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Unit 30. Unforgettable.

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Stress in Longer Words 1

Unit 30; Part A

We can build longer words by adding parts to the beginning or end of shorter words. Usually, this does nor change the stress: it stays on the same syllable as in the original word. Look at the example below.





un    
for
for
for
for
for     
get 
get 
get 
gett
gett   


ful
ful    
a
a

 

ness
ble
ble

Here is a list of beginnings and endings which do not change the stress of the shorter word:
-able (drinkable)
-al (musical)
-er (player)
-ful (helpful)
-hood (childhood)
-ing (boring)
in- / im- (impossible)
-ise (civilise)
-ish (childish)
-less (childless)
-ly (friendly)
-ment (employment)
-ness (happiness)
-ship (friendship)
un- (unhappy)
under- (underpay)
 

Unit 30; Part B

Some endings do change the stress in the shorter word. Look how the ending -ion changes the srress in the word educate.
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When we add the endings -ion or -ian, the stress always moves to the syllable before these endings. Here are some more examples. 
30.2.jpg
note.jpgNote: -tion and -cian are pronounced /∫∂n/.

Unit 30; Part C

The ending -ic also moves the stress to the syllable before it. Listen to these examples.
scientist   
economy   
atom   
artist 
scientific
economic
atomic
artistic
  
note.jpgNote: When a syllable changes from unstressed to stressed, or stressed to unstressed, the vowel sound often changes. For example the letter O in atom is pronounced /∂/, but in atomic, it is pronounced /o/, the A in atom is pronounced /æ/ but in atomic it is /∂/.

note.jpgNote: The ending -al does not change the stress of the word (see A above), so, for example, the stress is on the same syllable in these two words: economic    economical.

 



Exercises

flag.jpgUse the beginnings and endings in A opposite to make longer words from the words below. Listen and check if you get the same words as on the recording. Then listen again and repeat.
Key.1 believer, believable, unbelievable, unbelieving
2 enjoyable, unenjoyable, enjoyment
3 careful, carefully, careless, carelessness, carer, caring, uncaring

Example:
child     childhood,   childish,    childishness,    childless                            
1    believe                                                                                              
2    enjoy                                                                                                
3    care                                                                                                  

 

flag.jpgWrite the words from the box in the correct part of the table according to the stress pattern.
Key.30.3.jpg
 
population              telecommunication            nation           identification             relation          communication            pronunciation             scientific            clinic            romantic         pessimistic            investigation            public            discussion
 


Oo
 
oOo
 
ooOo
 population
oooOo
    
ooooOo
 
oooooOo
 


flag.jpgCombine each word with one of the endings from the box, and give the stress pattern of your new word. You may need to change or add other letters to the first word. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.
Key.1 introduction ooOo   2 basic Oo
3 economic ooOo   4 description oOo
5 romantic oOo   6 competition ooOo
7 optimistic ooOo  8 celebration ooOo
9 diplomatic ooOo  10 operation ooOo
11 explanation ooOo  12 decision oOo


-ion     -ic


Example:
  inform   information   ooOo   
1    introduce    
2    base     
3    economy        
4    describe  
5    romance    
6    compete          
7      optimist
8      celebrate
9      diplomat
10    operate
11    explain
12    decide
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