Although we commonly talk about 'English pronunciation', obviously not
all speakers of English pronounce it in the same way. Even between
countries where English is the frst language of the majority of the
population there are considerable differences, and we can distinguish
between the pronunciation of 'British English', 'American English',
'Australian English', 'South African English', and so on.
Important for listening! Across these varieties of English, there may be differences in how
vowels and consonants are pronounced, how words are stressed, and in
intonation. For example, listen and notice differences between standard
British English (Br) and American English (US) pronunciation in these
sentences (you will hear British English first):
In US /t/ is 'flapped' so that it sounds like /d/ when it comes between two vowels.
I'm picking up the car next Tuesday.
car = /ka:/ in Br and /ka:r/ in US. In Br, /r/ is pronounced only when it is followed by a vowel, while in US it is also pronounced
before consonants and at the end of a word .
Tuesday = /tju:-/ in Br and /tu:-/ in US. The sounds /tj/, /nj/, /dj/, etc. are not used in US.
What's your address?
Some words are stressed differently in Br and US, including a'ddress (Br) and 'address (US).
I went out because I was hot and wanted some fresh air.
Some speakers of US (and also Australian and New Zealand English) use a
'high rising' tone for statements where most speakers of Br would use a
Within Britain and the US there are also many regional accents.
For example, listen and notice differences in pronunciation in these
sentences, said first by a speaker of 'BBC English' (see Unit 2 ) and
then by a speaker from the city of Birmingham in England (you will hear
BBC English first):
See you tonight.
The second vowel in 'tonight' is pronounced /ai/ in BBC English but /oi/ (as in 'boy') in a Birmingham accent.
Are those your brother's?
The vowel in 'those' is pronounced /∂υ/ in BBC English but more like /aυ/ (as in 'now') in a Birmingham accent.
The first vowel in 'brother's' is pronounced /Λ/ (as in 'but') in BBC English but /υ/ (as in 'would') in a Birmingham accent.
She was smoking.
The last sound in -ing words is /η/ in BBC English, but /ηg/ in a Birmingham accent, i.e. the -g is pronounced.
Here is a text read aloud first by a British English speaker and
then an American English speaker. Listen as many times as you need and
note differences in pronunciation that you observe, focusing on the
underlined words. A few are done for you. (It is not necessary to use
phonemic symbols in this exercise.) Key.
You will hear four more people talking about what they enjoy doing
in their spare time. They are from northern England, Scotland, Wales
and Northern Ireland. Listen as many times as you need and write brief
notes about what they say.
Now read the transcripts in the Key. Are there particular features of
their pronunciation that you had problems understanding? In what ways
is their pronunciation different from BBC English - that is, British
English spoken without a regional accent (see Unit 2)?
Record yourself reading one of the extracts in exercise 1 (These are
written down in the Key.) Compare your reading and the version on the
recording. What are the main differences in pronunciation that you