Unit 11. 'Comfort and 'Comfortable.
Suffixes and Word Stress (1)
|Some words are made up of a root and a suffix:
In some words with suffixes, the stress stays on the same syllable as in the root. Compare:
'danger and: 'dangerous
In other words, the suffix changes the stressed syllable. Compare:
'commerce and: com'mercial
|Suffxes which don't usually change the stress pattern in the root word include -able, -age, -al (but see Unit 12 for -ial), -er, -ful, -less, -ness, -ous and -fy. For example:
|Some suffixes themselves usually have the main stress. These include -ее, -eer, -ese and -ette. For example:
Exceptions include: 'omelette, 'etiquette, em'ployee (although less commonly we use ,employ'ee).
Note: Some people say 'cigarette.
Words with these suffixes can often have stress shift (see Unit 10):
She's japanESE. but: She's a JAPanese JOURnalist.
He's a refuGEE. but: We saw photos of REFugee CHILdren.
|Complete the sentences with pairs of words from B opposite. You should also mark the stress.
Key.(United States) Note that this speaker of American English pronounces 'herb' /з:rb/; in British English it is usually pronounced /hз:b/. Note also that 'medicine' is usually pronounced with 2 syllables /'meds∂n/, but may be pronounced with three in slow, careful speech /'medιs∂n/.)
1 di'saster - di'sastrous
2 'outrage - out'rageous
3 Re'gardless - re'gard
4 'industry - in'dustrious
5 per'centage - per'cent
6 my'sterious - 'mystery
7 agri'cultural - 'agriculture
The herb is used for me'dicinal purposes, although it isn't usually thought of as a 'medicine .
1 The journey was a _____________; in fact, the whole vacation was _____________.
2 The decision was an _____________ - quite _____________. I was appalled.
3 _____________ of his mistakes, the president continues to be held in high _____________.
4 Workers in the steel _____________are generally skilled and _____________.
5 The Democrats' lead is now eight _____________ points, and has risen three _____________ in the last week.
6 Her _____________ disappearance was never explained, and her whereabouts remain a _____________ until today.
7 The region is mainly _____________ land and most people here still work in _____________.
|Now listen and check your answers. Then say the sentences aloud, paying attention to the stress in the words you have written.
|This speaker is talking about the difficulty of getting cars repaired. Focus on the words ending with the suffixes -able and -al
(in bold). Listen and tick the words which follow the rule given in B -
that is, they have the same stress pattern as their root.
Words with the same stress pattern as their root:
de'pendable (de'pend) re'liable (re'ly)
me'chanical (me'chanic) ac'ceptable (ac'cept)
pro'fessional (pro'fession) de'batable (de'bate)
Words with a diferent stress pattern from their root:
uni'versal ('universe) 'reputable (re'pute)
|Here are some extracts from a radio news programme. Underline the
syllable in each word in bold that you think is likely to be made
prominent. Remember, some of the words in bold are likely to have
Key.* indicates stress shift.
1 absentee* 2 volunteer* 3 Cantonese 4 roulette 5 Sudanese*
Example: An aircraf that crashed three years ago in the Andes has been found by mountaineers.
1 A report on the problem of absentee landlords is to be published today.
2 Five thousand volunteer helpers are to be recruited for the next Olympic Games.
3 Mandarin and Cantonese are the most widely spoken languages in China.
4 The government is considering a ban on roulette.
5 There has been an outbreak of cholera among Sudanese villagers.
Now listen and check your answers. Then read the extracts aloud.
||Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12||
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