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Unit 51. Auxiliary verbs (have / do / can etc.) I think so / I hope so etc.




Unit 51; Part A

galka.jpgIn each of these sentences there is an auxiliary verb and a main verb:

I
She
The hotel
Where
have
can't
was
do
you
lost
come
built
live?
my keys.
to the party.
ten years ago.


In these examples have/can't/was/do are auxiliary (= helping) verbs.
You can use an auxiliary verb when you don't want to repeat something:

    'Have you locked the door?'    'Yes, I have.'  (= I have locked the door)
    George wasn't working, but Janet was (= Janet was working)
    She could lend me the money, but she won't.  (= she won't lend me the money)

Use do/does/did for the present and past simple:

    'Do you like onions?'    'Yes, I do.'  (= I like onions)
    'Does Simon live in London?'    'He did, but
he
doesn't any more.'

You can use auxiliary verbs to deny what somebody says (= say it is not true):

    'You're sitting in my place.'    'No, I'm not.'  (= I'm not sitting in your place)
    'You didn't lock the door before you left.'    'Yes, I did.' 
(= I locked the door)

Unit 51; Part B

galka.jpgWe use have you? / isn't she? / do they? etc. to show interest in what somebody has said or to show surprise:

    'I've just seen Simon.'    'Oh, have you? How is he?' 
    'Liz isn't very well today.'    'Oh, isn't she? What's wrong with her?'
    'It rained every day during our holiday.'    'Did it? What a pity!'
    'Jim and Nora are getting married.'    'Are they? Really?'

Unit 51; Part C

galka.jpgWe use auxiliary verbs with so and neither:

    'I'm feeling tired.'    'So am I.
(= I'm feeling tired too)
    'I never read newspapers.'    'Neither do I.' 
(= I never read newspapers either)
    Sue hasn't got a car and neither has Martin.


Note the word order after so and neither (verb before subject):

    I passed the exam and so did Paul (not so Paul did)

Instead of neither, you can use nor. You can also use not ... either:

    'I don't know.'    'Neither do I.' or 'Nor do I.'  or 'I don't either."

Unit 51; Part D

galka.jpgI think so / I hope so etc.
After some verbs you can use so when you don't want to repeat something:

    'Are those people English?'    'I think so. (= I think they are English)
    'Will you be at home this evening?'    'I expect so. (= I expect I'll be at home ...)
    'Do you think Kate has been invited to the part)?'    'I suppose so.'

In the same way we say: I hope so, I guess so and I'm afraid so.

The usual negative forms are:
I think so / I expect so
I hope so / I'm afraid so /I guess so
I suppose so

→     I don't think so / I don't expect so
→     I hope not / I'm afraid not / I guess not
→     I don't suppose so
or I suppose not


    'Is that woman American?'    'I think so. / I don't think so.'
    'Do you think it will rain?'    'I hope so. / I hope not.' 
(not I don't hope so)



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete each sentence with an auxiliary verb (do/was/could etc.). Sometimes the verb must be negative (don't/wasn't etc.).
Key.2  doesn't   
3  was   
4  will   
5  am ... isn't    or    'm not ... is
6  should   
7  won't   
8  do   
9 could   
10 would ... could ... can't 


1    I wasn't tired, but my friends  were .
2    I like hot weather, but Ann _______.
3    Is Colin here?'    'He _______ five minutes ago, but I think he's gone home now.'
4    Liz said she might phone later this evening, but I don't think she _______.
5    'Are you and Chris coming to the party?' I _______, but Chris _______.'
6    I don't know whether to apply for the job or not. Do you think I _______?
7    'Please don't tell anybody what I said.'   'Don't worry. I _______.'
8    'You never listen to me.'    'Yes. I _______!'
9    'Can you play a musical instrument?'    'No, but I wish I _______.'
10  'Please help me.'    'I'm sorry. I _______ if I _______, but I _______.'
flag.jpgIn these conversations, you are B. Read the information in brackets and then answer with I think so, I hope not etc.
Key.2  I hope so.
3  I expect so.
4  I don't think so.
5  I'm afraid not.
6  I'm afraid so.
7  I suppose so.
8  I hope not.
9  I think so.
 

1    (You don't like rain.)
      A: Do you think it will rain?    B: (hope)  I hope not.   
2    (You need more money quickly.I
      A: Do you think you'll get a pay rise soon?    B: (hope) ______________
3    (You think Diane will probably get the job that she applied for.)
      A: Do you think Diane will get the job?    B: (expect) ______________
4    (You're not sure whether Barbara is married - probably not.)
      A: Is Barbara married?    B: (think) ______________
5    (You are the receptionist at a hotel. The hotel is full.)
      A: Have you got a room for tonight?    B: (afraid)  ______________
6    (You're at a party. You have to leave early.)
      A: Do you have to leave already?    B: (afraid) ______________
7    (Ann normally works every day, Monday to Friday. Tomorrow is Wednesday.)
      A: Is Ann working tomorrow?    B: (suppose) ______________
8    (You are going to a party. You can't stand John.)
      A: Do you think John will be at the party?    B: (hope) ______________
9    (You're not sure what time the concert is - probably 7.30.)
      A: Is the concert at 7.30?    B: (think) ______________


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