Unit 9. Abstract, Next Friday.
Consonant Clusters Within and Across Words
|Consonant clusters also occur within words. For example:
Note: Some clusters found within words can also be found at the beginning of words (dislike - slow), at the end of words (important - lamp), or both (escape - Scotland/ask); but others can't (abstract, invisible).
|When a word ending with a consonant or consonants is followed by a
word beginning with a consonant or consonants, a new consonant cluster
across words is formed. These can be particularly difficult to
pronounce when they come within a speech unit without a pause:
// it's an elm tree//
// there's a children's playground//
When consonant clusters are divided by a pause, they are often easier to pronounce:
// if Tom can't take you to the film// try Mike//
// there'll be three suitcases// two of Joan's// plus my own//
|All the consonant clusters within the speech units in this
conversation are underlined. Listen and follow the notes. Some clusters
are simplified with sounds left out or changed to make them easier to
pronounce. (Units 26-31 give detailed information on all these features of fluent speech.)
|Words that commonly go together in phrases and compounds (examples
of these are given in Units 16-18) are generally said within speech
units. Consonants at the word boundaries are usually run together in a
cluster. For example:
|Underline all the consonant clusters within the words in this text
(i.e. not at the beginning or end of words). Note that some words have
two consonant clusters.
Key.When I started playing badminton, I was sixty and I hadn't done any strenuous (/'strenj∂uas/) exercise (/'eks∂saiz/) for almost twenty years. But after just a few months I'd won the over-fifties national championship and an international competition. My husband thinks I'm crazy and that I'll injure myself. But I've found a number of advantages in taking up a sport. I feel much healthier, and it's important to be active at my age. And meeting new people has improved my social life. So I'll carry on playing until I get too old.
|Now check your answers in the Key. Then read the text aloud,
focusing on the pronunciation of words with underlined consonant
|Listen and repeat phrase 1 in column A with a slight pause between
the two speech units. Then listen and repeat phrase 1 in column B,
making sure you run the words together without a pause. Then do the
same for prases 2-10 (notice that the underlined clusters are the same
in columns A and B) . Some underlined consonant clusters in column B
are simplified. Try to make the same simplifications when you repeat
them (see Key for details of simplifications).
|Match a word from box A with a word from box B to make compound
nouns. Say the compounds aloud, making sure you run the words in the
Key.direct speech (/t/ is left out)
general strike (no simplifcation)
golf club (no simplifcation)
lamp shade (no simplifcation)
first class (/t/ is left out)
passive smoking (no simplifcation)
rock music (/k/ is shortened)
lost property (/t/ is left out)
speech therapist (no simplifcation)
time travel (no simplifcation)
tourist trap(/t/ is lef out)
Examples: blood poisoning (/d/ in 'blood' is pronounced like /b/)
|Listen, check your answers and repeat the compounds, making the same
simplifications of consonant clusters where these occur (see Key for
details of simplifications).
||Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10||
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