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Unit 15. Past perfect (I had done).




Unit 15; Part A


15.1.jpgStudy this example situation:
Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too, but they didn't see each other. Paul left the party at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o'clock. So:
When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn't there.
He had gone home.


Had gone
is the past perfect (simple):


I/we/they/you
he/she/it

had
(= I'd etc.)
(= he'd etc.)
gone
seen
finished
etc.
The past perfect simple is had + past participle (gone/seen/finished etc).
Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past:

    Sarah arrived at the party.

This is the starting point of the story. Then, if we want to talk about things that happened before this time, we use the past perfect (had ...):
    When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.

Some more examples:

•    When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
•    Karen didn't want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the film.
    At first I thought I'd done the right thing, but I soon realised that I'd made a big mistake.
    The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before.

     or    ... He had never flown before.

Unit 15; Part B

galka.jpgCompare the present perfect (have seen etc.) and the past perfect (had seen etc.):
15.2.jpg

Unit 15; Part C

Compare the past simple (left, was etc.) and the past perfect (had left, had been etc.):
•     A: Was Tom there when vou arrived?
      B: Yes, but he left soon afterwards.
•     A: Was Tom there when you arrived?
      B: No, he had already left.
•    Kate at home when I phoned.
     She was at her mother's house.
•     Kate had just got home when I phoned.
      She had been at her mother's house.



Exercises

flag.jpgRead the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.
Key.2    It had changed a lot.
3    She'd arranged to do something else. / She had arranged ...
4    The film had already begun.
5    I hadn't seen him for five years.
6    She'd just had breakfast. / She had just had ...


1    You went to Sue's house, but she wasn't there.
      (she / go / out)      She had gone out.     
2    You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before.
      (it / change /a lot) ________________________
3    I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn't come.
      (she/ arrange / to do something else) ________________________
4    You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late.
     (the film / already / begin) ________________________
5    It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time.
     (I / not / see / him for five years) ________________________
6    I offered Sue something to eat, but she wasn't hungry.
     (she / just / have / breakfast) ________________________
flag.jpgFor each situation, write a sentence ending with never... before. Use the verb in brackets.
Key.2    I'd never seen her before. / I had never seen ...
3    He'd never played (tennis) before. / He had never played
4    We'd never been there before. / We had never been ...


1    The man sitting next to you on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
      (fly)     He'd never flown before.                  
2    A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.
      (see)  I _________________________________ before.
3    Sam played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
      (play)  He _________________________________
4    Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.
      (be there)  We _________________________________

flag.jpgUse the sentences on the left to complete the paragraphs on the right. These sentences are in the order in which they happened - so (1) happened before (2), (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence, so sometimes you need the past perfect.
Key.1 called the police
2 there was ... had gone
3 He'd just come back from / He had just come back from He looked
4 got a phone call
   was
   'd sent her / had sent her
   'd never replied to them / had never replied to them

15.3.jpg

flag.jpgPut the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done) or past simple (I did).
Key.2    went
3    had gone
4    broke
5    saw ... had broken ... stopped


1    'Was Paul at the party when you arrived?'   'No, he   had gone  (go) home.'
2    I felt very tired when I got home, so I ____________ (go) straight to bed.
3    The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ____________ (go) to bed.
4    Sorry I'm late. The car ____________ (break) down on my way here.
5    We were driving along the road when we ____________ (see) a car which ____________ (break) down, so we ____________ (stop) to help.


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