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Unit 39. After Eight, After Rate.

Joining Words 2

Unit 39; Part A

When we say the spellings of words or names, we normally join them together in one continuous sound. For example, we say ABC like this: /eιbi:si:/ (without any pause between the letters). Sometimes we have to add an extra sound to separate vowel sounds. Listen to these examples. The added sound is in small letters.
URL /ju:_wa:_rel/
AIM /eι_jaι_jem/
BORN /bi:_j∂u:_wa:_ren/

The same three sounds, /r/, /j/ and /w/, are also added between whole words to separate vowel sounds.

Unit 39; Part B

The consonant sound /r/ is used to separate vowel sounds when there is a letter R at the end of the first word. In many accents of English, including Southern British, this final letter R is not pronounced, so the word ends in a vowel sound. For example, the word after is pronounced /a:ft∂/. But if the following word begins with a vowel sound, the R is pronounced, in order to separate the two vowels. For example, the R is pronounced in after eight /a:ft∂_reιt/. In this case, the R sounds like it is at the start of the next word, so after eight sounds like after rate. Listen to the examples.

R not pronounced   
R pronounced  sounds like ...  
her card   
under sixteen
after nine 
four legs  
clear skies
her ace             her race 
under аgе         under rage 
after eight         after rate
four eyes          four rise  
clear air            clear rare

note.jpgNote: Sometimes we pronounce an /r/ to separate vowel sounds even if there is no R in the spelling. For example saw Alice can be pronounced /so:_'ælis/.


Unit 39; Part C

idea.jpgImportant for listening!
The sounds
/j/ and /w/ can also be pronounced to separate vowel sounds.

  •  If the first word ends in a vowel sound like /ι/ and the next word starts with any vowel sound, we add the sound /j/ (Y).
  •  If the first word ends in a vowel sound like /u:/ or /υ/ and the next word starts with any vowel sound, we add the sound /w/ (W).

Listen to the examples. Notice that /j/ or /w/ is pronounced even when there is no Y or W in the spelling.

no /i/ or /w/ pronounced
/j/ or /w/ pronounced  sounds like ...
every toe /evrι t∂υ/
he saves /hι seιvz/
you drank /ju: dræηk/
you hurt /ju: hз:t/
every ear /evrι jι∂/        every year
he earns /hι jз:nz/        he yearns
you ache /ju: weιk/       you wake




flag.jpgSpell out these names. If possible, record yourself. Then listen to the recording and compare it with yours.

1    TOM   
2    BEN  
3    ERIN          
 4   TANIA
 5   ROSIE
flag.jpgIn these pairs, the first and second word are joined with the phonemic letter shown. Read them aloud, then say them again, this time reversing the order of the words, so that a different sound joins the first and second word. You don't have to write anything. Then listen and check.
Key. 1 blue_wand grey
2 me_jand you
3 why_ jor where
4 her_ror you
5 away_ jor here

Example:   two_wor three  ↔   three_jor two
1    grey_jand blue
2    you_wand me
3    where_ror why
4    you_wor her
5    here_ror away
flag.jpgThe word rise is 'hidden' in this sentence: Her eyes ore open. It is the underlined part. This is clear if we look at the phonemic spelling. The word rise is /raiz/. You can see this underlined in this phonemic spelling of the sentence: /h∂raιz∂r∂up∂n/. The words in the box are 'hidden' in the sentences below. Find them and underline them, and write the hidden word after the sentence.
Key.1 Are you into golf?    winter
2 He has hair over the years.    years
3 It's starting to ache.    wake
4 I'm not sure I'd agree with you.    ride
5 She has a shower each morning.    reach
6 It's quarter to eight already,    wait
7 Do I owe you anything?    why
8 Her eyes are a strange colour.   rise
9 You should know better at уоur age!   rage
wait        rage       winter        yours        reach        years       why        rise         ride         wake

Example:  The boat's useless without the oars.
1    Are you into golf? _____________________
2    He has hair over the ears. _____________________
3    It's starring to ache. _____________________
4    I'm not sure I'd agree with you. _____________________
5    She has a shower each morning. _____________________
6    It's quarter to eight already. _____________________
7    Do I owe you anything? _____________________
8    Her eyes are a strange colour. _____________________
9    You should know better at your age! _____________________

Now listen to the sentences. Can you hear the 'hidden words'?
Try saying the sentences, making sure you pronounce the hidden words.
Unit 38      Unit 39     Unit 40 forward.jpg

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