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Unit 42. Passive 1 (is done / was done).




Unit 42; Part A

42.1.jpg

When we use an active verb, we say what the subject does:
    My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.
    It's a big company. It employs two hundred people.

When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject:

    This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.
    Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Unit 42; Part B

galka.jpgWhen we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

    A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. 
(somebody stole it, but we don't know who)
    Is this room cleaned every day? 
(does somebody clean it? - it's not important who)

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by ... :

    This house was built by my grandfather.
    Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Unit 42; Part C

galka.jpgThe passive is be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):
      (be) done    (be) cleaned    (be) damaged    (be) built    (be) seen etc.

Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:

 
42.2.jpgPresent simple
active:    clean(s) / see(s) etc.

passive: 
am/is/are + cleaned/seen etc.
    Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
    I'm not often invited to parties.
    How is this word pronounced?


Past simple
42.3.jpgactive:    cleaned/saw etc.
passive:  was/were + cleaned/seen etc.

    We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
    'Did you go to the party?'   'No, I wasn't invited.'
    How much money was stolen in the robbery?



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form, present or past:
Key.2    is made
3    was damaged
4    were invited
5    are shown
6    are held
7    was written ... was translated
8    were overtaken
9    is surrounded

 
cause    damage    hold    invite    make     overtake     show    surround     translate     write
 
1    Many accidents    are caused    by dangerous driving.
2    Cheese _____________ from milk.
3    The roof of the building _____________ in a storm a few days ago.
4    You _____________ to the wedding. Why didn't you go?
5    A cinema is a place where films _____________.
6    In the United States, elections for president _____________ every four years.
7    Originally the book _____________ in Spanish, and a few years ago it _____________ into English.
8    Although we were driving quite fast, we _____________ by a lot of other cars.
9    You can't see the house from the road. It _____________ by trees.
flag.jpgWrite questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.
Key.2    When was television invented?
3    How are mountains formed?
4    When was Pluto discovered?
5    What is silver used for?


1    Ask about glass.  (how / make?)  How is glass made?  
2    Ask about television.  (when / invent?) __________________
3    Ask about mountains.  (how / form?) __________________
4    Ask about Pluto (the planet).  (when / discover?) __________________
5    Ask about silver.  (what/ use for?) __________________
flag.jpg Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive.
Key.3    covers
4    is covered
5    are locked
6    was posted ... arrived
7    sank ... was rescued
8    died ... were brought up
9    grew up
10  was stolen
11  disappeared
12  did Sue resign
13  was Bill sacked
14  is owned
15  called ... was injured ... wasn't needed
16  were these photographs taken ... Did you take
17  'm not bothered / am not bothered


1    It's a big factory. Five hundred people  are employed  (employ) there.
2    Did somebody clean  (somebody / clean) this room yesterday?
3    Water _________________ (cover) most of the earth's surface.
4    How much of the earth's surface _________________ (cover) by water?
5    The park gates _________________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
6    The letter _________________ (post) a week ago and it _________________ (arrive) yesterday.
7    The boat hit a rock and _________________ (sink) quickly. Fortunately everybody _________________ (rescue).
8    Richard's parents _________________ (die) when he was very young. He and his sister _________________ (bring up) by their grandparents.
9    I was born in London, but I _________________ (grow up) in Canada.
10  While I was on holiday, my camera _________________ (steal) from my hotel room.
11  While I was on holiday, my camera _________________ (disappear) from my hotel room.
12  Why _________________ (Sue / resign) from her job? Didn't she enjoy it?
13  Why _________________ (Bill / sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
14  The company is not independent. It _________________ (own) by a much larger company.
15  I saw an accident last night. Somebody _________________ (call) an ambulance but nobody _________________ (injure), so the ambulance _________________ (not / need).
16  Where _________________ (these photographs / take)? In London? _________________ (you / take) them, or somebody else?
17  Sometimes it's quite noisy living here, but it's not a problem for me - I _________________ (not/ bother) by it.
flag.jpgRewrite these sentences. Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence.
Key.2 All flights were cancelled because of fog.
3 This road isn't used much.
4 I was accused of stealing money.
5 How are languages learned/learnt?
6 We were warned not to go out alone.


1    Somebody cleans the room every day.    The room is cleaned every day.    
2    They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ______________________________
3    People don't use this road much.  ______________________________
4    Somebody accused me of stealing money.   I ______________________________
5    How do people learn languages?    How ______________________________
6    Somebody warned us not to go out alone. ______________________________


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