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Unit 14. Dis'organised and ,Recon'sider.

Prefixes and Word Stress (1)

Unit 14; Part A

Some words are made up of a prefx and a root:

Common prefxes include: de-, dis-, il-, re-, un-. Sometimes the root can be used as an independent word (e.g. like), but other roots cannot (e.g. renounce and denounce, but not 'nounce').

Unit 14; Part B

In 14.1.jpgsome words the prefix is unstressed and is only made prominent (see Unit 10) for particular contrast. Compare:
    A: Do you enjoy driving?
    B: No, I really disLIKE it.
    A: I thought you LIKED driving?
    B: No, I really DISlike it.

Words like this are usually shown as having only one (main) stressed syllable:

     dislike /dι'slaιk/

Other words like dislike include:

Other words with these prefixes have secondary stress on the prefix:

    ,decom'pose    ,recon'sider    ,unaf'fected

(See Unit 15C for stress shift in words like these.)

Unit 14; Part C

In words with de- and re- prefixes, the prefix is usually pronounced /dι-/ and /rι-/ if it is unstressed and /di:-/ and /ri:-/ if it has secondary stress. Compare:
       de'grade /di-/    but:  ,decom'pose /di:-/
/rι-/    but:  ,recon'sider /ri:-/

A few words with de- and re- prefxes are usually pronounced with an unstressed /-ι-/ in the prefix when they are used as a verb and a stressed /-i:-/ in the prefix when they are used as a noun.
     Interest is likely to decrease. (/dι'kri:s/)
but:  There has been a decrease (/'di:kri:s/) in interest.

Unit 14; Part D

Some words beginning re- have the same spelling but a different stress and meaning depending on whether re- means 'again' or not. Compare:
/,ri:'кΛv∂/ (= cover again)
/,ri:'kaυnt/ (= count again)
/,ri:'fo:m/ (= form again)
/,ri:'ma:k/ ( = mark again)
/,ri:'so:t/ ( = sort again)
/,ri:'saιn/ (= sign again)          
/rι'kΛv∂/ (= get well)
/rι'kaυnt/ (= describe)
/rι'fo:m/ (= improve)
/rι'zot/ (=  turn to)
/rι'zaιn/ (= give up a job)
Note: When re- means 'again', the words are sometimes spelt with a hyphen, e.g. re-cover, re-count.



flag.jpgComplete the sentences with words from the box in В opposite.Underline the syllable that you think will have the main stress inthese words.
Key.1 unwise    
2 unpack    
3 discourage    
4 illegal

Example: They're going to  replace  most of the workers with machines.
1    It's _________ to forecast the weather too far ahead.
2    I haven't had time to _________ since I got back from holiday.
3    We have to _________ her from working too hard.
4    Parking on a double yellow line is _________.

Now listen and check your answers. Then say the sentences aloud.
flag.jpgWrite the same words from exercise 1 (including the example) in thespaces in these conversations. Again, underline the syllables that youthink will have the main stress in these words.
Key.(Speaker A=Spain)
1 replace    
2 illegal
3 unpack
4 discourage

      A: Would it be a wise investment?
      B: No, I think it would be very  unwise .    
1    A: Did you say you've misplaced your keys?
      B: No, I said I have to __________ them.
2    A: I suppose it's legal to bring alcohol into the country?
      B: No, it's completely __________.
3    A: Did it take long to pack your case?
      B: Ages, but it won't take long to __________ it.
4    A: Did your teacher encourage you to do the maths course?
      B: No, she tried to __________ me from doing it.

Now listen, check your answers and say the В parts aloud.
flag.jpgWrite the verbs from the box in the correct column according to the usual pronunciation of the de- or re- prefix. Some are done for you.
Key./di:-/ debug deregulate destabilise devalue
/dι-/ deflate deform delineate demote descend
/ri:-/ reapply recharge reconsider resit restructure
/rι-/ reflect refresh relapse replace review

debug    deflate    deform    delineate    demote    deregulate    descend    destabilise    devalue    reapply    reflect    recharge   reconsider    refresh   relapse    replace    resit    restructure    review

/di:-/ /dι-/  
/ri:-/ /rι-/ 













Now listen and check your answers. Then say the words aloud.
flag.jpgChoose words from D opposite to complete the pairs of sentences. Usethe same word in each pair. Think about the pronunciation of the wordsyou have written and say the sentences aloud.
Key.(South Africa)
1 a recover /rι'kΛv∂/ ( = get well)    b re-cover /,ri:'kΛv∂/ ( = cover again)
2 a re-sign /,ri:'saιn/ ( = sign again)    b resign /rι'zaιn/ ( = give up a job)
3 a re-count /,ri:'kaunt/ ( = count again)    b recount /rι'kaunt/( = describe)

         a The band hasn't played together for years, but they've said they'll  reform  for the charity concert. (/,ri:'fo:m/ = form again)
         b The government are going to   reform  health care.  (/rι'fo:m/ = improve)
1       a She'd been seriously ill and it took her a long time to ___________.
         b The chair was badly stained, so we had to ___________ it.
2       a He hasn't agreed yet to ___________ for the club for the next baseball season.
         b If working conditions don't improve soon, she's threatening to ___________.
3       a When the phone rang, I forgot how many books I'd already put in the box, so I had
         b He liked to ___________ his wartime experiences to anyone who'd listen.

Now listen and check.
Unit 13      Unit 14     Unit 15 forward.jpg