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Unit 48. Reported speech 2.




Unit 48; Part A

galka.jpgIt is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech. If you report something and the situation hasn't changed, you do not need to change the verb to the past:
•   direct        Paul said, 'My new job is very interesting.'
    reported    Paul said that his new job is very interesting.
                    (The situation hasn't changed. His job is still interesting.)
•   direct        Helen said, 'I want to go to New York next year.'
    reported    Helen told me that she wants to go to New York next year.
                    (Helen still wants to go to New York next year.)

You can also change the verb to the past:

•    Paul said that his new job was very interesting.
    Helen told me that she wanted to goto New York next year.

But if you are reporting a finished situation, you must use a past verb:

    Paul left the room suddenly. He said he had to go.  (not has to go)

Unit 48; Part B

galka.jpg
48.1.jpgYou need to use a past form when there is a difference between what was said and what is really true. For example:

You met Sonia a few days ago.

She said: 'Joe is in hospital.'  (direct speech)

Later that day you meet Joe in the street. You say:
'I didn't expect to see you, Joe. Sonia said you were in hospital.'
(not 'Sonia said you are in hospital', because clearly he is not)

Unit 48; Part C

galka.jpgSay and tell
If you say who somebody is talking to, use tell:
•    Sonia told me that you were in hospital.  (not Sonia said me)
•    What did you tell the police?  (not say the police)
TELL SOMEBODY
Otherwise use say:
    Sonia said that you were in hospital.  (not Sonia told that...)
•    What did you say?
 
SAY SOMEBODY
But you can 'say something to somebody':
•    Ann said goodbye to me and left.  (not Ann said me goodbye)
•    What did you say to the police?

Unit 48; Part D

galka.jpgTell / ask somebody to do something
We also use the infinitive (to do / to stay etc.) in reported speech, especially with tell and ask (for orders and requests):
•  direct        'Stay in bed for a few days,' the doctor said to me.
    reported     The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.
•  direct        'Don't shout,' I said to Jim.
    reported    I told Jim not to shout.
  direct        'Please don't tell anybody what happened,' Jackie said to me.
    reported    Jackie asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened.

You can also say
'Somebody said (not) to do something':
•   Jackie said not to tell anyone (but not Jackie said me)



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete the sentences with say or tell (in the correct form). Use only one word each time.
Key.2    Tell
3    Say
4    said
5    told
6    said
7    tell ... said
8    tell ... say
9    told
10  said


1    Ann   said   goodbye to me and left.
2    _______ us about your holiday. Did you have a nice time?
3    Don't just stand there! _______ something!
4    I wonder where Sue is. She _______ she would be here at 8 o'clock.
5    Dan _______ me that he was bored with his job.
6    The doctor _______ that I should rest for at least a week.
7    Don't _______ anybody what I _______. It's a secret just between us.
8    'Did she _______ you what happened?'    'No, she didn't _______ anything to me.'
9    Gary couldn't help me. He _______ me to ask Caroline.
10  Gary couldn't help me. He _______ to ask Caroline.
flag.jpgThe following sentences are direct speech:
Key.2    her to slow down
3    her not to worry
4    asked Tom to give me a hand or   ... to help me
5    asked me to open my bag
6    asked him to get a newspaper
7    told him to mind his own business
8    asked her to marry him
9    told her not to wait (for me) if I was late

48.3.jpg
Now choose one of these to complete each of the sentences below. Use reported speech.
1    Bill was taking a long time to get ready, so I   told him to hurry up   
2    Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked ___________________
3    Sue was nervous about the situation. I told ___________________
4    I couldn't move the piano alone, so I ___________________
5    The customs officer looked at me suspiciously and ___________________
6    Tom was going to the shop, so I ___________________
7    The man started asking me personal questions, so I ___________________
8    John was very much in love with Mary, so he ___________________
9    I didn't want to delay Helen, so I ___________________


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