Unit 8. Jump, Next, Glimpsed.
Consonant Clusters at the End of Words
|There are many more combinations of consonant sounds possible at the end of English words than at the beginning (see Unit 7 ). There can be up to four consonant sounds in a fnal consonant cluster:
|Some final clusters with three or four consonants can be diffcult to
pronounce even for native English speakers, so in some words these are
commonly simplifed. For example, the middle consonant of the clusters
/kts/, /mps/, /mpt/, /nts/, /ndz/ and /skt/ is hardly heard or
sometimes even lefy out (see also Unit 29A):
|Leaving final consonants out of consonant clusters at the end of words can cause misunderstanding, and you should avoid this. For example, say:
product (not: produc
In particular, avoid leaving out /z/ or /s/ in plurals and third person singular verb forms, and /t/ or /d/ in -ed verbs and adjectives:
jobs (not: job
laughed (not: laugh
|Don't be tempted to add vowels to consonant clusters in order to
make them easier to say, as this can also cause misunderstanding. You should -
damp (not: damp∂ because it sounds like 'damper')
|How many final consonant sounds - 1, 2, 3 or 4 - do the words in the
box have when they are spoken slowly and carefully? ( Note that the
number of consonant sounds may be different from the number of
consonant letters) Write the words in the appropriate row.
Key.1 final consonant sound: catch /t∫/; ears /z/; earth /θ/; ledge /dз/
2 final consonant sounds: axe /ks/; laughed /ft/; touched /t∫t/
3 final consonant sounds: accents /nts/; against /nst/; aspects /kts/; diamonds /ndz/; grasped /spt/; next /kst/; risked /skt/; stamps /mps/
4 final consonant sounds: attempts /mpts/; contexts /ksts/; sculpts /lpts/; tempts /mpts/
|Now check your answers, listen and say the words.
|Listen to some of the words from exercise 1 ( in bold) used in
conversation. Some final clusters are simplified. Underline the words
which are simplified and show which sound is left out or reduced.
Key.1 next (no simplification)
3 stamps (no simplifcation)
4 against (no simplifcation)
7 context (no simplifcation)
8 grasped (no simplifcation)
Examples: It was a long jump, but he risked it.
He helped us a lot. (no simplifcation)
1 It's my turn next.
2 It's a recording of regional accents.
3 Don't forget to buy some stamps.
4 I've always been against it.
5 The question has a number of aspects.
6 She loved diamonds.
7 It was taken out of context.
8 They grasped it easily.
| Listen and underline the word you hear.
Example: I accept / accepted the award gratefully.
1 I couldn't go on without more paint / pain.
2 The company has some innovative designers / designs.
3 I couldn't go faster / fast in my old car.
4 The factory makes trays / trains.
5 We wore heavy boots with thick, ridged / rigid soles.
6 They're one of Brazil's main exports / exporters.
|Anna failed her test to become a newsreader for her local English
language radio station. Look at the transcript of the news item that
she read. Then listen to the news being read clearly and correct the words that Anna pronounced wrongly.
Key.The police think the roads on the south coast will be packed when the seventh Felton Pop Festival begins next weekend. Last year more than 10,000 pop fans packed into the field where the festival was held. There is simple accommodation on a nearby farm, but most people will camp in small tents.
|Now check your answers in the Key. Then read aloud the (correct) news item.
||Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9||
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