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Unit 60. Preposition (in / for / about etc.) + -ing




Unit 59; Part A

galka.jpgIf a preposition (in/for/about etc.) is followed by a verb, the verb ends in -ing:


Are you interested
I'm not very good
Sue must be fed up
What are the advantages
Thanks very much
How
Why don't you go out
Carol went to work
preposition
in
at
with
of
for
about
instead of
in spite of

verb (-ing)
working
learning
studying.
having
inviting
meeting
sitting
feeling

for us?
languages.

a car?
me to your party.
for lunch tomorrow?
at home all the time?
ill.
           
You can also say 'instead of somebody doing something', 'fed up with people doing something' etc. :

    I'm fed up with people telling me what to do.

Unit 59; Part B

galka.jpgNote the use of the following prepositions + -ing:
before -ing and after -ing:


    Before going out, I phoned Sarah.  (not Before to go out)
    What did you do after leaving school?


You can also say 'Before I went out ...' and '... after you left school'.
by -ing
(to say how something happens):
    The burglars got into the house by breaking a window and climbing in.
    You can improve your English by reading more.
    She made herself ill by not eating properly.
    Many accidents are caused by people driving too fast.

without -ing:

    We ran ten kilometres without stopping.
    It was a stupid thing to say. I said it without thinking.
    She needs to work without people disturbing her. 
(or ... without being disturbed.)
    I have enough problems of my own without having to worry about yours.

Unit 59; Part C

galka.jpgTo -ing (look forward to doing something etc.)
To is often part of the infinitive (to do / to see etc.):
    We decided to go out.
    Would you like to meet for lunch tomorrow?

But to is also a preposition
(like in/for/about/from etc.). For example:
    We drove from London to Edinburgh.
    I prefer tea to coffee.
    Are you looking forward to the weekend?


If a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb ends in -ing:

       in doing    about meeting    without stopping (etc.)

So, when to is a preposition and it is followed by a verb, you must say to -ing:

    I prefer driving to travelling by train.  (not to travel)
    Are you looking forward to going on holiday?
  (not looking forward to go)



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first.
Key.2    applying for the job
3    remembering names
4    passing the exam
5    being late
6    eating at home, we went to a restaurant
7    having to queue    or   queuing
8    playing well


1    Why is it useful ro have a car?
      What are the advantages of    having car   ?
2    I don't intend to apply for the job.
      I have no intention of ________________.
3    Helen has a good memory for names.
      Helen is good at ________________.
4    Mark won't pass the exam. He has no chance.
      Mark has no chance of ________________.
5    Did you get into trouble because you were late?
      Did you get into trouble for ________________?
6    We didn't eat at home. We went to a restaurant instead.
      Instead of ________________.
7    We got into the exhibition. We didn't have to queue.
      We got into the exhibition without ________________.
8    Our team played well, but we lost the game.
      Our team lost the game despite ________________.
flag.jpg Complete the sentences using by -ing. Use the following (with the verb in the correct form):
Key.2    by standing on a chair
3    by turning a key
4    by borrowing too much money
5    by driving too fast
6    by putting some pictures on the walls
 
borrow too much money             break a window           drive too fast
put some pictures on the walls    stand on a chair          turn a key
 
1    The burglars got into the house     by breaking a window    .
2    I was able to reach the top shelf _________________________.
5    You start the engine of a car _________________________.
4    Kevin got himself into financial trouble _________________________.
5    You can put people's lives in danger _________________________.
6    We made the room look nicer _________________________.
flag.jpgComplete the sentences with a suitable word. Use only one word each time.
Key.2    paying/settling
3    going
4    using
5    going
6    being/travelling/sitting
7    asking/telling/consulting
8    doing/having
9    turning/going
10  taking


1    We ran ten kilometres without    stopping    .
2    He left the hotel without ______________ his bill.
3    It's a nice morning. How about ______________ for a walk?
4    We were able to translate the letter into English without ______________ a dictionary.
5    Before ______________ to bed, I like to have a hot drink.
6    It was a long journey. I was very tired after ______________ on a train for 36 hours.
7    I was annoyed because the decision was made without anybody ______________ me.
8    After ______________ the same job for ten-years, I felt I needed a change.
9    We lost our way because we went straight on instead of ______________ left.
10  I like these photographs you took. You're good at ______________ photographs.
flag.jpgFor each situation, write a sentence with I'm (not) looking forward to.
Key.2    I'm looking forward to seeing her/Diane.
3    I'm not looking forward to going to the dentist (tomorrow).
4    She's looking forward to leaving school (next summer).
5    I'm looking forward to playing tennis (tomorrow).


1    You are going on holiday next week. How do you feel?
      I'm looking forward to going on holiday.   
2    Diane is a good friend of yours and she is coming to visit you soon. So you will see her again soon. How do you feel? 
      I'm not ________________________________.
3    You are going to the dentist tomorrow. You don't enjoy going to the dentist. How do you feel?
      I'm not ________________________________.
4    Carol is a student at school. She hates it, but she is leaving school next summer. How does she feel?  
      ________________________________.           
5    You've arranged to play tennis tomorrow. You like tennis a lot. How do you feel?
      ________________________________.


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