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Unit 13. Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did).




Unit 13; Part A

galka.jpgStudy this example situation:
13.1.jpg
 

The present perfect (something has happened) is a present tense. It always tells us about the situation now. 'Tom has lost his key' = he doesn't have his key now (see Unit 7).

The past simple
(something happened) tells us only about the past. If somebody says 'Tom lost his key', this doesn't tell us whether he has the key now or not. It tells us only that he lost his key at some time in the past.

Do not use the present perfect if the situation now is different.
Compare:
•    They've gone away. They'll be back on Friday.  (they are away now)
     They went away, but I think they're back at home now.  (not They've gone)
•    It has stopped raining now, so we don't need the umbrella.  (it isn't raining now)
     It stopped raining for a while, but now it's raining again.  (not It has stopped)

Unit 13; Part B

galka.jpgYou can use the present perfect for new or recent happenings:
•   'I've repaired the TV. It's working OK now.'    'Oh, that's good.'
•   Have you heard the news? Sally has won the lottery!


Use the past simple (not the present perfect) for things that are not recent or new:

•   Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
 
   (not has been ... has written)
•   My mother grew up in Scotland. 
(not has grown)

Compare:
•   Did you know that somebody has invented a new type of washing machine?
•   Who invented the telephone?
  (not has invented)

Unit 13; Part C

galka.jpgWe use the present perfect to give new information (see Unit 7). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple:
•   A: Ow! I've burnt myself.
     B: How did you do that?
  (not have you done)
     A: I picked up a hot dish.  (not have picked)
•   A: Look! Somebody has spilt something on the sofa.
     B: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it.
  (not hasn't been ... haven't done)



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. Use the present perfect where possible.
Key.2    has gone   
3    forgot   
4    went   
5    had   
6    has broken

13.2.jpg
flag.jpgPut the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
Key.3    've forgotten / have forgotten
4    arrested   
5    's improved / has improved
6    've finished / have finished
7    applied   
8    was   
9    's been / has been   
10   broke  or  's broken / has broken ... did (that) happen ... fell


1    It   stopped   raining for a while, but now it's raining again.  (stop)
2    The town is very different now. It   has changed   a lot.  (change)
3    I did German at school, but I ________________ most of it now.  (forget)
4    The police ________________ three people, but later they let them go.  (arrest)
5    What do you think of my English? Do you think it ________________?  (improve)
6    A: Are you still reading the paper?
      B: No, I ________________ with it. You can have it.  (finish)
7    I ________________ for a job as a tourist guide, but I wasn't successful. (apply)
8    Where's my bike? It ________________ outside the house, but it's not there now.  (be)
9    Look! There's an ambulance over there. There ________________ an accident.  (be)
10  A: Have you heard about Ben? He ________________ his arm.  (break)
      B: Really? How ________________ that ________________ ?  (happen)
      A: He ________________ off a ladder.  (fall)
flag.jpgAre the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary.
Key.3    did Shakespeare    write   
4    OK       
5    OK       
6    The Chinese invented   
7    were you born       
8    OK       
9    Albert Einstein was ... who developed
  
1    Do you know about Sue? She's given up her job.
2    My mother has grown up in Scotland.
3    How many plays has Shakespeare written?       
4    Ow! I've cut my finger. It's bleeding.       
5    Drugs have become a big problem everywhere.   
6    The Chinese have invented paper.       
7    Where have you been born?       
8    Mary isn't at home. She's gone shopping.       
9    Albert Einstein has been the scientist who
      has developed the theorv of relativity.    
 OK                  
 grew               
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        


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