British Educational System
British Educational System
Education is compulsory from 5 to 16.
The academic year usually begins in September and runs to early July; it has 3 terms, divided by the Christmas and Easteк holidays. In addition, all schools have a half-term holiday lasting a few days or a week, in the middle of each term.
Compulsory education is free of charge, but parents may spend money on educating their children if they want to.
There are three stages of education. Children move from the first stage (primary) to the second stage (secondary) at around the age of 11 or 12. The third stage is "further" education at university or college.
In 1988, for the first time in British history, a National Curriculum was introduced. The National Curriculum tells pupils which subjects they have to study, what they must learn and when they have to take assessment tests.
At the age of 5 children go to infant school which is the first stage of primary education. From 7 to И they attend junior schools, the second stage of primary education. In primary school children arc taught the so-called 3R's: reading, writing and arithmetic.
At the age of 11 children enter the secondary school. There are three types of state secondary schools in Britain. They are: grammar schools (for the most intelligent children), modern schools (for the less intelligent children) and comprehensive schools (for children of all abilities). Grammar schools lead towards higher education, and the others give general or vocational education to prepare students for employment or for further technical education. The regular secondary schools offer 7 years of schooling, with students from 11 to 18 years of age. The last two years (16-18) may be spent in a separate sixth-form college, which concentrates on career training.
Between the ages of 14 and 16 pupils study for their GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) exams. Pupils must take English Language, Maths and Science for GCSE, as well as half GCSE in a foreign language and Technology. In addition, they must also be taught Physical Education, Religious Education and Sex Education, although they do not take exams in these subjects.
Those who get good GCSE grades can stay at their school for another two years if it has a sixth form and teaches the desired subjects, and then take A-level (Advanced Level) exams. Otherwise they have to leave their school and go to a sixth-form college or college of further education. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry and offer courses in engineering. cooking or hairdressing.
The GCE A-level is normally taken after a further two years of study. Good A-level results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. Universities choose their students after interviews. There are about 100 universities in Britain. The most famous of them are Oxford and Cambridge Universities.
About seven per cent of students go to private schools, where parents have to pay for their children. The most expensive private schools are called public schools. Most of these are singlc-sex boarding schools and students can live there during term time.
|feature — черта
educational system — система
образования compulsory — обязательный
term — триместр
in addition — к тому же, в дополнение
to last — длиться
free of charge — бесплатный
primary — начальный
secondary — средний
further education — дальнейшее образование
national curriculum — национальный, государственный учебный план
assessment test — тест проверки знании
infant school — школа для малышей (младшая начальная школа для детей от 5да7лет)
junior school — начальная школа (для детей от 7 до 11 лет)
to attend — посещать
state — государственный
intelligent — умный, способный
grammar school — классическая школа (имеет академическую направленность)
modern school — современная школа (имеет практическую направоленность)
|comprehensive school — единая средняя (общеобразовательная) школа
ability — способность
to lead — вести
higher education — высшее образование
vocational — профессиональный
to prepare — готовить
employment — работа
separate — отдельный
career training — профессиональное обучение
although — хотя
grade — отметка
desired subjects — требуемые, необходимые предметы
advanced level — продвинутый, повышенный уровень
otherwise — иначе, в противном случае
ties — связи
engineering — техника
cooking — кулинария
hairdressing — парикмахерское дело
at least — по крайней мере, по меньшей мере
private school — частная школа
expensive — дорогой
single-sex — предназначенный для одного пола
boarding school — школа-интернат
term time — триместр, учебный период
1. At what age do children start school in Britain?
2. Is secondary education compulsory for all children?
3. What types of school are there in Britain?
4. What types of schools does primary school include?
5. How long does a pupil learn at primary school?
6. What kind of school is a comprehensive school?
7. How long does a pupil learn at secondary school?
8. When do pupils graduate from school?
9. What can they do after leaving secondary school? Can they continue their education?
10. What type of education is there after school?
11. What schools are called "public schools"?