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Unit 31. Public, Publicity.

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Stress in Longer Words 2

Unit 31; Part A

There are many longer word endings where the last letter is -y. In words with these endings, the stress is placed on the syllable two from the end. Listen to these examples.
31.1.jpg
 



 

note.jpgNote: If we add the ending -ic to a word, the stress goes on the syllable before -ic (See Unit 30. ) Notice the change of stress, for example:
photography photographic.

note.jpgNote: In words for an expert in the subject, such as photographer or climatologist, the stress stays on the same syllable as in the word ending in -y:
photography   photographer
climatology   climatologist
 

Unit 31; Part B

Many words for school and university subjects have one of the -y endings in this unit or the ending -ics. Listen to the names of subjects in this text.

At school. I hated science subjects like physics, chemistry and biology, you
know, and ehm... I wasn't very good at mathematics and things. I really
liked subjects like history, geography, economics. Anyway, when I went
to university, I wanted to do geology, but I couldn't 'cause I was no good at
sciences, so in the end I did philosophy!

note.jpgNote: Many English speakers do not pronounce the second syllable in history, so that it sounds like this: /'hιstrι/ Oo. The first part of the word geography may be pronounced as one or two syllables: /'d3ι:ogr∂fι/ Ooo or /d3ι:'ogr∂fι/ oOoo. Many speakers do not pronounce the second syllable in mathematics, so it sounds like this: /mæθ'mætιks/ oOo.

Unit 31; Part C

If we combine the various endings in this unit and Unit 30 , we can get 'families' of words with moving stress patterns. Listen to these examples.
photograph
economy
national
civil
photography
economics
nationality
civility
photographic
economical
nationalise
civilise


nationalisation
civilisation

 



Exercises

flag.jpgMake a word ending in -ity from each of these words, and give the stress pattern. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.
Key.1 personality ooOoo  2 university ooOoo
3 publicity oOoo  4 majority oOoo
5 nationality ooOoo  6 reality oOoo
7 humanity oOoo  8 electricity ooOoo

Example:  
         author    authority   oOoo  
1    person
2    universe
3    public          
4    major
5 nation
6 real
7 human
8 electric
flag.jpgWrite the words from the box in the correct column according to their stress pattern.
Key. 31.4.jpg

 
economics       economy      physics     chemistry     geography /'d3ogr∂fι/      mathematics /mæθ'mætιks/      sociology      history /'histri/    geology        photography        nation         nationality
 

 
Oo 
Ooo 
oOoo
ooOoo
ooOo

 

 

      economics

flag.jpgFill the gaps with a word from the box which has the stress pattern given. Then listen and check.
Key. Мy favourite subjects at school were sciences, especially chemistry and biology. I've always been good with numbers, so I was good at mathematics. I didn't really like the social science subjects like sociology and history and that's strange because when I went to university I did geography

 
biology        mathematics        history        geography        sociology
 

31.3.jpg

galka.jpgWrite in the word which is missing from the family. Then listen, check and repeat.
Key.1. civilisation
2. biology
3. personality
4. legalisation
5. author

Example:  
    society,  sociology (ooOoo), sociological
1  civil, civilise, ________(oooOo)
2  _______(oOoo), biologist, biological
3  personal, _______(ooOoo), personalise 
4  legal, legalise, ________(oooOo)
5  _______(Oo), authority, authorise
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