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Unit 30. An Old Car, a Bottle of Water.

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Leaving out consonant sounds (2): /d/, /h/, /l/, /v/

Unit 30; Part A

Leaving out /d/ in consonant clusters
 
idea.jpgImportant for listening!
When a word with a final consonant cluster ending /d/ is followed by another word beginning with a consonant sound, /d/ is often left out (see also Unit 9)
       An old car.     I changed clothes.    Can you find Mark?

Notice, however that -
  • we don't usually leave out /d/ before vowel sounds or /h/
    30.1.jpgHand it over.    They served apple pie.      She seemed happy
  • we don't usually leave out /d/ before the sounds /l/, /w/, /r/ and /s/
    Do you mind walking? (compare: Do you mind giving me a lift?) 

note.jpgNote: When a word ending with /d/ is followed by a word beginning with /j/ (y), the /d/+ /j/ is usually pronounced /d3/ (as in 'June'). This happens both in consonant clusters and when the word ends with the single consonant sound /d/:
      Had you met before?    I'll lend you one. /<3з/
         /d3/                                     /d3/
 

Unit 30; Part B

Leaving out /h/

 
idea.jpgImportant for listening!
We often leave out /h/ at the beginning of the
  • pronouns he, her, his, him
    I thought he was.     Did you meet her?    Ask him.
  • the auxiliary verbs have, has, had
    The students have all left.     Karen had already left.
  • the question word who
    Can you describe the person who did it?

However, /h/ is not left out if it is stressed or at the beginning of an utterance:

       It's not mine, it's his.    It's him!    Has Ken arrived?    Who did it?
 
 

Unit 30; Part C

Leaving out /l/ after /o:/
 
idea.jpgImportant for listening!
Many speakers leave out /l/ after the vowel /o:/ in words such as:
     almost       already       alright        also        although       always
 
 

Unit 30; Part D

Leaving out /d/ in and and /v/ in of

 
idea.jpgImportant for listening!
Before consonant sounds, and is usually pronounced /∂n/ or /n/ and of is pronounced /∂/:
       red and blue      now and then      a bottle of water      a waste of time

Before vowel sounds, and is usually pronounced /∂n/ or /n/ but of is pronounced /∂v/:
     pen and ink    Adam and Eve    a bag of apples    a can of oil
 
 

 



Exercises

flag.jpgSay these sentences aloud and cross out any letters representing /d/ at the ends of words that you think are likely to be left out.
Key.1    She's world champion.
2    We sailed slowly.
3    She changed clothes.
4    I'll send Lucy.
5    I was pleased with it.
6    She arrived there.
7    Can you hold it?
8    I understand that.
9    We climbed over.
10  It moved towards us.
11  They're second-hand.
12  He turned round.

Example: Hold tight.
1    She's world champion.
2    We sailed slowly.
3    She changed clothes.
4    I'll send Lucy.
5    I was pleased with it.
6    She arrived there.
7    Can you hold it?
8    I understand that.
9    We climbed over.
10  It moved towards us.
11  They're second-hand.
12  He turned round.

Now listen, check your answers and repeat. 
flag.jpgCross the /h/ sounds out if you think they are likely to be left out in fast speech.
Key.1A: He wasn't at home.   
B: No, I think he's on holiday.  
2 A: It says here, the President's coming.    
B: Where?   
A: Here.    
B: I really hope we'll get to see her.
3 A: How's Tom these days?
B: Haven't you heard about his heart attack?
4 A: Kate says she left her handbag here. Have you seen it?
B: This one? But Judy says it's hers.


Example: A: Is that him over there?
                B: Who?
                A: The man who took your bag.
1    A: He wasn't at home.   
      B: No, I think he's on holiday.  
2    A: It says here, the President's coming.    
      B: Where?   
      A: Here.    
      B: I really hope we'll get to see her.
3    A: How's Tom these days?
      B: Haven't you heard about his heart attack?
4    A: Kate says she left her handbag here. Have you seen it?
      B: This one? But Judy says it's hers.

Now listen and check your answers. Then repeat each line of the conversations.
 
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