods. 3. Importing core consumer goods may... a) weaken local economies. 4. If a country is highly integrated... b) into 'the global economy, it may lead to its political dependency. 5. Economic integration accelerates the economic... f) development of most countries. 6. Sometimes buying goods abroad... c) can reduce costs.
  7Изучи диаграмму и информацию к ней. Прокомментирую утверждения под диаграммой.
It's very likely that oil production makes a considerable part of the country's economy. The pie chart says that the export of raw materials constitutes almost half. It's possible that the country has a good supply of oil as its economy specializes on oil export. It's likely that the country can provide its own energy to its economy. The pie chart says that the considerable part of the country's economy is machinery such as equipment for the oil and gas industries. It's probable that the country is well integrated into the world economy. We can judge from the pie chart that this country is an exporter of raw materials. So it demands strong international links. It's unlikely that the country embodies the agricultural type of economy. According to the pie chart only 11% makes up the country's economy in the agricultural sector. It's likely that the country does not pay much attention to high technology development. According to the pie chart there is no sector for the high technology industry. It seems possible that the country could increase the share of high tech equipment because of the car machine industry. It is very likely that the country should change its exports in favour of more technological industries.
  10Ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What is Transib short for? What's its full name? Transib stands for the Trans-Siberian Railway. 2. What do the letters BAM stand for? BAM stands for the Baikal Amur Mainline. 3. Were the Transib and BAM constructed si-multaneously? The Transib and BAM were not constructed simultaneously. 4. What was their mission? Their mission was to link different parts of the country. 5. Has their mission been fully realized? There is no definite answer for this question. The infrastructure of the country still remains poor.
  12Прочитай текст и ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What was the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway and how much ground did it cover? The Transib runs from Moscow to Vladivostok through the southeastern parts of the country. It covers more than nine thousand kilometers. 2. Why are the Transib and BAM so important for the economy of the region they go through? The existing lines provide a vitally important corridor from Europe to the resources of Siberia and further on to the riches of the Far East. 3. Who built BAM? BAM was built by young people. 4. Why do many economists support the idea of re-launching the Transib and BAM projects? Because these routes may serve as a bridge to new boosting economies of Korea, China and Japan.
 
   Физика сложная? 4Что изучают разделы физики? Соотнеси колонки таблицы.
1. Mechanics: с) This branch of physics studies how objects and forces interact with each other. It describes if the object is static or dynamic, the types of motion and the forces acting on the object. 2. Molecular physics: b) This branch of physics studies the structure of the molecule, and that hold atoms together. 3. Thermodynamics: e) This branch of physics studies heat and states that heat is a form of energy. It also studies how temperature changes the characteristics of the object. 4. Electrodynamics: d) This branch of physics studies electricity, electrical current and e magnetic fields. It also studies the interaction of charged particle electromagnetic fields. 5. Quantum physics: a) This is a relatively young branch of physics which studies electrons and neutrons. In contrast to Newton's physics, it states that the traditional model of atom is wrong, and that electrons, protons and neutron: the tiniest particles. It also studies what these particles consist of.