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Unit 13. Ex'treme and Ex'tremity.

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Suffixes and Word Stress (3)

Unit 13; Part A

Some words don't change their stress pattern when a suffix is added to the root word, but do change the pronunciation of the vowel in the main stressed syllable. Compare:
        ex'treme - ex'tremity    de'rive - de'rivative
             /i:/            /e/             /aι/          /ι/

The following table shows a number of possible vowel changes. The main stressed syllable and the pronunciation of the vowel in this syllable are shown:
 

               =>/ι/
/aι/ 'bible - 'biblical /ι/
/aι/ type - 'typical /ι/
/aι/ wise - 'wisdom /ι/

                   =>/æ/
/eι/ 'nation - 'national /æ/
/e
ι/ de'fame - de'famatory /æ/
/eι/ sane - 'sanity /æ/
/е∂/ com'pare - com'parative /æ/
/е∂/ de'clare - de'clarative /æ/
/a:/ 'drama - 'dramatise /æ/
            => /e/
/i:/ com'pete - com'petitive /e/
/i:/ inter'vene - inter'vention /e/

/i:/ ob'scene - ob'scenity /e/
              =>/o/
/o:/ ex'plore - ex'ploratory /o/
/∂υ/ know - 'knowledge /o/ 

             =>/Λ/
/u:/ as'sume - as'sumption /Λ/
/u:/ pre'sume - pre'sumption /Λ/

Unit 13; Part B

In some words, as well as a change in the pronunciation of the vowel in the stressed syllable, there is also a change in the pronunciation of the consonants) that follow it.
 

         
/aιt/ ig'nite - ig'nition /ι∫/
/aιn/ sign - 'signature /ιgn/     
/u:s/ pro'duce - pro'duction, pro'ductive /Λk/
/u:s/ intro'duce - intro'duction, intro'ductory k/

 

Unit 13; Part C

In other words like this, there is a change in the pronunciation of the vowel in the stressed syllable and also the spelling of either this vowel and/or the consonant(s) that follow it.
 
/aιd/ col'lide - col'lision /ι3/
/aιd/ di'vide - di'vision /ι3/
/aιd/ pro'vide - pro'vision /ι3/
/aιb/ de'scribe - de'scription, de'scriptive /ιp/
/aιb/ pre'scribe - pre'scription, pre'scriptive /ιp/   
/aιb/ sub'scribe - sub'scription /ιp/
/i:v/ de'ceive - de'ception, de'ceptive /ep/
/i:/ re'peat - re'petitive /e/
/a/ ex'ample - ex'emplary /e/
/eι/ re'tain - re'tention /e/
/eι/ ex'plain - ex'planatory /æ/
/aι/ ap'ply - ap'plicable /ι/
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Unit 13; Part D

Words that do change their stress pattern when a suffix is added to the root also commonly change their pronunciation in one or more syllable:
pro'nounce - pronunci'ation    pre'fer - 'preferable
   /∂/ /au/        /∂/  /Λ/                   /ι//з:/     /e//∂/
 
There are many words like this, and a great variety of pronunciation changes. 

 



Exercises

flag.jpgWhich of these words have main stress on the same syllable as their root word? Write S (Same) or D (Different).
Key.13.5.jpg
Examples: familiarise (S) (fa'miliarise - fa'miliar)   cancellation (D) (cancel'lation - 'cancel)

intervention (    )
maturity (    )
delivery (    )        
security (    )
stupidity (    )
precision (    )   
advantageous (    )    
application (    )
preference (    )
Canadian (    )
sanity (    )
sincerity (    )     
consumption (    )
normality (    )
diversion (    )
Now listen and check your answers. 

flag.jpgLook again at the words in exercise 1 with main stress on the same syllable as their root. Underline the ones which have a different vowel sound in the main stressed syllable from that in the main stressed syllable in their root. (Some of these are given in A and В opposite.)
Key.D: intervention; consumption; sanity; precision; sincerity
S: familiarise; security; maturity; delivery; diversion;

Example:   intervention  (intervention /e/ - inter'vene /i:/)
Now listen again to the words in exercise 1 and check your answers.  
flag.jpgComplete each pair of sentences using pairs of words from the box.
Key.1 a divide   b division
2 a competitive   b compete
3 a collision   b collide
4 a example   b exemplary
5 a national   b nation

 
collide-collision     compete-competitive     divide-division     example-exemplary    nation-national     subscribe-subscription
 

13.2.jpgExample:
      a It costs £10 a year to subscribe to the sports centre.
      b I've taken out an annual subscription to the magazine.
1    a We'll ___________ the money between us.
      b Brighton football club was promoted to the frst ___________.   
2    a It's diffcult to stay ___________ in business.
      b He was much faster and I couldn't ___________ with him.
3    a Rod broke his leg in the ___________.   
      b They say the comet is going to ___________ with Saturn.
4    a She set a good ___________ to her younger sister.
      b Their behaviour was ___________.
5    a The first of May is a ___________ holiday.
      b Practically the whole ___________ watched the eclipse.

Now listen and check your answers. Then read the sentences aloud.
 
flag.jpgWrite the words from the box in the correct column according to the vowel sound in the main stressed syllable of their root word. There are three words in each column.
Key.13.6.jpg
 
commercial      
evolution
influential
applicant
accidental
modernity       
speciality
historic
calculation      
financial
decision
magnetic     
symbolic
demonstration
medicinal
 

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