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Unit 105. Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.)




Unit 105; Part A


galka.jpgStudy these examples:
How shall we travel? By car or by train?
       Let's go by car. It's cheaper.
       Don't go by train. It's more expensive.


Cheaper
and more expensive are comparative forms.

After comparatives you can use than (see Unit 107):
    •   It's cheaper to go by car than by train.
    •   Going by train is more expensive than going by car.

Unit 105; Part B

galka.jpgThe comparative form is -er or more ....

We use -er for short words (one syllable):
cheapcheaper       fastfaster
largelarger          thinthinner


We use more ... for longer words (two syllables or more):
more serious          more often
more expensive      more comfortable

We also use -er for two-syllable words that end in -y (-y  ier):
luckyluckier    earlyearlier
easyeasier      prettyprettier

We also use more ... for adverbs that end in -ly:
more slowly     more seriously
more quietly    more carefully


Compare these examples:

    •   You're older than me.
    •   The exam was fairly easy - easier than I expected.
    •   Can you walk a bit faster?
    •   I'd like to have a bigger car.
    •   Last night I went to bed earlier than usual.

    •   You're more patient than me.
    •   The exam was quite difficult - more difficult than I expected.
    •   Can you walk a bit more slowly?
    •   I'd like to have a more reliable car.
    •   I don't play tennis much these days. I used to play more often.


You can use -er or more ... with some two-syllable adjectives, especially:

        clever    narrow    quiet    shallow    simple
    •   It's too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter / more quiet?

Unit 105; Part C


galka.jpgA few adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms:

good / wellbetter
    •   The garden looks better since you tidied it up.
    •   I know him well - probably better than anybody else knows him.

bad / badlyworse:
    •   'How is your headache? Better?'    'No, it's worse."
    •   He did very badly in the exam - worse than expected.

farfurther (or farther):
    •   It's a long walk from here to the park - further than I thought.  (or farther than)
Further (but not farther) can also mean 'more' or 'additional':
    •   Let me know if you hear any further news.  (= any more news)



Exercises

flag.jpgComplete the sentences using a comparative form (older / more important etc.).
Key.2    stronger
3    smaller
4    more expensive
5    warmer/hotter
6    more interesting / more exciting
7    nearer
8    more difficult / more complicated
9    better
10  worse
11  longer
12  more quietly
13  more often
14  further/farther
15  happier / more cheerful


1    It's too noisy here. Can we go somewhere    quieter    ?
2    This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit _____________________.
3    The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be _____________________.
4    The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be _____________________.
5    The weather is too cold here. I'd like to live somewhere _____________________.
6    My job is a bit boring sometimes. I'd like to do something _____________________.
7    It's a pity you live so far away. I wish you lived _____________________.
8    I was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I thought it would be _____________________.
9    Your work isn't very good. I'm sure you can do _____________________.
10  Don't worry. The situation isn't so bad. It could be _____________________.
11  I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the journey to take _____________________.
12  You're talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit _____________________?
13  You hardly ever phone me. Why don't you phone me _____________________?
14  You're standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit _____________________ away?
15  You were a bit depressed yesterday, but you look _____________________ today.

flag.jpgComplete the sentences. Each time use the comparative form of one of the words in the box. Use than where necessary.
Key.3    more serious than
4    thinner
5    bigger
6    more interested
7    more important than
8    simpler / more simple
9    more crowded than
10  more peaceful than
11  more easily
12  higher than
 
big               crowded      early        easily        high         important
interested     peaceful      reliable     serious      simple     thin
 
1    I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed     earlier    usual.
2    I'd like to have a    more reliable    car. The one I've got keeps breaking down.
3    Unfortunately her illness was _______________ we thought at first.
4    You look _______________. Have you lost weight?
5    I want a _______________ flat. We don't have enough space here.
6    He doesn't study very hard. He's _______________ in having a good time.
7    Health and happiness are _______________ money.
8    The instructions were very complicated. They could have been _______________.
9    There were a lot of people on the bus. It was _______________ usual.
10  I like living in the countryside. It's _______________ living in a town.
11  You'll find your way around the town _______________ if you have a good map.
12  In some parts of the country, prices are _______________ in others.

flag.jpgRead the situations and complete the sentences. Use a comparative form (-er or more ...).
Key.2    It takes longer by train than by car.
3    I ran further/farther than Dave.
4    Joe did worse than Chris (in the rest).
5    My friends arrived earlier than I expected.
6    The buses run more often than the trains.    or   The buses run more frequently than ...    or   The buses are more frequent than ...
7   We were busier than usual (at work today).    or    We were busier at work today than usual.


1    Yesterday the temperature was six degrees. Today it's only three degrees.
      It's    colder today than it was yesterday  .   
2    The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.
      It takes _______________________________.
3    Dave and I went for a run. I ran ten kilometres. Dave stopped after eight kilometres.
      I ran __________________________________.
4    Chris and Joe both did badly in the test. Chris got 30%, but Joe only got 25%.
      Joe did ________________________________.
5    I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o'clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30.
      My friends _____________________________.
6    You can go by bus or by train. The buses run every 30 minutes. The trains run every hour.
      The buses _____________________________.
7    We were very busy at work today. We're not usually as busy as that.
      We ____________________________________.


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