ГДЗ Биболетова М. З. 11 класс "Enjoy English"
Часть 1. С чем сталкиваются молодые люди в обществе сегодня?
Раздел 1. Мировые языки: локальные или глобальные? 3Прочитай стихотворение. Выбери фразу, которая лучше всего подходила бы в качестве заголовка. The strange features of English 5Найди примеры фразовых глаголов в последней части стихотворения.Соотнести фразовые глаголы с определениями. a) burn up — to destroy abuilding or something large with fire, or be destroyed in this way; b)burn down — if it happens to an object, fire completely destroys it; c)fill in — to put something into a gap so that the gap no longer exists;to add information such as your name or address in the empty spaces ofan official document; d) fill out — to add information such as your nameor address in the empty spaces of an official document. 11Прочитай определение в словаре слова "borrowing" («заимствование») исоотнеси слова со странами, из языка которых они были заимствованы.bistro — French; feng shui — Chinese; graffiti — Italian; kangaroo —Australian Aboriginal; karaoke — Japanese; pyjamas — Indian; sauna —Finnish; scholarship — German; sofa — Arabic; zebra — African; troika —Russian. 14Посмотри на карту мира и покажи, в каких странах говорят на этих языках.Испания; Китай; Франция; Дания; Венгрия; Финляндия; Польша; Россия;Италия. 15Прочитай текст об этих видах языков и найди два имени, которые являютсяком-бинациями русского и английского языков. Объясни, как они возникли.Runglish = Russian + English Russlish = Russian + English 16Прочитай текст еще раз и скажи, со-ответствуют ли следующие высказываниятексту. Исправь неверные предложения. 1. Т; 2. F; The names of theselanguages look similar but they are actually quite different. 3. T; 4.F; Although less widespread than other variants, Runglish is spoken in anumber of English- Russian communities. 5. T; 6. T. 18Заполни пропуски словами в нужной форме. 1. In this school we studylanguages that are less traditional in Russia. 2. If I want to enter theuniversity I must get an excellent mark on the exam. 3. The new methodof learning English is very interesting, but I don't think for everyone.I think that the usage of this language is very effective. 5. She is avery responsible person. She will do the task in time. 6. He isextremely ambitious. He wants to learn several languages and become adiplomat. 7. His English is perfect. Some people think he is a nativeEnglish speaker. 25Заполни пропуски определенным артиклем "the" там, где это необходимо.Найти упомянутые страны на карте мира. На каких языках говорят в этихстранах? 1. The United State of America is located in the North Americabetween Canada and Mexico. The official language of the USA is English.2. China is the world's largest country. The Chinese language is one ofthe most difficult for Europeans to learn. 3. Croatia lies on thenortheast of Adriatic, it borders with Slovenia, Bosnia and Serbia. 4.Cyprus lies in the Mediterranean, 71 km south of Turkey. Most people inCyprus speak Greek and English. 5. The United Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and NorthernIreland. Its population is about 60,000,000 people. 6. New Zealand is acountry in the Pacific Ocean southeast of Australia. About 10% of thepopulation are Maori people who lived there before Europeans came. Thelanguage they speak is Maori. 28Прочитайте правила и назовите примеры из текста выше. Passive: be + Vsexample
Present simple am/is/are + V3 is written
Present conti-nuousam/is/are being + V3 are being written
Past simple was/were + V3 werewritten
Past continuous was/were being + V3 was being written
Futuresimple will be + V3 will be written
Present perfect have/has been + V3has been written
Past perfect had been + V3 had been written
Futureperfect will have been + V3 will have been written
Modals + infi-nitiveshould/can/... + be + V3 can be written
Modals + perfect infinitiveshould/can/... + have been + V3 should have been written 29Заполни пропуски в предложениях правильной формой страдательного залога.1. During the last lesson students were exposed to some authenticlanguage 2. At the moment the intensive language courses are beingorganized. 3. A new French textbook has been written recently. 4. Somepeople think that soon a simplified version of English will be used bymany people. 5. They said that the book had been translated from Germanin 1989. 6. By June 2015 our language research will have been completed.7. This article was being discussed when he arrived at the meeting. 8.The essay should be finished yesterday. 30Используя правильную форму слова в скобках, заполни пропуски в тексте."English English" is a term that is applied to the English language thatis spoken in England. In English-speaking countries outside the ls\ theterm "British English" is more frequently used. However, the term"English English" was introduced some time ago by Peter Trudgill inLanguage in the British Isles. This term is now generally recognized inacademic writing. The term "British English", however, has a widermeaning, and is usually reserved to describe the features common toEnglish English, Welsh English, Hiberno-English, and Scottish English. Alot of people are always interested in the different accents anddialects that exist in Britain. That's why The English DialectDictionary that has been completed by Joseph Wright, is now extremelyvaluable. But the diversity of accents within the nation is still beingstudied by linguists. Dialect research papers are often sold forhundreds of pounds. People tend to be very proud of their local accentor dialect. 34Прочитай определения и соотнеси их со словами. 1. Dialect — a way ofspeaking a language that is used only in a particular area or by aparticular group of people; 2. Accent — a way of saying words that showswhat country, region, or social class someone comes from; 3. Jargon —special words and phrases that are only understood by people who do thesame kind of work. 40Прочитайте текст и добавьте к вашему списку еще причины, по которым выизучаете английский язык. Поделитесь своим списком с другими учениками.Learning a second language is beneficial to all. Learning to speakforeign languages may be the best thing you can do to improve your lifeand open new doors. First of all, you get access to knowledge. What areyou interested in? Is it science? Music? Computers? Health? Business?Sports? Today's media, such as the internet, television, and the press,give you almost unlimited access to knowledge about your favoritesubjects. After all, we live in the information age, don't we? There'sonly one problem. Most of this knowledge is in a. foreign language. Ifyou can communicate in other languages, you can: Contact people from allover the world. Talk about your ideas and opinions on internetdiscussion groups. Send e-mail to interesting people. Learn about theirlife and culture. Travel more easily. Communicate with people whereveryou go. Ask directions, have a conversation, or... ask for help. Whoknows, may be a foreign language will save your life someday! Languagecompetence in a second language increases your job opportunities, andpushes your career forward. If you want a good job in business,technology, or science, get out of that armchair and start learninglanguages now! Knowing a foreign language will let you: Put "excellentknowledge of English or French" on your CV. Get your dream job, earnmore money and create your future. Gain technical knowledge. If you'regoing to read about technology, computer science, genetics or medicine,you'll probably have to do it in a foreign language. So you willunderstand your subject area even better and become a solid employee.Foreign languages let you experience the culture of the world. You cando wonderful things, such as watch films in their original form. Onceyou try it this way, you'll never go back to dubbed versions! You canalso read great books. There are an amazing number of titles — fromclassic plays like Hamlet to modern love stories like A Knight inShining Armor and modern thrillers like Jurassic Park. And what aboutenjoying music more? Beli-eve us, music is much better if you canunderstand the words. Learning languages is not only useful, but it alsogives you a lot of satisfaction. Making progress feels great. You'llnever forget the moment you discover you can speak with foreigners orwatch a TV programme in another language. Languages make you a morepowerful, happier person. It is not difficult to imagine some of thesituations where knowing a foreign language would give you a greatfeeling.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Какое слово не используется со словом "language"? Вычеркни его. a)bilingual; b) fence. Соедини слова, чтобы образовать устойчивоесловосочетание. tongue twister, language skills. 2Соедини предложения, Michael has been learning a foreign language fortwo years but he can't speak fluently yet. Stuart started learningFrench when he got interested in the fashion Europeans believe thathieroglyphic writing is the most difficult thing about learning Chinese.Millions of young people throughout the world learn languages forbusiness and academic purposes. Katy is not a particularly diligentstudent but she's gained proficiency in three foreign languages 44. Выбери правильное слово. 1. are; 2. comes; 3. were; 4. fit; 5. is; 6. was. 11Соотнеси противоречащие идеи. Подчерки союзы. 1. Europeans usually thinkthat the most difficult thing about learning Chinese is hieroglyphicwriting, c) However, speaking that language is extremely challenging fora foreigner too. 2. There are lots of electronic devices nowadays whichhelp translate foreign speech, e) Nevertheless, the number of peoplelearning languages is increasing. 3. Even though the idea of simplifyingEnglish is popular with students a) most English teachers don't take itseriously. 4. Some students find English spelling very chal-lenging, g)but others think it's pronunciation that causes more problems. 5. Onthe one hand immersion courses are very good for breaking languagebarriers, f) On the other hand, they are usually quite expensive and tooshort and don't meet the expected standards. 6. Though computer-basedlearning is increasing in popularity, b) it's not used efficiently forlearning languages. 7. Some people think that kids usually learnlanguages more quickly and easily than adult students, d) In contrast,there is an opinion that adults are more motivated and can learn betteras they know what learning strategies work better. 12а) Соотнеси мнения и аргументы. А — argument 2; В — argument 1; С —argument 3. b) Напиши эссе на тему "The best way to learn English It iswidely believed that learning of a foreign language is something rathersimple. We can see a lot of advertisement that offer quick courses offoreign languages after finishing of which you would speak fluently anylanguage you wish. If it is true, why then so humble number of peoplecan really speak foreign languages? From my point of view the onlymethod of studying foreign language is not connected with modern methodssuch as internet communication or immersion courses. It correlates withthe traditional way of learning foreign languages. I mean with ateacher. If you have a good teacher and a good textbook, the only thingyou need then is your desire to learn the language that is yourmotivation. Of course there may be found several arguments against it.First of all it is the same number of people who have the real abilityto speak foreign languages that I have already mentioned. We all startstudying English at school but can hardly speak English after finishing.The point is that at school there is not much motivation among pupils,but when adults start studying English they make much progress as theyunderstand clearly the reason why they should study it. So I believethat the best way of studying English or the other foreign language is atraditional one; But the key point in this methodology is played by thestudents' motivation. You should really want to learn a foreignlanguage because only then you could do it.
Раздел 2. Жизнь в глобальной деревне 47Заполни таблицу в рабочей тетради.
48Заполни пропуски в предложениях под-ходящим словом. 1. increased; 2.falling; 3. deteriorated; 4. rising; 5. decreased; 6. developed; 7.growing; 8. improve; 9. lessen; 10. strengthening. 50Прочитайте текст. Было ли ваше объ-яснение близко, к объяснению втексте? Globalization Globalization refers to the idea that the world isdeveloping a single economy and culture as a result of improvedtechnology and communications and the influence of very largemultinational companies. The world is seen as a global village in whichall countries depend on each other and seem to be closer together. Thereare many arguments surrounding the phenomenon of globalization andthey're all quite controversial. Opponents of globalization oranti-globalists say that it exploits workers and degrades theenvironment. They say that, as multinational corporations become morepowerful, they become less accountable for their actions. And there'sincreasing concern that multinational (mainly American) companies arecrushing the cultures of smaller nations. But supporters ofglobalization, or globalists, argue that world trade makes everyonericher. They say that, as more countries make trade deals with oneanother, international understanding increases, therefore lesseningconflict and improving human rights. 51Прочитай текст снова и догадайся о значениях следующих слов. 1.controversial — a) a point that people disagree on; 2. degrade — a)spoil; 3. accountable — a) in a position where people have the right tocriticize you or ask you why something happened; 4. concern — a) afeeling of worry about something; 5. crush — b) completely defeatsomeone. 53Прочитайте пример глобализации и от-ветьте, были ли ваши догадкиверными. Что изменилось? The popularity of western music has spread allover the world. Pop music developed into a global industry in the secondhalf of the 20th century. It started with Elvis Presley and theBeatles, who could be called the word's first rock stars. Thesemusicians created a new era, allowing other singers to becomeinternationally famous. Rock'n'roll was spreading throughout thecontinents when a small group in the north-west of England appeared. Atthat time, the group was playing in small halls in Liverpool. Theydecided to change their name from the Quarrymen to the Beatles and inthe following eight years, they sold millions of copies all over theworld and became as popular as Elvis. Both music professionals and fansagree that Elvis Presley and the Beatles are the most valuable phenomenato have entered the pop music world of the 20th century. They started anew era that then created a new global industry. But pop music changesquickly. It is sometimes difficult to understand why a group or a singeris successful and why the public buys their music. For this reason, theindustry is constantly changing. 54Выполни задания. Посчитай число пра-вильных ответов. 1. Прочитай текст ивыбери несколько глаголов. Соотнеси глаголы со временем. Present simple— agree, changes; Present continuous — is changing; Past simple —developed, created; Past perfect — ...; Past continuous — was playing;Present perfect — has spread. 2. Какие из этих предложений описываютвременную ситуацию? А какие — постоянную? a) permanent (постоянная); b)temporary (временная); a) permanent (постоянная); b) temporary(временная). 3. Поставь глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. a) Do you likethis kind of music? b) What do you think about this song? c) What areyou thinking about? You look worried. d) My son is naughty. e) My sonhas been naughty these days. It is so untypical of him. f) I do not knowanything about this band. g) He does not have a MP3 player. h) He ishaving a talk with the manager. He can't see you right now. 4. Выбериправильные предложения. a) The Beatles have sold millions of recordsover a period of eight years. a) She has worked in show business foreight years and she likes it. 5. Выбери правильный вариант, чтобызакончить предложение. a) They had worked together for several years...before they became successful. b) They have worked together for severalyears... but they still don't get on well. 56Прочитай тескт о другом мировом из- всетном человеке и заполни пропускинеоб-ходимой формой глагола. Dmitri Hvorostovsky is one of the mostfamous singers in the world. He often takes part in performances indifferent countries and always becomes the centre of attraction. Somefans call him the "Elvis of opera". When Hvorostovsky heard about this,he thought it was a huge compliment since to him, Elvis had been a kindof revolutionary. Hvorostovsky was born in Krasnoyarsk in Siberia —there he studied at school, and for some time had been the singer in arock band where he had been laying heavy metal. After Hvorostovsky wonseveral professional contests in Russia, Irina Arkhipova encouraged himto take part in the Cardiff Singer of the World competition in 1989. Hewon it and his world career launched. His manner of singing is verylyrical and it is sometimes called "old school". He works with theatresand singers all around the world. Some years ago he recorded an albumwith Olga Borodina. Now Hvorostovsky has a house in London and speaksgood English. He works a lot and tries to have a healthy way of life. Heconfessed that he had given upsmoking and had stopped drinking alcoholmany years ago. He knew this would help him perform his best in hisprofession. 60Раздели слова в рамке на две колонки. Заполни таблицу в рабочей тетради.за - to approve of something, to be in favour of something, to be positive towards something, to support something
против - to be against something, to be negative towards something, to disapprove of something, to oppose something 61Заполни пропуски в предложениях словами и выражениями из упр. 60. 1.When I decided to enter the technical university, my parents approved ofmy choice. 2. I strongly disapprove of this plan. It won't work. 3. Thegovernment was against the new plan of city reconstruction. It was notrealistic. 4. Anti-globalists support multinational corporations. 5.Anti-globalists oppose the international institutions, such as the WorldBank, the International Olympic Committee. 6. Those are positivetowards our new plan, please raise your hands. The school administrationis negative towards the idea of creating a school council. 7.Globalists are in favour of the ideas of close cooperation throughoutthe world. 68Прочитайте текст и проверьте свои догадки. Who lives in Britain? Britainis a country where people of different nationalities have beenhistorically mixed. Several thousands years ago people travelled frommany different parts of the world to live in Europe and Great Britain.In fact, every person in Britain has origins from another country. Theofficial count in 2001 showed that Britain's population consisted of thefollowing different races and nationalities. Here are some of thefigures. Thousands of years ago Britain was invaded by differentcountries, races and nationalities including the Romans, the Saxons, theNormans, the Vikings. And so today many people actually descend fromthem. Even then, invaders brought slaves. In the 3rd century AD Romeused black soldiers to guard Hadrian's wall. In the 20^ century Britainsuffered much during the Second World War and people from other parts ofthe world were invited to help rebuild the country. Many of them werefrom different countries belonging to the British Empire. The first shipcame from West Indies in 1948. It was called the Empire Windrush and ithad hundreds of people on board. Later people continued to arrive andstay in Britain. As a result of these events, Britain has become acountry where different nationalities, cultures and religions are mixed.This mixture has influenced all spheres of life, including thecountry's literature, music, art, fashion and everyday habits androutines. People who were born in other countries have brought theirtraditions, rituals and food with them. For example, Indian and Chinesetakeaways are as popular as traditional British fish and chips. Aninternational influence is also clearly seen in popular music styles.For example, rap and hip hop, types of music extremely popular amongteenagers, originally came from Africa. Even in schools differentorigins have to be taken into consideration, particularly when a schooluniform is required.
231,000 other minority groups
98,000 Black American andAustralian
247,000 Chinese 69Прочитай текст и определи, соответствуют ли данные предложения текстуили нет. Исправь неправильные предложения. 1. F; Several thousands yearsago people travelled from many different parts of the world to live inEurope and Great Britain. 2. T; 3. F; In the 20th century Britainsuffered much during the Second World War and people from other parts ofthe world were invited to help rebuild the country. 4. T; 5. F Britainhas become a country where different nationalities, cultures andreligions are mixed. 6. T; 7. T. 71Соотнеси слова и страны, из которых они пришли. America potato
China silk compass gunpowder printing papermaking
England Newton football
Russia Pushkin Pavlovasputnik
Рабочая тетрадь 3Соотнеси слова с противоположным зна-чением. booming - falling;supporter — opponent; significantly — slightly; national — global;improvement — deterioration; increase — decrease. 4Соотнеси слова. multinational corporations; global village; improvedtechnology; controversial idea; increasing concern; trade deals. 5Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. 1. concern; 2. crush/dependent; 3.inflation/lessens; 4. observe; 5. non-accountable/exploitation; 6.influence; 7. diverse. 6Вычеркни одно слово, которое обычно не используется со словом, выделенным жирным шрифтом. a) technology; b) culture. 8Составь предложения из слов. 1. New technologies improve the standard ofliving in different countries. 2. The number of people who want toupgrade their qualifications or take retain courses is rising. 3.Communication technologies connect people over very long distances andthe number of internet users is growing constantly. 4. Fair competitionbetween companies improves the quality of goods and makes the marketmore diverse. 12Прочитай диалог и поставь глаголы, выделенные заглавными буквами, внужную форму. 1. Did; 2. affects; 3. Do they mean; 4. will improve; 5.have gone; 6. have lost; 7. creates; 8. lessens; 9. can require; 10.will be offered; 11. will reinforce. 13Закончи эссе на тему о том, как люди относятся к глобализации. Theglobalization process is a very controversial and debatable issue. Doesit do good or harm to ordinary people? There are different opinionsabout it. Supporters of the global world believe that the process ofglobalization is a process that cannot be stopped. It is an obviousstage of the world's evolution. Besides they found a lot of otheradvantages of globalization. Among them are wide variety of goods on themarkets, quick exchange of information and etc. Anti-globalists'arguments are convincing too. First of all it is the threat for nationaleconomies. It is clear that industries of small countries may sufferfrom huge global corporation. The other point is that our world maybecome less diverse because of globalization. That means more boring.The debates between globalists and anti-glo- balists are likely tocontinue in the near future. The issue is very controversial and thereare lots of arguments for and against the process. Globalization,meanwhile, is progressing and seems to be turning into an irreversibleprocess.
Раздел 3. Ты знаешь свои права? 82Прочитай текст и догадайся о значении слов в рамке. Используй контекст,чтобы правильно определить значения слов. decent — пристойный; abuse —оскорбление; neglect — отсутствие заботы; torture — пытка,издевательство; uphold — сохранять, поддерживать. 86Закончи следующие предложения. 1. Both globalists and anti-globaliststhink they are right. 2. Right, you should have the interview beforegetting a new job in this company. 3. Her responsibility makes her workhard and do everything in time. 4. The Ministry of Education givesstudents a right to choose some of the final school exams. 5. Nobodywanted to take responsibility for the accident so the police started aninvestigation. 6. School rules say that it's a student's responsibilityto study well, be organized and act politely. 7. The officer in theairport is within his rights to ask them to show their passports. 8. Ourwork plan was agreed on by everybody and I think we should follow it.Everything else is by right. 9. We have a responsibility to futuregenerations is to prevent serious damage to the environment. 10. Youhave no rights to talk to me in that way! 87Соотнеси части предложений. Consequences result from not acceptingresponsibilities
If you don't accept responsibility other people canlose their rights
Equal opportunity is a right
Everyone has a right tofeel safe
One right is freedom of speech
Following the rules is aresponsibility 89Соедините предложения и их значения. 1. Can/Could/May I use your phone,please? a) Asking for permission. 2. We were allowed to/could wear jeansat school, e) Permission in the past. 3.1 have to bring all my coursebooks to school. b) External obligation. 4.1 must work harder, f)Personal obligation. 5. You don't have to pay for this course, c) Lackof obligation or necessity. 6. We had to go to bed at 10 p.m. d) Pastobligation. 90Перепиши предложения, не изменив зна-чения. Используй модальные глаголы.1. Do you have to wear formal clothes? 2. They said I didn't have towrite an essay. 3. They said I could hand in the essay later. 4. Youmust not wear trainers at school. 5. Teachers don't have to stay late atschool. 6. We are allowed to use the swimming pool free of charge. 7.1had to stay after school to do the test again. 92Выбери одну цитату и переведи ее на русский. Кларенс Дерроу: В этом миреВы можете защитить свою свободу, только зачищая свободу другогочеловека. Вы можете быть свободным только тогда, когда свободен я. РозаЛюксембург: Свобода есть всегда, и только для того, кто думаетпо-другому, отлично от остальных. Элеанор Холмс Нортон: Единственныйспособ быть уверенным в том, что люди, с которыми ты согласен, могутговорить, — это поддерживать права людей, с которыми ты не согласен.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Используйте правильный предлог из рамки, чтобы закончить фразы. 1. betolerant to other cultures; 2. object to construction plans; 3. befinancially independent from parents; 4. argue with opponents; 5. bedependent on imported raw materials; 6. fight for social rights; 7. beresponsible for financial collapse. 2Образуй прилагательные из следующих существительных и запиши их всоответ-ствующую колонку. -ive: effective; exclusive; expensive, -ic:allergic; authentic; periodic. -ent: confident; different; dependent.-able: accountable; comfortable; acceptable. -al, -ial: conversational;political; controversial. -ing: caring; appealing; booming. 3Перефразируй предложения, используя пассивную конструкцию. 1. You shouldwrite your suggestions and submit them to the tutor by next Tuesday.Your suggestions should be written and submitted by the tutor by nextTuesday. 2. You should never neglect your pets as they are not able totake care of themselves. Your pets should never be neglected by you asthey are not able to care of themselves. 3. We should discover the truthand publish the story immediately. The truth should be discovered andthe story should be published immediately. 4. The authorities shouldn'tkeep people unaware of their political and social rights. Peopleshouldn't be kept unaware of their political and social rights by theauthorities. 5. Nobody should abuse people because of their nationalityor religious beliefs. People should not be abused because of theirnationality or religious beliefs. 6. The government should protectelderly people's right to a decent standard of living. Elderly people'sright to a decent standard of living should be protected by thegovernment. 4Используй подходящий модальный глагол. Most people are aware of theirrights, but they should not forget that rights entail responsibilities.If a person has the right to education, this means that society mustprovide him with the opportunity to get it. The individual, in his turn,should do his best to acquire knowledge and skills and to contribute toa good working environment in the classroom. Otherwise, he can abusethe rights of other people: — those of the classmates, who may bedeprived of their right because of inadequate working conditions; —those of the staff, who may work in non-en- couraging environment; thoseof lots of taxpayers, who may feel that their money is being wasted. 5Сгруппируй соединительные слова из списка в упр. 94 на стр. 33 согласноих функции. introducing: first of all, firstly, to begin with;sequencing ideas: also, next, secondly; expressing contrast: but,however, yet, nevertheless; stating results: as a result; givingexamples: for instance, for example; adding: moreover, besides,furthermore; concluding: in summary, so, finally, thus, to conclude, inconclusion, to summarize, to sum up. 6Закончи эссе. Используй подходящие слова-связки. Some people are notaware of the rights they have. For example, most of my friends havenever thought about the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. While,in fact, there are lots of rights listed there. Some of them arevitally important. I personally think that the most important right,apart from the right to live of course, is the right to get education.Our world sets strict requirements for people and the most crucial oneis obtaining good knowledge. I believe that a child should have theopportunity to study as it will help in the future. Unfortunately, inour country this right does not work everywhere, as there are lots ofchildren who do not attend school. To summarize it all, I want tohighlight the idea that different people would nominate different rightsfor Right No 1. That's why every right should be observed and none ofthem should be neglected.
Раздел 4. Действуя в обществе 107Прочитай текст о Дмитрии Лихачеве и скажи, что означают следующие цифры.1 — the first person to be named an Honorary Citizen of St. Petersburg;5 — the number of years he spent in the Solovki Special Purpose Camp;500 — the number of scholarly works; 1928 — the year of his graduationfrom the Leningrad University; 1953 — the year of his admittance intothe Soviet Academy of Sciences; 1993 — the year of his becoming of anHonorary Citizen of St. Petersburg. 108Прочитай текст и скажи, соответствуют ли данные высказывания тексту(True), нет (False) или не даны в тексте (Doesn't say). 1. Doesn't say;2. True; 3. False; 4. False; 5. False; 6. True; 7. Doesn't say; 8. True.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Вычеркни слово, которое не может ис-пользоваться со словом "politics".
realistic 4Используй слова, написанные заглавными буквами, в нужной форме. A: Hi!What are you doing? В: Just browsing the internet, can't you see? A:What for? Are you looking for anything? B: Yes, I need to write an essayon a political leader. I have been browsing for an hour already but Ireally don't know whom to choose. A: This means that you are quiteindifferent to politics, aren't you? B: That's right. I used to beinterested in it a couple of years ago. I even analyzed the results ofelections and felt disadvantaged that I had not had the right to voteyet. However now I think there are more important things than politics.A: I see. But whom are you going to write about, after all? В: I don'tknow. Have no idea at all. A: Well, it's just occurred to me... If Iwere you, I would write about Benazir Bhutto. B: Who is he? A: Not hebut she. She was a prominent politician and a charismatic person. B:Tell me more about her. To be a politician is a tough job, for womenespecially. A: Well, Bhutto's biographers think that she was born tobecome a politician as she was the eldest child in the family ofZulfikar AH Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was the first womanwho was to rule a Muslim state — she chaired the Pakistan Peoples Partyand occupied the post of Prime Minister twice in 1988-1990 and in1993-1996. В; Sounds impressive. Go on. A: Her political career wasn'tsmooth. She had lots of opponents and experienced both success* andfailure. Politics is a very controversial thing — you never know what'strue and what's not. Once Benazir was accused of corruption but then theallegations were withdrawn. I think it was her opponents' trick. B: Andis she still in politics? A: Unfortunately, no. She was the leadingoppo-sition candidate for the general elections in 2008 and, I think,had a good chance to become President of Pakistan. But Benazir Bhuttowas murdered two weeks before the Pakistani general elections. B: Do youmean that it wasn't an accident? A: Oh no! It was an assassination, amurder for political purposes. Several shots were fired at her car. Oneof them caused her death. В: I feel that I want to find out more aboutthat outstanding woman. Could you spell her name — I'll type it into thesearch bar. 5Реши политический кроссворд. По вертикали: 1. conservative; 2.negotiations; 3. republican; 4. vote; 5. revolution; 6. independent; 7.political. По горизонтали: 1. controversial; 7. parliament; 8.democratic; 9. tolerance; 10. crisis.
Раздел 5. Чувствуя себя в безопасности 113Используй рабочую тетрадь. Прочитай текст. Найди и запиши слова, которыеобо-значают следующее: 1. things can be called this when they can existor be used together - kit; 2. designed to be thrown away after you haveused it once or just a few times - disposable; 3. extremely -exceedingly; 4. made of waste materials - recycled; 5. to put an amountof something into a container but not for the first time - put into; 6. aflat piece of plastic, metal, or wood with raised edges, used forcarrying things such as plates or food - tray; 7. a date printed onsomething you buy that shows that it may be less safe to eat or lesseffective after this date - use-by date. 116Закончи текст, вставляя артикли, где это необходимо. What is happeningto our weather? Although most of us say we love the hot weather, Iwonder if we would feel the same if every day was the same withpredictable sunshine and heat. Never having lived in a hot country formore than a few weeks I am not sure what my opinion would be. Maybe Iwould miss the rain? There is something about freshness that is in theair after a summer rainfall. When I was younger I was scared of athunder and my mum used to tell me it was only God moving his furniturearound! To pass the time we counted between lightning flashes andthunder, the number we got to was supposed to be the number of milesaway we were from the storm. It is shame that today we don't have thoseheavy snowfalls, these should be part of everyone's childhood! Sledgingdown the nearest slope until your fingers feel as though they will dropoff was all part of fun! These days with the first flurries of snow weare given weather warnings and told not to go out unless our journey is"essential". There is an outcry if schools are closed, but is thejourney to school "essential" in such weather conditions? A debatablepoint! I remember having to struggle through deep snow to get to school,but as it was only a short distance from home and the teachers alllived locally, that was no problem. Nowadays it is somewhat different.Our seasons seem to have disappeared — or have they merged into eachother? 119Заполни пропуски предлогами. Проверь ответы по тексту. Переведивыражения. Используй рабочую тетрадь. 1. an addition to the Convention —добавление к Конвенции; 2. to engage in trading — быть вовлеченным вторговлю; 3. the agreement came into force — соглашение вступило в силу;4. to deal with climate change — иметь дело с изменениями климата; 5.to contribute to socio-economic growth — вносить вклад всоциально-экономический рост; 6. changes are required for many reasons —изменения требуются вследствие многих причин. 120Выбери правильный предлог. Раскрой скобки. 1. A new computer-operatedheating system was created in addition to the existing one. 2.Representatives of different countries were engaged in the discussion ofenvironmental problems. 3. The new school rules will come into forcenext year. 4. Governments of all countries must deal with environmentalissues. 5. Everybody should contribute to the solution of the problem.6. We can't solve the problem now for this simple reason: it requirestime and investment.
Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова, чтобы получить устойчивые словосочетания. harmful to theenvironment; soap foam; plastic container; organic food; waste ofenergy; disposable cloth. 4Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. 1. Yes, I'm buying this vase. Couldyou wrap. 2. I've packed everything for the picnic. We've got chips,drinks, some meat and disposable dishes and glasses. 3. I wanted toinstall this computer game, but it's not compatible with my computersoftware. 4.1 wanted to apply some perfume, but changed my mind — myfriend is allergic to it. 5. Have a look, these books are made fromrecycled paper, but the quality is very good. 5Заполни пропуски артиклями там, где это необходимо. Alice: You look sotanned in the middle of winter! What do you do for that? You look as ifyou were just from the sunny seaside resort. Monica: I wish it weretrue. But no, it's more prosaic. This is an artificial suntan — I've gotIt in solarium. It's available at a reasonable charge, and it's rightnear my house. Alice: I've never been to a solarium. What's it like?Monica: Oh, they can be different. The solarium I've been to is verysmall and there is a bed there and a few bright lamps. You need to lieon your back, with your eyes closed, and than roll around and lie on thebelly. Alice: And are you sure that getting tan in a solarium is safeenough? I'm afraid that it can be dangerous for the skin, can't it?Monica: It certainly can. That's why it's very important to make surethat you don't exceed the time recommended for each session. Don't tryto get everything in one time. Alice: But I heard that safety alsodepends on the equipment used in the solarium. If lamps are old orhaven't been maintained properly, you can be burnt. Monica: You may beright, to some extent. I know that doctors do not recommend using asolarium very often. But I like it when my skin looks tanned... Alice:You, probably, can consider using cos-metics instead. You know, thereare some creams that can give your skin a touch of tan if you use themregularly.
Итоговый контроль 2Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски в предложениях словами из текста.Используй не больше трех слов для каждого пропуска. The Irish Travellersare the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 IrishTravellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a littleunderstood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome ifthey are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society.Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The IrishTravellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries.Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, anethnic group which originated in the region of India and is nowwidespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous toIreland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic,the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that istheirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, andlanguage. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities.In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, makingcamp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were themajor sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent amongIrish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were usedinterchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for IrishTravellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled bymotor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there arefewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today,Irish Travellers mainly work in recycling. Changing needs of society andprogress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture onwheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receivingend of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average whiletheir infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case withthe Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group ofimmoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust theirnomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secretlanguage specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellerstrick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language,which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused withIrish Gaelic, it is now infused with English. 1. Poverty and racism arethe two main problems of Irish Travellers. 2. The Irish Travellers aremistakenly taken for the nomadic Romani, another ethnic group widelyspread in Europe. 3. Although both groups are nomadic, their culturesare not related. 4. In the past the Irish Travellers went around byhorse-drawn wagon in caravans. 5. They were called Tinkers, which is nowa name for them. 6. Irish Travellers have mobile homes pulled motorvehicles now. 7. Today, the Irish Travellers mainly work in recycling.8. They have low... and their infant mortality rate is lifeexpectancy/higher than average. 9. People distrust their culture andtheir lan-guage. 10. People think that the Irish Travellers have asecret language that helps them trick people. 3Заполни пропуски правильной формой слова, написанного заглавными буквамив конце каждой строки. Most linguists believe that writing was inventedin China during the latter half of the 2nd millennium ВС. Chinese iswritten with characters. Each character represents a syllable of spokenChinese and also has a meaning. The characters were originally picturesof people, animals or other things but over the centuries they havebecome increasingly stylized and no longer look like the things theyrepresent. The Chinese writing system is limited. The largest Chinesedictionaries include about 56,000 characters, but most of them arearchaic, obscure or rare variant forms. Knowledge of about 3,000characters enables you to read about 99% of the characters in Chinesenewspapers and magazines. To read Chinese literature, technical writingsor Classical Chinese, though, you need to be familiar with about 6,000characters. There are currently two systems for Chinese characters. Thetraditional system, still used in Hong Kong and Taiwan, comes fromstandardized character forms dating back to the late Han Dynasty. TheSimplified Chinese Character System, was developed in 1954 to promotemass literacy, simplifying most complex traditional characters to fewerstrokes. 4Прочитай текст и выбери наилучший вариант ответа, чтобы заполнить пропуски 1. В; 2. С; 3. А; 4. А; 5. D; 6. В; 7. С; 8. С; 9. D.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 1 2АРеши «Политический» кроссворд, используй словарь если необходимо. Погоризонтали: 1. globalization. По вертикали: 1. migration; 2.opposition; 3. generation; 4. politics; 5. population; 6. militarism; 7.concordat. Разминка 1 2Bа) Прочитай следующие мнения и используй слова в необходимой форме.Young people are not interested in politics, I don t see any reason whythey should. There are lots of other things that are really exciting andbeneficial for people of our age, such as sports, friends, music andcertainly education. I don't watch political programmes on TV as I don'tlike them anyway. Politicians use a very difficult language, which Idon't always understand. I certainly watch news from time to time, but Idon't enjoy it very much. It's all about military conflicts, antiglo-balists' protests and other depressing things. I'm convinced that weshouldn't ignore politics. If young people are indifferent to it, theycan't influence it. Someone else is shaping their future and they willhave to accept the results, whatever they are. I'm not saying that weshould take part in all kinds of movements. Politics is a verycontroversial thing and it's often very difficult to say who is rightand who is wrong. I never support people who protest aggressively, nomatter how good their intentions are. I think we should analyzeinformation and think for ourselves.
Тест 1 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы с за-головками. Есть один лишнийзаголовок, который не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Letter В А F D Е G Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй нужные формы слов. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. Mike becameinterested in politics when he was at school. When his schoolmates werepartying or camping or just watching TV, he was reading about differentpolitical systems and movements. It was a weird hobby for a teenager,but he obviously enjoyed it. When I entered his room for the very firsttime, my attention was attracted to a little bookcase in the corner. Thecollection of books there was quite unusual — biographies of famouspoliticians, political reviews, textbooks on politics and internationalrelations and no feature books at all! Mike proudly said that the uniquecollection was gathered in just two years. He also showed me severalfiles with articles and printed internet materials that related todifferent political parties and political events. Now Mike works as apolitical analyst. He can easily forecast which party will win theelections, whether the unemployment rate will rise or fall, and whetherour economy will grow or whether we'll have to survive through arecession period. His articles are often published in serious newspapersand now it's me who cuts out his articles to make a collection. 1. wasreading; 2. enjoyed; 3. was attracted; 4. was gathered; 5. showed; 6.are often published; 7. cuts out. Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментирую следующее высказывание: В некоторых странах существуетполиция по охране животных, которая защищает права животных, а такжезащищает их самих от жестокости и от участи быть брошенными. Сторонникизащиты окружающей среды считают, что полиция по охране домашних животныхдолжна быть учреждена во всех странах. Protection of all social spheresis a feature of highly civilized countries. The fact that in aparticular country there is Animal Police says that in this country thegovernment supports its citizens and guarantees their rights.Unfortunately, in many countries human rights are often neglected. Thereare a lot of problems considering poverty, children's abuse, socialdiscrimination. In such situation government does not have a chance toprotect the other spheres of people's lives such as animals orenvironment. Certainly, we all should do our best to help each other.Moreover the tolerant and caring attitude towards animals may help usbring tolerant attitudes towards each other. Animals need our help.Looking after home pets may teach us a decent treatment towards ourneighbours or colleagues or trees, air and water, in other wordsenvironment. In conclusion, I would like to tell that the innovation inthe field of Animal Police is one more sign of civilized society. Itreveals the fact that such a society is problem-free. And it may serveas an example for the others to strive for.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 2 1АОзаглавь разные типы графиков. A) table; В) bar chart; С) diagram; D) pie chart/ circle graph; E) line graph. Разминка 2 2АИзучи диаграмму, прочитай описание и подчеркни глаголы, которыеописывают изменения. The bar chart shows how the number of foreignstudents has been changing in our university over the last tenyears. We can see that ten years ago, in 2000 we had 30 foreignstudents, which made a very little per cent of the total number ofstudents who studied at the university. Then the number of foreigners began rising gradually and four years later, in 2004, it reached the peak of 55. Then, as we can see, the situation deteriorated and the number decreased dramatically. It fell to the minimum of 22 students five years ago and stayed at that low level, without any significant change, till last year. Last year the situation improved very rapidly and we welcomed 80 foreign students, the number is growingnow — we have already received 90 applications which have been approvedby the examination board. We hope that the year of 2010 will break therecord. Thus we can see that the number of foreign students has increased significantly for the last ten years and there is a tendency for its further growth. Разминка 2BИзучи график, который построен на основе информации о студентахпринимавших участие в программах по обмену. Опиши этот график, используйфразы справа в качестве опоры. The chart shows the number of studentstaking part in exchange programmes. It shows that the number of thesestudents has increased between 2004 and 2010. As you can see the numberof the students taking part in exchange programmes is just about twentywhen in 2010 it is sixty. We can judge that the growth is about 65%. Butwe cannot say that this increase was stable. As you can see in 2008there was a falling compared to 2007 and 2006. Moreover it should bementioned that in those years and in 2005 the number of exchangeprogramme students did not change at all. It was 40. In conclusion it isimportant to remark that the general tendency is optimistic. In spiteof all difficulties in recent days the number of students who take partin exchange programmes has increased sufficiently. Разминка 3АИспользуй глаголы в нужной форме. This is my first year at universityand I have not got used to a new style of life yet. I know that it'sgoing to be easier in several months when I will learn how to deal withtasks and activities which format is unfamiliar to me and how to planthe day to ensure that everything is written and submitted on time. Theright strategy is very important. I wish someone could help me to choosethe best one. In my turn I could share my personal experience withthose who are still at school. I have been learning at school for 11years, which gives me a reason to consider myself an expert on mostschool matters. And as an expert, I think that it's very important towork out your own strategy on how to deal with school assignments.Everyone wants to spend as little time as possible on homework and yetto get the maximum result. Unfortunately, not everyone manages to. When Iwas not/get used at junior school, I started my homework with thesubjects I liked most of all. Naturally, they were the easiest and mostenjoyable subjects like drawing and reading. More challenging maths andgrammar were put off till later. When Mum came from work, she found thatthe most important, in her opinion, tasks had not been done yet and weused to spend evenings over my notebooks. She kept telling me that thepriorities had to be changed to her words but I ignored. Unfortunately,my strategy did not change at senior school. Not long before the exams Irealized that the difficult subjects like physics and geometry had beenneglected by me for years. Desperate measures needed to improve thesituation and to avoid the exam fail. Fortunately, I passed the exam,but it taught me a lesson for the rest of my life. Разминка 3BОтметь галочкой утверждения, с которыми ты согласен. Верные утверждения:1. When I have to write a long-term assignment, I do it on the verylast day. 2.1 usually start with the least enjoyable task. 3. I call myfriend and suggest that we do homework together. 4. I never go outbefore my homework is done.
Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и заполни пропуски фразами. Есть одна лишняя фраза,которую не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. 1. D.International eating habits. Both economists and politicians claim thatglo-balization cannot be stopped — people have to accept it and adapt tothe new environment. Anti- globalists, in my eyes, just have lost touchwith reality, whatever they do — they cannot stop the logicaldevelopment of our society. Economic development requires boarder freezone, as companies cannot perform their best in the cramped conditionsof local markets. National economies are integrating into theinternational economy and the process is accelerating rapidly. 2. E. Theworld may turn boring. One may think that the process of globalizationwas caused and launched mainly by economic forces, which is not quitecorrect. It is caused by a combination of economic, social, cultural,political and technological reasons. Communication technologies creatednew unprecedented business opportunities, which boosted economicprocesses. In fact, telecommunicating and teleconferencing enablebusiness people to trade across the continents. Multimillion deals canbe negotiated and signed using electronic means, money can betransferred in seconds, and goods can be delivered in hours from onecontinent to another. 3. F. Cultural and informational exchange. Thecultural life of people has changed too. Due to global TV broadcast andthe internet they can exchange information quickly and easily. Nowadays,people living in Europe are well informed about the cultural traditionsand mentality of people who inhabit South America or Australia and viceversa. And if they want to learn something new, they can easily findthe information. Some national cultural objects had turned into global.No one can say now that the Beatles is just an English group — it is aglobal phenomenon, which belongs to the whole world. 4. B. The naturalprocess of evolution. Another example of integration of nationalcultures is the spread of culinary traditions. Italian dishes may becooked and served in America, there are lots of Indian and Greekrestaurants in Paris, and no one in Moscow considers hot and spicyChinese food as something exotic. We have an opportunity to tastevarious dishes regardless of the country where we live. Due toglobalization people have a much wider choice than they used to have,and they find it very beneficial. 5. G. All in the same boat. However,there are two sides to every medal, and it refers to globalization too.In spite of the obvious advantages, its negative consequences shouldn'tbe neglected either. Getting global, unfortunately, means losing yournational identity. Global music, fashion, mass media make us more andmore alike. The world is getting less diverse and therefore lessinteresting. 6. A. Factors responsible for globalization. Furthermore,the global world gets more vulnerable as crises and catastrophes becomeglobal too. That is they can affect anyone in any country. Havingstarted in one country the financial and economic crisis expands viamultinational banks and corporations all over the world causingbankruptcy and unemployment across the globe. The negative impact on theenvironment is not local anymore either — it affects everyone living onthe planet. Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполните пропуски верными словами. Затем перенеси ответы в таблицу.Mike became interested in politics when he was at school. When hisschoolmates were partying or camping or just watching TV, he read aboutdifferent political systems and movements. It was a weird hobby for ateenager, but he obviously enjoyed it. When I entered his room for thevery first time, my attention was attracted to a little bookcase in thecorner. The collection of books there was quite unusual — biographies offamous politicians, political reviews, textbooks on politics andinternational relations and no feature books at all! Mike proudly saidthat the unique collection would be gathered in just two years. He alsoshowed me several files with articles and printed internet materialsthat related to different political parties and political events. NowMike works as a political analyst. He can easily forecast which partywill win the elections, whether the unemployment rate will rise or fall,and whether our economy will grow or whether we'll have to survivethrough a recession period. His articles are often published in seriousnewspapers and now it's me who cuts out his articles to make acollection. Часть IV. ПисьмоВы получили письмо от вашего английского друга Терезы. Напишите ейответ. В вашем письме ответьте на ее вопросы и задайте свои о еешкольной жизни. Dear Teresa, I am happy to receive your letter. It is sonice to hear from you and learn that everything is ok. I am also veryglad for Timothy. I am pleased that he has chosen Russian as a secondlanguage. Well, it is a shame that there are not too many Russianspeaking people in your country. But the idea to spend a year in Russiais great. It will certainly help Timothy to improve his language skills.In fact, there are no many differences between Russian and Englishsystem of schooling. The one, may be, is in the fact that the Russiansystem is more theoretical and requires students to obtain a wide rangeof knowledge. We normally spend two- three hours a day for our homeworkand of course we need to use computer and internet as there are a lot ofprojects to be done. As for mathematics, we normally write one paper amonth and it is forbidden to use any reference materials during thetests. But the tasks are not very difficult as they are based on thematerial that has been covered during quite short period of time. Andwhat about you? Is it possible in your country to use reference materialduring tests? And what is the range of languages that you can study atschool? I am asking that because in Russia the situation is different:there are few languages that we may study at school. I look forward tohearing from you soon. Best wishes, XXX
Часть 2. Работа мечты
Раздел 1. Выбирая профессию 3Соотнеси характеристики работы с опре-делениями. 1. well-paid h)awarding enough money; 2. stressful d) extremely irritating and oftenoverwhelming; 3. challenging f) stimulating, interesting andthought-provoking; 4. enjoyable a) giving pleasure and joy; 5. boring c)dull and tiresome; 6. rewarding g) meeting all requirements andconditions; 7. complicated e) difficult and complex; 8. satisfying b)giving satisfaction and profit. 9. Соотнеси слова и выражения в рамке.Некоторые из них могут оказаться сразу в двух категориях. Используйрабочую тет-радь.
Personal qualities: imaginative, well-organized,knowledgeable, able to work to tight deadlines, cre-ative, interpersonalskills, able to make decisions, able to solve problems, negotiationskills, initiative, enthusiastic, responsible, competitive, persistent,inspirational, able to cope with stress, able to take risks, motivated,committed.
Professional qualities or knowledge: well- educated,professional, knowledgeable, computer literate, able to work in a team,telephone skills, able to do research, negotiation skills, competent. 11Заполните таблицу правильной формой слов. Используй рабочую тетрадь.noun adjective verb imagination imaginative imagine
creativity creative create
competence competent —
enthusiasm enthusiastic enthuse
responsibility responsible respond
competition competitive compete
persistence persistent persist
inspiration inspirational inspire 18Прочитай диалог и выбери правильный вариант ответа. Прослушай запись ипроверь свои ответы. — I've applied for several jobs already. — Have yougot any? — Oh, yes. I'm in advertising now! — You know, I left my jobafter an argument with the boss! — How long have you been out of yourjob? — For a month already. But I'm going to a job interview thismorning! — Good luck! — I've taken a job at a hotel in the city centre. —Congratulations! Is it full-time job? — No, it isn't. It's part-time. —Have you heard the news? Helen is holding one of the top jobs in thecompany now! — It's not surprising. She's very experienced: she's beendoing the job for years. 21Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. — What does Sophia do for a living?She is a freelance photographer. — Does she like her job? Why? She likesher job as she tells passionately about photography the sphere whereshe works. — Do you think she has made a success in it? Why? She is verysuccessful as she was one of 12 pho-tographers from around the world beselected by the World Press to attend the popular Photography Masterclass. 22Прочитай текст и поставь события в хронологическом порядке. c) Aboyfriend gives Sophia a camera. g) Sophia gets interested inphotography. a) She gets her degree in Latin American studies. h) Evansgoes to Latin America to become a journalist. f) She is put in jail inSan Salvador. d) Evans travels around Mexico, Haiti and Texas. e) Sherealizes that she wants to be a professional photojournalist. b) Sophiaworks as a photographer for The Observer and The Sunday Telegraph. 23Найди в тексте слова и выражения, соответствующие определениям. 1.enthusiasm and determination to work hard — commitment and energy; 2.provide money, food, clothes, etc, that one needs in order to live — tosupport; 3. find something so interesting that you want to do it as muchas possible — to become hooked on something; 4. admit your mistakes anddraw the right conclusions from them — to learn through one's mistakes;5. start a journey in a particular direction — to set off for; 6.finish a course of study at university and get a qualification — tocomplete a degree. 24Заполни пропуски словами из упр. 23. 1. We ate breakfast, collected ourbags and set off for school. 2. What are you going to do to supportyourself? 3. If you learn through your mistakes, you are not likely tomake them again. 4. Many city dwellers are becoming hooked on countryliving these days. 5. It takes up to six years to complete a degree inMedicine. 6. The commitment, energy, drive and innovation of staff areessential to our success. 27Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски одним из вариантов ответа. 1. В; 2. D; 3. А; 4. А; 5. С; 6. А; 7. С; 8. В; 9. А; 10. D
Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполните пропуски прилагательными из рамки. Вы можете использоватьслово только один раз. 1. Jill is qualified and she had no problem whenapplying for the job. Now she can afford a new flat as her job is verywell-paid. 2. The only person who can help you complete this difficultjob is Bertie. He enjoys challenging tasks. 3. Mary doesn't earn muchbut she is very happy with her job of a music teacher. She says it'svery rewarding to work with children. 4. Jim says that he'd rather do asimple but exciting job than a prestigious but boring one. 5. Jenny isnot very good at languages and she gets very nervous when she has tonegotiate contracts with foreign partners. Actually, she finds her jobtoo stressful for her and is going to quit. 4а) Посмотри на картинки внизу. Распредели фразы по колонкам. Ты можешь использовать одну фразу больше, чем один раз.
working for a large company: good promotion opportunities, meeting new people, health insurance, focus on your personal responsibilities, an opportunity to learn what other people do
working for a small company: supportive workmates, a family atmosphere, health insurance, an opportunity to learn what other people do, a good salary
being self employed: a good salary, nobody can ever fire you, being your own boss, a large range of responsibilities, an opportunity to plan your day 6Заполни пропуски словами из рамки, чтобы описать людей в следующихситуациях. 1. It's nice to work with James. He is always ready to helpand explain things to other people. He is very supportive. 2. Cathytakes every chance to gain additional qualifications. Career means a lotto her. She is very ambitious. 3. Michael believes that takingdifferent professional courses is essential to update qualifications andto be competitive on the labour market. 4. Mary has always worked ineducation and has never thought about changing the job. She is committedto teaching. 5. We are sure that James will manage to find newarguments and make the boss change the decision. When James wantssomething, he is very persistent. 6. It's very unwise to fire Alan. He'sbeen working for the company longer than many others and knows all theins and outs of the job. He is very competent. 9Прочитай письмо Софии в местный журнал и дай ей свой совет. Аргументируйсвое мнение. Dear Sophie, The choice of future career is one of themost important for teenagers. In this aspect it is impossible be ruledonly personal preference. If I were you I would talk to your daughterand learn why she has made such a choice. Then I would try to speak toher and explain why it is so important to be careful in the process ofchoosing job, how it can reflect her whole future. I hope you canpersuade your daughter not to hurry up in this choice and not to be sopersistent in her decision until she chooses for good. Best regards, XXX
Раздел 2. Что происходит после школы? 32Соотнеси слова и их определения к ним.
1. alumnus (pl. alumni) (АmЕ) b) a former student of a specific school, college or university
2. graduate (АmЕ) e) someone who has finished their studies at the highschool, college, or university level or someone who has a degree from auniversity
3. postgraduate g) a student who continues his/her studies after graduation
4. undergraduate d) a student in a university or college who has not received a first degree (esp. a bachelor's)
5. Bachelor/Bachelor's f) someone who has completed at least one year ofgraduate study and was awarded such a degree by a graduate school ordepartment
6. Master/Master's c) someone who has completed his/her undergraduatestudies and was awarded such a degree by a college or university
7. retraining course a) a study course for people who want to get a new qualification that's different from their previous one
8. refresher course i) a study course which serves as a review of previous education
9. major (in) (AmE) h) to study some subject as an academic specialty (AmE) 33Заполни пропуски в предложениях словами из упр. 32. 1. My qualificationturned out to be so unpopular that I had to do a retraining course inorder to become a web designer. 2. Josh is in his first year atuniversity. He's only an undergraduate student. 3. She's always beenacademically minded. She decided to do a postgraduate course and become aMaster of Science. 4. Vicky's about to graduate from university. She'sgoing to get her first university degree: a Bachelor of Arts. 5. Everyfive years doctors and teachers have to do a refresher course to keep upwith new developments in their areas. 6. Do you know any St PetersburgState University alumni who have become really famous? 7. He'sinterested in environmental protection, that's why he has chosen tomajor in ecology. 34Прочитай веб страницу и ответь на вопросы. 1. What have you learnt aboutRussian educational tradition? Novgorod is the cradle of Russianeducation. 2. How did Novgorod University get its name? This Universityis the successor of the educational institution which was established byPrince Yaroslav. 43Поставь галочки в таблице, чтобы об-разовать верные выражения. Используй рабочую тетрадь. 44Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски. 1. f; 2. g; 3. а; 4. d; 5. b; 6. с; 7. е. 53Прочитай отрывки из радиопрограммы о профессионально техническихколледжах. Затем соотнеси ответы и вопросы. Переведи слова, выделенныежирным шрифтом, на русский язык. 1. Who can enroll in a vocationalcollege? d) Anyone who's got a secondary school certi-ficate. 2. Arethere entrance exams? c) Actually, we've got an "open admission" policywhich means we don't have exams, only an interview before the start ofthe course. 3. Describe a typical student of the college. a) Oh, that'snot so easy. We have so many different students from school-leavers toprofessionals with graduate degrees. 4. Why do university graduates cometo the college? b) Many feel they might become more employable if theyget additional qualifications. enroll — поступать; entrance exams —вступительные экзамены; open admission — открытый прием; interview —собеседование; graduate degrees — диплом о высшем образовании;university graduates — выпускники университетов; employable —работоспособный; additional qualifications — дополнительнаяквалификация. 62Соотнеси картинки и предложения. Picture 1: 1. By June, 27 all theschool-leaving exams will have been taken; 2. By June, 10 the two mostdifficult exams will have been taken; 3. On June, 10 the 11^ graderswill be getting ready for the rest of the school-leaving exams. Picture2: On June, 27 the ll**1 graders will be having a school-leaving party. 63Заполни пропуски в предложениях, используя будущее простое или будущеезавершенное. 1. This assignment will have been written by the 1st ofNovember. 2. Don't worry! Everything will have been done on time. 3. Thetest will have been checked by tomorrow. 4. I am sure I will be offereda new job by September. 5. He will be given a chance to re-sit the examby the end of the school year. 6. We will have been given our schoolcertificates by then.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания. 1. highereducation; 2. undergraduate student; 3. educational background; 4.retraining course; 5. Bachelor's degree; 6. major subject. 2Заполни пропуски предлогами там, где это необходимо. My elder brotherhas always been interested in computer technologies. When he leftschool, he didn't think much about what to do further, the goal wasobvious to him — he wanted to go to university. However, he was a bitunlucky with the entrance exams and failed. It was a shock for him, buthe didn't give up. He enrolled in the foundation course to be betterprepared the next year and succeeded. His first year at university wasnot easy but he managed and completed it with very good results. Hemajored in Information Technology and Programming Languages, as far as Iremember. When he graduated from the university, he had already gainedsome work experience in his field as he had been doing a part-time jobin a software company. Later he was involved in several internationalprojects and benefited on challenging tasks and teamwork with foreignexperts. He says that he was lucky to make the right career choice andhas never regretted it. 4Прочитай разговор между хозяином Еже- годного Праздника Университета иего гостем Мистером Кларком. Заполни пропуски правильным вариантомответа. Event Host: We are happy that among our guests we can see DrClark. He's one of the most famous alumnus of this university, a person,whose name is well-known not only in this country, but widely abroad.Dr Clark, do you remember your university years? Dr Clark: Who can everforget university years? I entered the Faculty of Biology thirty yearsago. It was my dream faculty. I'd been thinking about it since mymid-school, when I came across a fascinating book on biology about tinyorganisms that live in our bodies. Unbelievable, but I enjoyed reading ascientific stuff about bacteria and viruses! I remember neither thetitle of the book nor the author, but it was the reason to choosemicrobiology as one of my majors. Event Host: Had you ever regrettedyour choice since then? Dr Clark: Never. I know that I'm a lucky person.All my life I've been doing things I really enjoy. I'd been spendingnights over the microscope in the lab and was thrilled to bits!Researching was like driving a sports car to me. Event Host: If Iremember it right, you discovered a new virus when you were still astudent, haven't you? Dr Clark: Yes, that's true. And later a vaccine tofight it was created. Event Host: You headed the international teamworking on it. It was a challenging project. Dr Clark: Challenging, andvery rewarding too. It's nice to know that lots of people can benefit onyour work. But university life is not all about studying. I rememberour parties, trips and even exams. Lots of brilliant ideas came duringexams! I bet you'll remember your exams too. 7Поставь глаголы, выделенные жирным шрифтом в нужную форму, чтобывыразить будущие действия (в активном или страдательном залоге). Myneighbour is an incredible optimist. He believes that all his ideas arebrilliant and never considers them twice. When he starts talking abouthis brilliant plans, he doesn't let anyone challenge them. This is whathe said to me last Monday: "The teacher told us to submit our writtenassignments in December, but mine will have been written by November,because I have more important things to do in November. At the beginningof November I will be studying the Japanese language and then I willwatch films about martial arts in Japan in the original. After that, Iwill go to Japan for New Year holidays. By December I will have boughtthe plane ticket and I will have been granted with the Japanese visa bythen. When I come back, I plan to enroll in a driving course. So, I willhave got a driving license by the end of January. It's a pity that Iwon't have bought a car by then."
Раздел 3. Заключительный экзамен 66Соотнеси экзаменационные вопросы и ответы студентов. 1. What causes thetides in the oceans? — c) There is a fight between the Earth and theMoon. All water tends to flow towards the moon, because there is nowater on the moon, and nature hates vacuum. I forget where the Sun joinsin this fight. 2. Name the four seasons. — a) Salt, pepper, mustard andvinegar. 3. How can you delay milk turning sour? — b) Keep it in thecow. 4. Who discovered radioactive elements? — e) Madman Curiediscovered radium. 5. Name one of the processes by which water can bemade safe to drink. — d) Filtration makes water safe to drink because itremoves large pollutants like grit, sand and dead sheep. 67Поставь предложения в правильном порядке, чтобы восстановить историю острогом профессоре. 1. b) An economics professor at school had a strictpolicy that the hourly examinations were to be completed at the bell. 2.a) He insisted that anyone who kept writing on their exam after thebell would take a zero on the exam. 3. g) Well, one guy kept writing onhis exam for a while after the bell and then confidently strode up toturn it in. 4. h) The professor looked at him and said, "Don't bother tohand that paper in... you get a zero for continuing after the bell." 5.с) The guy looked at him and said, "Professor, do you know who I am?"6. f) The professor responded, "No, I've no idea who you think you are."7. d) The guy, with an enraged look on his face, shouted, "You mean youhave no idea who I am?" 8. e) The professor replied, "No, and I don'tcare if your dad is the president of the United States... you get a zeroon this exam!" 9. i) And with that, the guy said "Good!" and plungedhis exam into the middle of the stack with the other students' exams,and made a hasty retreat from the examination room! 68Прочитай, что говорят эти молодые люди о своих экзаменах, и заполнипропуски в диалоге. Jenny: Have you talked with any classmates about theexams? What have they said? Mike: Yes, I have. They've all saiddifferent things. Maria said she quite liked tests because the classroomis always so quiet and it helps to concentrate and do your best! Jenny:That's funny! You know, she's so clever! And what about George? Mike:Oh, he told he was so scared. He was not going to pass it. Jenny: I'dhave expected something like that. What did Denis say? Mike: Denis saidhe had had his exams all last week, and it had been very stressfulJenny: Poor thing, he must be so tired! And Nelly? Mike: Yes, she saidshe was just enjoying herself. She is never worried before the exam.Jenny: Oh, Nelly is Nelly! What about Anna? Mike: Anna told it's good tohave exams. Sometimes it's a nice surprise to see that you've donebetter than expected. Jenny: And what did Chris say? Mike: Chris said hehad just finished Maths and had already started revising for his nexttests. Jenny: Oh! He's right as usual! Now let's get down to studying! 72Соедини предложения. 1. She was very busy last week. She missed ourmeeting. Example: She was so busy last week that she missed our meeting.2. Peter was very late. We decided to start our conference without him.Peter was so late that we decided to start our conference without him.3. He was embarrassed. He could hardly understand the explanations. Hewas so embarrassed that he could hardly understand the explanations. 4.They were making noise. They were turned out. They were making suchnoise that they were turned out. 5. His speech was brilliant. I feltextremely proud of him. His speech was so brilliant that I feltextremely proud of him. 6. She gave us a very good example. Weunderstood the rule at once. She gave us such a good example that weunderstood the rule at once. 73Заполните пропуски словами "so" и "such". 1. I was so tired that Icouldn't go to the stadium. 2. She spoke in such a loud voice that weheard everything from the last table. 3. You talk such nonsense, Irefuse to listen to you. 4. These are such trifles that you shouldn'tfeel unhappy. 5. Their story was so frightening that we couldn't sleep.6. She talked to him in such a tone that he became extremely angry. 7.He drew such a wonderful picture that everybody congratulated him on hissuccess. 8. The trip appeared to be so expensive that we decided wecouldn't afford it.
Рабочая тетрадь 2Закончи параграф и опиши, что ты чув-ствуешь перед экзаменом. Mostpeople worry about their exam results and it makes them feel nervous andeven depressed before any test. As for me, I do not differ from allthese people. I am nervous before an important exam, but I try to calmmyself down. To feel confident is an essential point in being examined.You should be confident about your knowledge only then the examiner willfeel the same about you. By the way, it is much easier to take the examwhen you are actually taking it. You usually feel very frightenedbefore your turn to answer but as soon you start speaking you feel muchbetter. The secret is just to overcome this dead point. 3Распредели слова no трем колонкам. Types of exams: test; computer-basedexam; internet-based exam; oral exam; pen and paper exam; finals;written exam; entrance exam; quiz. Students' exam-related actions: sitan exam; take an exam; pass an exam; fail an exam; study for an exam;read for an exam. Exam-related people or things: exam questions; examboard; exam results; exam papers; exam supervisor. 4Заполни пропуски словами из рамки. Используй каждое слово больше, чемодин раз. 1. Jim felt so nervous during his literature exam that hewasn't able to name a single American writer of the twentieth century.2. Tom's teacher-distracting-tricks seemed such a good plan that no onebothered to do any revision before the exam. 3. The examiner read thetask so quietly that people sitting in the last row were not able towrite it down. 4. Most students found the exam questions less difficultthat they expected. 5. Angela enjoyed the exam procedure. The teacherspoke to her in such a friendly and encouraging way that she forgot herfears and produced very smart answers. 6. The exam task required moretime than I allocated for it, so I failed. 7. I find oral exams asdifficult as written ones. Everything depends on whether you know thesubject or not. 5Используй подходящую форму сослагательного наклонения. 1. I would havehelped you yesterday with your exam paper if I had known the answermyself. 2. If I knew the computer better, I would apply for a part-timejob in the computer call centre. 3. If I were sure what I really want,it would not be a problem for me to choose a career. 4. If he were moreambitious, he would try to sit the exam once more for a better result.5. If I had more time, I would enroll on a Spanish course. 6. If you hadnot warned me about change in the exam date, I would have missed it.
Раздел 4. Существуют ли альтернативы современным технологиям? 79Прочитай текст и ответь на вопрос, в чем заключается опасность. The danger is in the increasing popularity of e-learning. 80Ответь на вопросы. — What is e-learning? E-learning is such a form ofeducation that allows students get a degree by means of Internetlearning. — What subjects do you think can be learned online? Almost allsubjects can be learned online. — Do you think e-learning can competewith traditional universities and colleges? It is competing right now.Moreover many leading universities have this form of education. 81Прочитай описание веб сайта и ответь на вопросы. Second Life is avirtual world based on the internet. There are more than 6 millionpeople who have already signed up to it. In this cyberspace you canbecome a new person by choosing your appearance, age, gender and colour.Just type in your character's password and meet with others who havethe same academic interests. You can use this cyberspace for learning,teaching and doing research. 1. Why do you think the site has this name?The name of the site reveals the main idea of its creators — to make upa new virtual life. 2. Is it a popular site? How do you know? It is avery popular site as 6 million people have already signed up to it. 3.Who is this site for: students, teachers, researchers? This site is foreveryone as it connects different people from different places. 4. Howdo you think this site can be used? This site may be used according toyour personal purposes: communication, teaching, research or just forfun. 5. Would you like to use this site? Why?/Why not? I would not liketo use this site because the users of this site create the personalitythat differs much from the one they have in reality. To my mind it's awaste of time to communicate with people who hide themselves. 82Прочитай мнение людей no поводу этого сайта, и соотнесите их с высказываниями. Есть одно лишнее высказывание.
1. Some universities won't be able to use it because they have oldcomputers. Tony: It's a great idea but you should be aware that SecondLife uses a really advanced technology. You won't be able to use iteffectively unless you have a top-range computer. Even universitycomputer laboratories may not be up to it.
2. This site makes teachers and students feel equal. Gilly: We do hopethat Second Life will become a place where every student feelscomfortable about taking part in academic discussions. As you will beable to choose your appearance there won't match them with thestatements. There would be the typical discrimination found in normalcommunication. And the teacher and the student will be on the samelevel.
3. Some students might find it strange to find their professors in thisparticular cyberspace. Hamish: My concern is that students may be takenin by the fake personalities of their tutors who they may expect to beof their own peer group. This could be like bumping into an aged unclein a disco.
4. Some universities will run their own cyber- worlds and not need this site.
5. Some universities may not be interested in using this site yet. Andy:There are some university professors and lecturers today who areinterested in Second Life but I don't think they all are planning topartake in it. Not yet, at least. It could be the right thing for thosewho are disabled, have problems with communicating or are not confidentenough in a real life classroom.
6. This site makes shy students feel more confident. Rosanna: Thecharacter you design for yourself helps you feel more confident andinvolved. You can actually create the person you have always dreamt ofbeing. For example, I made myself look fitter and younger. 84Заполни таблицу. Используй слова из списка и добавь некоторые свои. Используй рабочую тетрадь.
E-learning: blogs, computer-aided assessment, e-mails, electronic votingsystems, web-based teaching materials, exchange of printed orelectronic media, mobile technologies, online learning, laptop.
Distance learning: CD-ROM, regular mail, software, television, courses.
Traditional learning: Classroom, Television, tape recorder, face-to-faceteaching, group work, interactive exercises, MP3 recordings,multimedia, radio broadcasts. 87Прочитай текст и измени глаголы справа так, чтобы они правильнозаканчивали предложения слева. Modern distance education had been aroundat least since Isaac Pitman taught shorthand in Great Britain viacorrespondence in the 1840s. Since the development of the postal servicein the 19th century, commercial correspondence colleges provideddistance education to students across the country. Computers and theinternet made not only distance learning easier, but also many otherday-to-day tasks. One of the oldest distance education universities isthe University of South Africa, which has been offering correspondenceeducation courses since 1946. The largest distance education universityin the United Kingdom is the Open University founded in 1969. There arenow many similar institutions around the world, often with the name"Open University" in English or in the local language. Distanceeducation programs are sometimes called correspondence courses, an olderterm that originated in nineteenth-century vocational educationprograms that were conducting through the post. This term was replacedby distance education, and has expanded to encompass more sophisticatedtechnologies and delivery methods. The first subject taught bycorrespondence was the Pitman Shorthand, a tool of stenography. Primaryand secondary education programmes were also widely available bycorrespondence, usually meant for children living in remote areas. 88Перечисли преимущества и недостатки разных методов обучения. Используй рабочую тетрадь.
E-learning: feeling of isolation, globally reso-urced/unlimited data.
Distance learning: flexibility media literacy.
Face-to-face classes: adaptability to learner's needs face-to-face humaninteraction expensive, teacher's help and support, group/team work,peer assessment. 92Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. 1. According to the author of thetext, when does learning stop? Why? Learning never stops. You should beopen to new ideas throughout your life because technological progresshappens quickly. 2. Do the author's ideas correspond to your ideas?Sure. Contemporary life requires constant learning. 3. Choose the besttitle for the text and explain your choice: b) Lifelong learning In thetext there is a lot of information on what types of lifelong learningexist and why it is important for the modern society. 93Прочитай текст и определи, соответ-ствуют ли следующие высказываниятексту (Т) или нет (F). Исправь неверные утверждения. 1. F; Lifelonglearning is based on the idea that one can and should be open to newideas, decisions, or behaviours throughout one's life. 2. Т; 3. Т; 4. F;Lifelong learning can be accomplished through distance learning ore-learning, continuing education, home-schooling or correspondencecourses. 5. T; 6. T.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Вставь пропущенные слова. 2Соотнеси слова. 1. competitive advantage; 2. imaginative writer; 3.rewarding job; 4. challenging task; 5. stressful situation; 6.inspirational speech. 3Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой слова. E-learning is winningmore and more due to its obvious support nowadays competitiveadvantages over in-class education. The advantages are obvious:e-students can learn at their own pace, they don't need to travel longdistances to their classroom and can combine learning with a full-timejob. However people who want to enroll in some online courses need to beaware that e-learning differs from traditional learning significantly.The flexibility of the courses and the absence of deadlines can workagainst the students. The thing is that some people find it quitedifficult to make themselves work regularly. They cannot be attentivewithout a strict and encouraging teacher beside them. In other words,one can't work effective unless he is able to plan the day, allocatingenough 4Поставь глаголы в нужную форму. 1.1 wish I had a new guitar. 2. I wish Iknew all the answers to the exam questions, but I don't. 3. She'salways very lucky with her exams. I wish I knew her secret. 4. If I hadany exam task I would cope with. 5. If she had your brains, told usabout her worries, we would have invented something to help her. 8Прочитай отрывок письма Джона и напиши ему ответ. Dear John, Not onlyyou feel frustrated thinking about learning during the whole life. Itmay seem strange and frighten but in fact it is true. The pace of ourworld is so rapid that changes happen very quickly. To be successful youhave to learn constantly only then you could compete as a professional.You should be open to new ideas, new concept and be ready to getinformation 24 hours a day. Besides when you retire you just could notstop learning. You will want to discover something new, you willunderstand that it is really interesting to learn something "fresh"instead just doing the same set of actions. I hope you will findpleasure in lifelong learning and you will not be frightened of it anymore. Best regards, XXX
Итоговый контроль 22 а) Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их с за-головками 1.Е; 2. А; 3. С; 4. В;5. D.
b) Прочитай тексты и определи в каком текст упоминается:
1. waseasier than combining full-time work and housework. В
2. prevented thefamily from having social life. С
3. helped someone to pursue his/herown interests. В
4. made someone very happy. A
5. has become aworthwhile career. E
6. gave someone much freedom. В
7. is hard workwith long hours. A
8. made for a financially difficult period. D
9. isbeneficial for the family. E
10. helped the family to establish acertain routine. В 3Заполни пропуски в тексте, используя верную форму глагола в скобках. 1.have seen; 2. have been; 3. arrived; 4. am moving; 5. will havefinished; 6. would come; 7. come. 4Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой слова. Making a careerchoice is one of the most difficult and most important decisions we willever make in our lives. It has to be made with much thought anddeliberation. Moreover, career choices cannot be made based on just afew criteria alone. Your job may carry great monetary benefits andperks, but if you do not enjoy what you do then you are folly wasting alarge part of your life. At the same time, remember that money is alsoimportant for you need it to survive. So, if a job is all satisfying butno pay, things can get difficult. Before you start choosing a perfectcareer, you need to know yourself first. But sometimes all thisself-analysis leads to nowhere. We end up more confused than we were atthe beginning. Then, the best way to deal with the dilemma is to thinkabout consulting a career counselor. A career development professionalwill use various tools to help you evaluate your interests, personality,skills and values. He or she will then show you how all these things,combined, play a role in choosing a career. You can also learn about acareer by interviewing people who are already in that profession. Onceyou have all the information you need, list out all the pros and cons ofthat particular job. Look at the various alternatives. Check to see ifthe job gives you what you want from a career. Passion is the key wordin selecting a career. Select something because you feel passionateabout it, not because it is the latest thing in the job market.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 11 А. Прочитай, что люди говорят о своих профессиях. Просмотри список профессий ниже и подумай, кто мог мы сказать следующее.
1. A baker: What do I like about my job? I think it's the most importantjob in the world though someone may say it's an overstatement. Well, mydays always start early, at about 4 or 5 am. I work early hours becausebread, buns, pastries of all kinds need to be ready by the time peoplehave their breakfast. And I don't mind early starts at all. It's greatwaking up before the sunrise to a delicious smell of freshly baked breadwhich is a great start of a day, isn't it?
2. An electronics technician: I work shifts and sometimes I feel tiredwhen I have to work at nights. But we need to be available to ourclients round the clock as they may have problems with their computersany hour. When they experience problems, they call us for help andadvice. The most difficult thing to me is to get them to explain whatthe problem is. Instead of a detailed explanation they may just scream:"It doesn't work! It bleaks, makes strange noises and refuses to work!"At first I used lots of computer jargon when I spoke to the customers,but then I realized that they didn't understand me at all and switchedfrom professional vocabulary to simple language. Now evennon-experienced computer users understand m instructions and cope withmost minor technical problems.
3. A fashion designer: When I was at school, I enjoyed arts and crafts. Iliked making things by myself. Once I made a dress from lots of littlepieces of cloth. I wore it for a party, just for fun, but my friendssaid that it was a gorgeous dress. I was very surprised but it was veryinspirational. I made some more dresses, blouses and accessories andthey were a success too. Not only my friends, but also my parents saidthat I was creative and should pursue that hobby! Later the hobby becamea job, and I find it very satisfying.
4. A police officer: When I was considering my career, I wanted my jobto be exciting and adventurous, probably dangerous, to add thrills andchills into my very ordinary life. Now I've got it all. Hut a real jobis different from the way it's usually depicted in books and films. Iwas surprised to find out that it implies lots of routine paper work,which I don't really enjoy The best thing about my job is the feelingthat I can rely on my mates and colleagues, as we always work as a team.And certainly I like the feeling that my job makes the world a saferplace for those who are not able to defend themselves. As for adventures— I can tell you a couple of thrilling stories, but they don't happenvery often.
5. A fiction book translator: I think my job is just fun. No, I'm notsaying that it's not difficult, or that I don't lake it seriously.Actually it requires good knowledge of the language and good writingskills. My job is very important for people who don't speak English butenjoy reading books written by Kingfish authors. The most challengingpart of the job is to transmit the writer's message to people withoutchanging it. It may be difficult because the author and the reader notonly speak different languages, but have different backgrounds andmentalities. Anyway, I've always liked studying languages andlinguistics, so I find my job very rewarding and enjoyable. And one morething — I really enjoy reading new books and because of my job I can doit before all the other people in this country.
Тест 1 Часть II ЧтениеПрочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. The Association forImproving the Standards in Education (AISE) is a profit-free,non-governmen- tal organization whose aim, as its name suggests, is topromote new innovative educational technologies and creative ideas thatcan stimulate school and university education. The organization unitespeople of different ages and different backgrounds who want to attractsociety's attention to problematic and controversial issues ineducation. Recently it has conducted a survey of university students inorder to find out their opinion about part-time jobs for full-timestudents. The Association does not claim that the results of the surveyare fully reliable as the data may vary from university to universityand may depend on its type, on the economic situation in the region andother factors. However, the information displayed on the Associationpage gives food for thought. According to it, about forty per cent ofstudents attending universities have jobs during term-time. "If you livein a big city, a job is not an option but a necessity for any student,"Andrew Kaminsky, a fourth year student, says. "I'm very lucky as Idon't have to pay for my education, it's free for me, but I still haveto pay rent and transportation expenses, buy books, food and otherthings. I enjoy going out, but clubbing and outings cost a fortune. Itwould be unfair if my parents had to pay for all that." Another studentJulia Kennan has a different opinion. "I think that job commitments ontop of the studies is too much for me. And this is not because I'm lazy.I just can't do two things at a time. Working students miss lectures.If I were working, it might affect my studies, and I wouldn't get theexpected results. My parents think the same and, fortunately, they canafford to support me now. I think that when I graduate and get a goodjob, I'll be able to do something for them too — to pay for theirtravelling for instance or cover other expenses if necessary." AnnaGlenn, a twenty-year-old working student, presents a moderate viewpointon the issue. "I know that some teachers do not approve of students whocombine job and studies. But I don't think that a job is necessarily badfor studies. On the contrary, if you do a simple but career relatedjob, it's very beneficial. It helps you understand how everything worksand academic information stops being purely theoretical. You understandhow to apply your theoretical knowledge to practice. It is motivatingand it often inspires you to study harder." Opinions differ buteducation costs together with young people's desire to succeed in acompetitive world will inevitably increase the number of workingstudents. Universities should consider the tendency and help theirstudents find part-time jobs in related industries.
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Letter D С В A С С A Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй верную форму слова. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. I've been inour family business for thirty years already. Our company was founded bymy great-grandfather in 1920 and since then we've been manufacturingthe most beautiful furniture in England. We create wardrobes, writingtables, coffee tables, chairs, bookcases and other pieces, all of whichare of the highest quality. Our furniture is designed in traditionalEnglish style and we apply traditional technologies to make it. Thefurniture is hand-made and that's why it takes several weeks to make achair or a coffee table. It's a difficult job and we employ very skilledcraftsmen who usually work for the company for many years. Two of ourworkers have worked with us for more than fifty years already and theysay that they love their work and are not going to retire yet. I'm alsoproud of our business because money is not everything for us. Makingfurniture inevitably implies cutting down trees. If we don't think aboutthe environment now, our forests will have been cut down by the middleof the century. To prevent it we plant trees in our greenhouse and thenput them in the forests. I don't know what my life would be like if Ichose some other career, but I'm glad that I didn't. I really think thata family business is a great responsibility but a great privilege too.1. was founded; 2. most beautiful; 3. is designed; 4. craftsmen; 5. haveworked; 6. will have been cut down; 7. chose. Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание: Некоторые родители думают, чтостуденты не должны работать во время учебного семестра, так как этоможет негативно сказать на их успеваемости. It is a widely spreadtendency when students have part-time jobs during their studies. Thereseveral reasons for this. But the fact remains that this job-and-studysharing may affect academic performance, and not only good. First of allit is need to be said that students find part-time jobs because theywant to support themselves, they want to be independent. There isnothing wrong in the wish to have spare pocket money. The other side, ofcourse, is that it may have a negative impact on students' performanceat university. On the one hand, students may pay more attention to theirwork as they may judge it more important (they are paid for it). Andthen the studying may be neglected. At this point parents should haveall rights to criticize their children. But on the other hand, if astudent is engaged in the activity that correlates with his professionalsphere of interest it may be quite useful for him or her. At such work astudent can get the practical skills that help him or her in theprocess of studying and the general understanding of his or herspecialty, speaking nothing about the experience that is valued so muchby employers. In conclusion, it should be said that part-time job forstudents may be both positive and negative. All depends on studentsthemselves whether they can cope with studying and workingsimultaneously or not.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 21A. Поставь глаголы в нужную форму. 1. If I knew foreign languagesbetter, I would consider a career of an interpreter or translator.Unfortunately, my language skills are not good enough for this job. 2.Public speaking is part of my job, but I'm not very good at it. I wish Ihad attended some drama classes in school. 3. If I were moreadventurous, I would choose some other job. But I'm quite happy workingas a librarian. 4. Choosing a career will be easier, if I have moreinformation about specialists who are going to be in demand in thefuture. 5. My parents would be happy if I had the slightest inclinationto join the family business, but I don't want to be a lawyer. 6. If Ihad more time, I would take a distant course on business communication.7.1 wish I had thought about my future education earlier.
Тест 2 Часть II. Чтение Прочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы и заголовки. Есть один лишнийзаголовок, который не нужно использовать. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. D. Significance of money in modern life Euros, pounds, dollars,franks, yens — you are unlikely to escape these words if you have yourTV on in peak times for financial news or economic reviews. Lots ofpeople all over the world discuss falls and rises in share prices,currency exchange rates, interest rakes and credit markets. Economistsand bankers consider changes in money flows and their possibleimplications on the domestic and global economy. Governments step downand political parties come to power because of successful or unpopularfinancial policies. There's no need to deny that financial issues have aconsiderable impact on states, businesses and industries. Peopleexperience their influence too, regardless of their status, educationand political views.
2. A. History of money Why does money mean so much to us? Isn't it weirdthat we are so dependent on something we invented ourselves? There's nomoney in the natural world and it happily survives without it. Moneyappears in a certain phase of human society when barter, a directexchange of goods, becomes ineffective, and it accompanies us throughour development. Sometimes ball and even domestic animals were used asmoney, but it wasn't mint, and people had to look for something easierto carry around. Then they used shells, pieces of metal or semi-preciousstones. The first and the most researchers believe, appeared in Asia in640—630 ВС, and the first money was used in China in с 960 AC.
3. E. Money — good or evil? Money always played a significant role insocial development and its meaning was both stimulating and devastating.The stimulating effect of money is indisputable — it often motivatespeople to develop new technologies, to look for new lands and to invadeother peoples' territories. Sadly, but the real reason of any war ismoney — people are ready to kill each other for money or its resources —gas, oil, precious metals and other resources. They are usually enoughbut people, who created money, have always said that money is evil anddreamt about a money-free society.
4. F. Can society function without money? Different socioeconomic Marks(the communist theory is the most famous among them) said that moneywould disappear in the near future and people would be able to livewithout it. However, is it possible for an industrial society tofunction effectively without money? Most economists are not optimisticabout it, but there is no evidence that it is absolutely impossibleeither.
5. B. Types of money In different society's money existed in differentforms, depending on what people considered the most valuable thing,which was easy to keep and carry around. Forms of money nowadays are,probably, not so diverse as they used to be in ancient times, but thevariety is still impressive. Apart from conventional coins and banknoteswe can use the so-called plastic money or banking cards. More and morepeople find this way of paying for goods and services very convenient —it's quick, there's no need to wait for change and it lessens the riskof having your money lost or stolen. Banking cards allow us to buythings online, which, as some prominent economists think, will soonreplace traditional forms of selling via shops, stores and agencies.
6. G. Money of the future The internet can change not only the way wesell and buy things, but money circulation too. Though plastic money hasbecome customary, we still use coins and paper money a lot. But thoseforms of money may cease to exist quite soon. Online trade will probablyenhance the significance of cyber money. Cyber money is already in use,but it's accepted by internet shops only. According to some forecasts,this type of money will dominate — people will not only be buying onlinebut will be earning online too. They can also keep their savings inelectronic purses in cyberspace. Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполни пропуски необходимыми словами. Перенеси ответы в таблицу. Whenschool is over, young people need to make a choice of what they want todo further. Our grandparents often say that life used to be safer andless complicated when they were young. That may be true, but I thinkthat our generation has more opportunities than they had. We have awider career choice and we can shape our life according to ourinclinations and abilities. I'm sure that there are no good or bad jobsbut there are right and wrong ones for every particular person. One andthe same job could be very rewarding and enjoyable for one per-son andabsolutely inappropriate for another one. It's also natural thatdifferent people have different job preferences.. Some of for awell-paid job, and some people prestige — us seek a prestigious job,some look ourselves want to work freelance and don't care about money orthey just want to be their own bosses and plan their own days. Distancejobs are gaining popularity for the same reasons. You see that we canchoose not only the industry we want to devote.
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Letter А С D А С D А Часть IV. ПисьмоПрочитай объявление и напиши письмо. В письме покажи свой интерес кпредоставляемой работе и выясни: — когда необходимо начать работу исколько времени займет работа; — с какими животными тебе придется иметьдело; — предоставят тебе отдельную комнату или же тебе придется ездитьна работу в другой город. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to you inorder to respond to your advertisement in the magazine. I am interested alot in the job you offer. I am fond of animals and ready to work as avolunteer. I would be very grateful whether you give me more detailsabout this job. First of all I would like to know when I should startand how long the moving will last. It is important to me because I am astudent and I do not like to miss classes. Secondly, could you tell mewith what animals I will have to deal with? I believe that specialtra-ining is required for working with big and exotic animals. Andfinally, is it possible to be provided with a room in a near-by locationor I will have to commute? I would like to thank you beforehand foryour most useful answer. I look forward to hear from you soon. Yoursfaithfully, XXX
Часть 3. Навстречу новому лучшему миру
Раздел 1. Насколько сильно ты зависишь от современных технологий? 4Прочитай мнение Уилла и ответь на вопросы. 1. Which sentence describes achange or an action in the past but that is linked to the present? Whatgrammar tense is used for this? Technology has really advanced over theyears. Present perfect. 2. How is the action that happened only in thepast described? These actions are described in the Past simple tense.For example, when I was little we didn't use to have computers and Ispent most of my time playing outdoors with my friends. 3. How are thethings that happen regularly in the present described? They aredescribed by means of Present simple. While these days children spendmost of their time indoors playing computer games. 4. How is a habitor state that happened in the past, but is not connected to today,shown? What phrase is used for this? It is shown with the help of thestructure "used to" in the negative form. We didn't use to havecomputers. 5Составь предложения, используя правильные времена. Используй рабочуютетрадь. 1. People have learnt much from behaviour of animals. 2. Peoplethought the Earth was flat. 3. Many years ago people used to live withvery few things and used to have a lot of time to think. 4. Today peoplehave many electronic devices at their homes and use them every day. 7Соотнеси аббревиатуры с их расшифровкой. PDA: Personal digitalassistant; DVD: Digital video disk or digital versatile disk; PVR:Personal video recorder; PC: Personal computer; CD-RW: Compact disc —rewritable. 10Соотнеси глаголы из интервью с их определениями. 1. take out с) toremove something from a box, bag, etc; 2. get down to a) to start doingsomething seriously; 3. set up d) to make a piece of equipment ready foruse; 4. plug in b) to connect a piece of equipment to an electricitysupply. 14Прочитай текст и выбери наилучшее заглавие к нему. Teens and technology.Today's American teens live in a world surrounded by communicationtechnologies. The internet and cell phones have become a central forcethat drives the rhythm of daily life. The number of teenagers using theinternet has grown by 24% in the past four years, and 87% of thoseteenagers between the ages of 12 and 17 are now online. Compared to fouryears ago, teenagers' use of the internet has intensified and broadenedas they continue to log on more often and do more things when they areonline. Among other things, there has also been significant growth overthe past four years in the number of teens who play games, get news,shop, and get health information, all on the internet. Not only has thenumber of users increased, but also the variety of technologies teensuse to support their communication, research, and entertainmentpreferences. These technologies have enabled a variety of methods andchannels by which youth can communicate with one another as well as withtheir parents and other authorities. E-mail, once the cutting edge"killer app", is losing its privileged place among many teens as theyexpress preferences for instant messaging and text messaging as ways toconnect their friends. In focus groups, teens described their environ-ment. To them, e-mail is increasingly seen as a tool for communicatingwith aids such as their teachers, and institutions schools. They alsosee it as a way to con lengthy and detailed information to large growMeanwhile, teenagers use IM for every conversations with multiplefriends that from casual to more serious and private exchanges. Theyalso use it for their personal expression. Through buddy icon: othercustomization tools, teens can experience themselves with a particularlook and feel differentiate themselves from one cannot. Other IM toolsallow for the posting of personal profiles, and even "away" messages,which others know when a user is away from computer but wishes to remainconnected their IM network. 15Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. 1. с; 2. b; 3. b; 4. а; 5. с. 21Посмотри на диаграмму и придумай предложения, которые описывали быпред-сказания подростков. As the diagram shows 22% of teens believe thatdesktop computer will become obsolete in the near future. Approximatelythe same percentage of teenagers — 26% — thinks that compact disk won'tbe used in the future. According to the diagram 33% of adolescentssuggest that fuel-powered automobiles would not be used in 2015. Only17% of teens reckon that land-line telephones will become obsolete in2015.
Рабочая тетрадь 11. а) Соедини линями слова, которые обычно используются со словами"technologies" и "devices Technologies: electronic, modern, advanced,laser, internet, high, environmentally-safe, computer. Devices:electronic, mechanical, environmentally-safe, internet, computer,electrical, technical, multifunctional. 2. а) Отметь галочкой фразы,которые под-ростки 1960х годов сочли бы сложным для понимания. 1. tomail a letter; 2. to check the e-mail; 3. to text messages; 4. to SMSfriends; 5. to log on a site; 6. to download music; 7. to visit chatrooms; 8. to run websites. 4Прочитай разговор подростков и поставь глаголы в нужную форму для выражения будущих действий.
A: Have you made plans for this summer yet?
В: Yes, some. Just let me have a look at my planner. Well, in early JuneI am leaving the Earth to take a short expedition to Mars. The exactdate hasn't been fixed yet, but I expect the spacecraft will launch atthe very beginning of the month.
A: What will you be doing there?
В: The usual stuff. We are experimenting with new samples of biologicalmatter. We need to find out how it will change its features in the outerearth conditions. There's a good chance that we will manage to proveour theoretical hypotheses by experimental method.
A : And when are you going to be back?
B: If everything goes according to the plan, we will be here at the endof July. And after that we are visiting our grandma on the Moon. It's amust. If we miss our annual family reunion party, Granny will getfurious. We have already reserved rooms in the hotel, actually.
A: And what is she doing there? Biological experiments too?
В: No, she's an aerospace engineer. They've got a spacecraft plantthere. She's crazy about her job, and says that she will never quit. Butthe family is her first priority anyway. And you? Where are youplanning to go?
A: Shame, but I am staying here. And I don't think I could go anywherebefore the middle of August. I failed my history exam and have toresubmit the exam paper. It means that I will have to research into theancient technologies of the twenty first century. Boring, but I promisedmy mum that I will do all my exam assignments by her birthday, which ison the 16th of August.
Раздел 2. Выдающиеся умы 27Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы. Человек, который мог нарисоватьидеальный круг Исамбард Кингдом Брунель был английским инженером. Онродился в Портсмуте, Великобритания, в семье Марка Брунея, морскогоофицера и инженера. Он работал в фирме отца и помог ему пристроительстве Туннеля под Темзой, который был открыт в 1843 году. Онсамостоятельно разработал план строения Клифтонского подвесного моста иподвеснго моста Хэнгерфорд над Темзой. Он спроектировал Грейт Вестерн в1837 году — первый Атлантический пароход, Великобританию в 1837 году —первый океанский лайнер, и Грейт Истерн в 1858 году — самое крупноесудно в истории. Он так же был ведущим инженером при строительствеВеликой Западной железной дороги в 1933 году, кроме этого построил многодоков. Но самое известное его изобретение — это Великая Западнаяжелезная дорога, ряд известных пароходов, а также многочисленные важныемосты. Большинство мостов Брунея до сих пор используются. Тоннель Темзыявляется частью лондонского метро, а Дом Двигателя Брунея на Ротерхит,где когда-то изобретались первые паровые двигатели, до сих пор стоит,как музей, посвященный его жизни и работе. Хотя проекты Брунея не всегдабыли успешными, они часто представляли собой инновационные решениястарых проблем машиностроения. За свою недолгую карьеру, Бруней достигинженерных «высот», включая оказание помощи в строительстве первоготоннеля и развитие первых винтовых океанских лайнеров, которые были в товремя также самыми большими кораблями когда-либо построенными. Он такжеподал пример для инженеров и новаторов, которые последовали за ним,которых он вдохновил привести свои творческой мысли в действия. И. К.Бруней l.-Who was I. К. Brunnel? 1. К. Brunnel was an English engineerwho plan-ned tunnels and bridges. 2. What do you know about his life? Heworked at the office of his father where he created a lot of thingssuch as bridges, steamships. Many of his inventions are still used. 3.What kind of person do you think he was? To my mind he was anoutstanding person who sometimes was understood by his contemporaries.4. Why is he famous? He is best known for the creation of the GreatWestern Railway. 28Прочитай текст и отметь верные (Т) и неверные (F) предложения.
1. Т; 2. F; 3. F; 4. Т; 5. F; 6. F; 7. Т. 29Прочитай текст и отметь информацию, которая в нем содержится.
1. dates of life; 2. main accomplishments; 3. things he is famous for; 4. personal qualities; 5. social recognition. 32Догадайся о значении слов из текста.
1. а; 2. а; 3. b; 4. а; 5. а. 33Переведи предложение из текста на русский язык. Ответь на вопросы.
The Great Eastern до сих пор один из самых важных судов в историикораблестроения — был проложен Трансатлантический кабель, что означало,Европа и Америка стали связаны телекоммуникационной связью.
1. How many actions does the sentence describe? What are they? Three actions — remains, had been laid, had.
2. In what chronological order did they happen? How do you know?Firstly, the cable had been laid, secondly Europe and America had alink, and thirdly, The Great Eastern remains one of the most importantvessel in the history of shipbuilding. It is seen in the usage oftenses.
3. What tenses are used to describe the actions? Present simple, past simple, past perfect passive.
4. Do we know specifically who performed the actions? Why?/Why not? There is no hint who performed the actions.
5. Why is a passive form of the verb used for one of the actions?Because it is not important to say who laid the cable, but it isimportant that the cable had been laid.
6. Can you find another example of past perfect passive in the text?What is it? The ship had been portrayed as a white elephant. 34Прочитай пример и отметь галочкой предложения с Past Perfect Passive.
1. They had been stopped by the police before they realized what had happened.
2. After the cat had been chased up a tree, the smart dog relaxed under the tree.
3. We had been taken for a ride by the time the other guests arrived.
4. The circus performer had often been hurt by the old lion that died a week ago.
5. Had he been helped in a long time? He looked very dissatisfied.
6. She told us she had been remembered and helped by her former students. 35Прочитай анекдот и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
Once a doctor, an engineer, and a programmer were debating what theworld's oldest profession was. The doctor said that medicine was theoldest because God made surgery in the removal of Adam's rib. Theengineer argued that before that act, God had performed feats ofengineering by creating the Earth and heavens from nothing. The doctoragreed that the engineer was right and that engineering was indeed theoldest profession. But then the programmer interjected that programmingwas even older. He was chided by both the doctor and the engineer sayingthat: "Engineering had to be the oldest, because before God engineeredthe Earth and heavens, there was nothing, only the Great Void, onlyChaos!" The programmer simply smiled and said:"Where do you think theChaos came from?" 45Прочитай текст и соотнеси абзацы и заголовки.
1. С. A distinguishing characteristic of genius is productivity. ThomasEdison held 1,093 patents. He guaranteed productivity by giving himselfand his assistants idea quotas. In a study of 2,036 scientiststhroughout history, Dean Keith Simonton of the University of Californiaat Davis found that the most respected scientists produced not onlygreat works, but also many "bad" ones. They weren't afraid to fail, orto produce the mediocre in order to arrive at excellence.
2. A. Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gain knowledge about the formof a problem, you begin by learning how to restructure it in manydifferent ways. He felt that the first way he looked at a problem wastoo biased. Often, the problem itself is reconstructed and becomes a newone.
3. H. Whenever we attempt to do something and fail, end up doingsomething else. That is the first pr of creative accident. Failure canbe productive or if we do not focus on it as an unproductive result.Instead: analyze the process, its components, and you can change them toarrive at other results. E not ask the question "Why have I failed?",but "What have I done?"
4. F. Physicist Niels Bohr believed, that if you held oppositestogether, then you suspend your thought and your mind moves to a newlevel. His ability to imagine light as both a particle and a wave led tohis conception of the complementarity principle. Suspending thought(logic) may allow your mind to create a new form.
5. G. Aristotle considered metaphor a sign of genius, and believed thatthe individual who had the capacity to see resemblances between twoseparate areas of existence and link them together was a person ofspecial gifts.
6. D. The laws of heredity on which the modern science of genetics isbased came from the Austrian monk Grego Mendel, who combined mathematicsand biology to create a new science. Combine and recombine ideas,images, and thoughts into different combinations, no matter howincongruent or unusual they are.
7. B. When Einstein thought through a problem, he always found itnecessary to formulate his subject in as many different ways aspossible, including using diagrams. He visualized solutions, andbelieved that words and numbers as such did not play a significant rolein his thinking process.
8. E. Da Vinci forced a relationship bet the sound of a bell and stonehit water. This enabled him to make connection that sound travels inspace. Samuel Morse invented relay static telegraphic signals whenobserving stations for horses. 46Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их со следующими советами.
1. Try to produce as many ideas as you can. Whenever we attempt to dosomething and fail, end up doing something else. That is the first pr ofcreative accident. Failure can be productive or if we do not focus onit as an unproductive result. Instead: analyze the process, itscomponents, and you can change them to arrive at other results. E notask the question "Why have I failed?", but "What have I done?"
2. You can learn a lot from your own mistakes and failures. Da Vinciforced a relationship bet the sound of a bell and stone hit water. Thisenabled him to make connection that sound travels in space. Samuel Morseinvented relay static telegraphic signals when observing stations forhorses.
3. Try to look at a problem in a way in which you have never looked atit before. A distinguishing characteristic of genius is pro-ductivity.Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents. He guaranteed productivity by givinghimself and his assistants idea quotas. In a study of 2,036 scientiststhroughout history, Dean Keith Simonton of the University of Californiaat Davis found that the most respected scientists produced not onlygreat works, but also many "bad" ones. They weren't afraid to fail, orto produce the mediocre in order to arrive at excellence.
4. If you can't understand why it is white, ask yourself why it is notblack. When Einstein thought through a problem, he always found itnecessary to formulate his subject in as many different ways aspossible, including using diagrams. He visualized solutions, andbelieved that words and numbers as such did not play a significant rolein his thinking process.
5. Think what a problem reminds you of or what it looks like. Aristotleconsidered metaphor a sign of genius, and believed that the individualwho had the capacity to see resemblances between two separate areas ofexistence and link them together was a person of special gifts.
6. Experiment with unusual combinations. Physicist Niels Bohr believed,that if you held opposites together, then you suspend your thought andyour mind moves to a new level. His ability to imagine light as both aparticle and a wave led to his conception of the complementarityprinciple. Suspending thought (logic) may allow your mind to create anew form.
7. Try to see how different things are con-nected. The laws of heredityon which the modern science of genetics is based came from the Austrianmonk Grego Mendel, who combined mathematics and biology to create a newscience. Combine and recombine ideas, images, and thoughts intodifferent combinations, no matter how incongruent or unusual they are.
8. Illustrating possible solutions or trying to see them with your eyesclosed may make them clearer. Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gainknowledge about the form of a problem, you begin by learning how torestructure it in many different ways. He felt that the first way helooked at a problem was too biased. Often, the problem itself isreconstructed and becomes a new one. 47Просмотри текст на стр. 91 и найди слова или фразы, которые сочетаются со словом "problem". Используй рабочую тетрадь.
to arrive at a solution to a problem
to find a solution to a problem
to gain knowledge abo ut the form of a problem
to look at to think through a problem 48Закончи предложение, используя только одно слово.
1. That's a nice idea, but it still doesn't solve our problem. 2. Theunusually hot weather is creating serious problems for the country. 3.1don't think I will have problems passing this exam. 4. Let's look at theproblem from a different perspective. 5. First of all, I tried to thinkthe problem through 6.1 couldn't find any solution to it.
Рабочая тетрадь 1a) Распредели слова no колонкам таблицы.
People of arts: writer, interior designer, sculptor, old paintings restorer, film director, actor, cartoonist.
People of science: engineer, nuclear physicist, environmentalist,ornithologist, biologist, mathematician, programmer, architect. 2Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. cutting-edge technologies; 2. trial problems; 3. practical trip; 4. technical reality; 5. innovative solutions. 3а) Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. contain an innovative idea; 2. achieve the goal; 3. inspire otherresearchers; 4. construct buildings and bridges; 5. be ahead of theirtime; 6. run over the budget; 7. run behind schedule. 4Заполни пропуски глаголами. Используй Past Perfect Passive.
1. When Mike was awarded the Young Innovator's Certificate, he said thathe had been inspired for the research work by his science teacher. 2.According to the spectrogram, the bridge had been constructed by thetime when the modern technologies became available. 3. We had to confessthat the research budget had been overrun and asked for an additionalinvestment. 4. Everyone was amazed that the ambitious goal had beenachieved in a very short time. 5. No wonder that the device got brokenbecause of your carelessness — it had been designed for smarter people.6. Due to news leaks the information was not really sensational by thetime of the conference — Mr. Jefferson's breakthrough had been describedin several scientific journals.
Раздел 3. Наука или Лженаука? 52Прочитай цитату и выбери наилучшее объяснение для нее.
b). 57Распредели слова по данным категориям: артикли (articles), предлоги(prepositions), относительные местоимения/ вопросительные слова(relative pronouns/question words), слова-связки (linking words),вспомогательные глаголы (auxiliary verbs), сравнительные слова(comparatives), выражения количества (expressions of quantity),безличные местоимения (indefinite pronouns), личные местоимения(personal pronouns).
Articles: a, the.
Prepositions: so, for, on, as, and, from, with, but.
Relative pronouns/question words: who, where, which.
Linking words: was, is.
Auxiliary verbs: have, do.
Comparatives: than, more.
Expressions of quantity: many, few, little.
Indefinite pronouns: anyone, everything, whatever.
Personal pronouns: they, you, it. 58а) Заполни пропуски.
Secrets of an Ancient Computer Computers go back farther in history thanyou might imagine. A mysterious mechanism found in a 2,000-year-oldGreek shipwreck may have been used to calculate the positions ofplanets, predict when eclipses were to occur, and solve otherastronomical problems. Known as the Antikythera mechanism, the device isabout the size of a shoebox. When it was found underwater about 100years ago, the mechanism was of poor shape. Few metal pieces hadcongealed into one mass, then broken into pieces. People who studiedwhat was left of the mechanism suspected that it was something to dowith astronomy. To find something more, researchers recently usedadvanced imaging methods, including X-ray computer tomography, to lookinside the metal fragments and to check for ancient writing on thedevice. The researchers discovered the mechanism had at least 30 bronzegears with many as 225 teeth, likely all cut with hand. This fresh lookprovided clear evidence the device could have been used to computeeclipses of the sun and moon. A lunar eclipse occurs when the moonpasses into Earth's shadow, and a solar eclipse occurs when the moonpasses between the sun and Earth. Scientists suspect that the mechanismwas also able to show the motions of the planets. A user could pick aday in the future and, some sort of crank, work out a planet's positionon the date. With the added information, the researchers came up with anew model for mechanism operated. All the findings that the Antikytheramechanism was perhaps 1,000 years ahead of anything else discovered fromits time period.
b) Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы об изобретении. 1. How old is it?It is 2,000 years old. 2. Where was it found? It was found underwater.3. How big is it? It is the size of a shoebox. 4. What could it do? Itcould calculate the positions of planets, predict when eclipses were tooccur, and solve other astronomical problems. 61Проверь значения слов no словарю. Заполни пропуски в предложениях. Измени форму, если необходимо.
1. They claim to have made a new discovery. 2. Stephen was declared thewinner. 3. He was frustrated because his colleagues challenged hisarguments. 4. Scientists are searching for evidence. 5. The researchaims to investigate why the company is not doing better. 6. The surveyreveals that most residents are against the new project. 7. Sarahaccepted his explanation without question. 8. He later confessed that hehad been involved in the trick. 9. They are likely to reject thedecision because it was made in a hurry. 62Соотнеси слова с определениями. 1. fake b) a copy of something such as apainting or piece of jewellery that is intended to trick people; 2.hoax d) a trick in which someone deliberately tells people thatsomething bad is going to happen or something is true when it is not; 3.scandal e) talk or reports in the newspapers or on television aboutshocking events; 4. fraud a) something that is not what people claim itis, and is designed to trick people; 5. buff c) someone who is veryinterested in and knows a lot about a particular subject.
Рабочая тетрадь 1a) Заполни таблицу. 3Запиши слова из рамки, которые могут использоваться со следующими словами.
1. to investigate: facts, details; 2. to provide: evidence; 3. to searchfor: hypothesis, facts, details, evidence, people; 4. to reject: facts,evidence; 5. to report: the issue, facts; 6. to persuade: people,scientists; 7. to check: hypothesis, facts, details; 8. to present:facts, evidence, solution, hypothesis, details; 9. to contradict: facts,evidence, hypothesis, people. 7Заполни пропуски фразами из упр. 3. Измени форму, если необходимо.
The hypothesis you have presented is original and looks quite credibleto me. However, it contradicts the conventional view on the matter. Topersuade the research committee, to allocate money for additionalexperiments you'll have to provide further details of the researchyou've done. If your experiments give reliable results, we'll team upleading scientists to investigate the issue thoroughly. 7а) Соотнеси слова. 1. financial fraud; 2. tax hoax; 3. history buff; 4. bomb scandal; 5. cheap fake.
b) Заполни пропуски фразами, которые получились.
1. — Allan has never been interested in humanitarian disciplines, hashe? — On the contrary, everyone in the collage believes he is a historybuff
2. — Do you know that John Kenneth was arrested? Some people say that hedeliberately concealed his income. — It's awful, isn't it? This meansthat he was accused of a tax hoax.
3. — I wanted to shop in the central supermarket, but the area was fullof policemen and nobody was allowed in. Do you know what it was? — Yes,it was on TV today. There was a bomb scandal. They had received severaltelephone calls and were checking the area for explosives. It was afalse alarm. I hope they find the hooligans responsible for that.
4. — Look! It's a genuine Rolex! I thought it was more expensive. —Don't be silly. A genuine watch in an outlet shop! It's a cheap fake.
5. — The newspapers say that the Mayor has stepped down and we are goingto have a new one. What could the reason for that be? — Don't you know?There have been rumors about a financial fraud he was involved in. Hepersuaded a local bank to invest money in some shady project. 8Используя глаголы в нужной форме, за- полни пропуски.
Eric: What are you reading?
Maggie: I've found it in my grandma's attic — an ancient scientificjournal. Look, it contains lots of old science fiction stuff. It alsohas some articles where sophisticated scientific issues are explained insimple language so that anyone, even my great- grandma, would be ableto understand them.
Eric: Look, there's an article about a solar eclipse. Some photos werepublished here too. It's a shame that they are only black and white.
Maggie: All photos of those times were black and white.
Eric: And what's that?
Maggie: It's one of the first computers. Looks weird, doesn't it?
Eric: It's huge and doesn't look like a PC at all. It reminds me an old transformer vault.
Maggie: I can t imagine how it is operated — it has neither a keyboard nor a monitor.
Eric: The article reveals some interesting facts about the history ofcomputing from 1939. Good progress has been made since that time!
Maggie: Yes, technology is accelerating rapidly nowadays. Scientistsexpect an impressive breakthrough that can probably change our life andour understanding of the Universe. Some people think thatextraterrestrial life will be found quite soon.
Eric: My uncle has got an electronic archive of articles aboutextraterrestrials that have been published since 1960. We can have alook if you want.
Maggie: Yeah, I am always curious about all that extraterrestrial stuff.The problem is that the evidence provided by media is never convincingenough. You know there are lots of other reasons that can explainphotos, images and strange phenomena. Let alone the fact that a lot ofall those facts are man-made fakes. But anyway, if your uncle doesn'tmind it, could I have a copy of his archive on my flash disk?
Раздел 4. Клонировать или не клонировать? 71Распредели фразы по колонкам таблицы.
Positive attitude: 1. It's an amazing medical breakthrough. 2. It hasallowed medical research to advance at a faster pace. 3. It allowsscientists to find alternative methods to cure certain diseases. 4. Itwill help us in the future.
Neutral attitude: 1. That's a difficult one to answer! On the hand...but on the other hand... 2. I'm not really into the whole cloning thing,but it's interesting...
Negative attitude: 1.1 don't even want to think about it! 2. It makes meworry about the future. 3. This would be extremely dangerous. 73Посмотри на картинку и ответь на вопросы.
1. Who is the main character of the film? The main characters of thefilm are the monster and its creator called Frankenstein 2. When was thefilm released? The film was released many years ago, in the 20thcentury. 3. Is it an original film or a screen version? It is a screenversion. 4. What is the whole story about? The story is about a youngscientist who creates a monster and how monster revenges its creator. 5.Have you seen the film or read the story? Did you like it? Why? /Whynot? I've read the story. I like it because of the language and theplot. And by the way it is a famous book and the only one written byMary Shelley. 74Прочитай отрывок из книги «Франкен-штейн» Мери Шелли (1818). Ответь на сле-дующие вопросы.
1. Who do you think the monster is talking to? The monster is talking toFrankenstein. 2. Who is the narrator of the story? The narrator of thestory is the scientist himself. 3. What does the monster want and howdoes the narrator respond? The monster asks the scientist to createanother creature like it, but of a female gender. The scientist refusesto do it. 4. How does the monster want to resolve the problem? Themonster is going to reason the scientist. 5. How do we know thatFrankenstein had some sympathy for the monster? According to narrator'swords about his feelings to the creature after have hearing the story ofits peaceful life with cottagers. 6. What emotion does VictorFrankenstein have? How do you know? He is disappointed with hiscreation. 7. Does Victor accept the request of the monster? How do youknow? He is strongly opposed the idea of creation the other monster. 8.Is the monster physically violent toward Victor? How do you know? Themonster is not going to torture or threaten Victor. We can judge itreferring to monster's words. 9. Why has the monster been violent in therecent past? How do you know? He felt lonely and he blamed his creatorfor it. 75Прочитайте краткое содержание книги и обсудите вопросы в парах. Сообщите результаты вашей дискуссии классу.
Известный роман Мери Шелли «Франкенштейн» — это классическая история обискусственно созданном чудовище, который пытается прижиться среди людей,не смотря на свою отвратительную внешность и ужасное воспитание. ВикторФранкенштейн — это великий ученый, который пытается создать идеальногочеловека из различных частей тела, однако его план провалился. Чудовищеоказалось крайне ужасным. Стремление монстра завести друзей и влиться вобщество не оправдывает его ожиданий снова и снова, и чудовище решаетотомстить своему создателю. Сначала оно убивает брата Франкенштейна.Виктор впадает в уныние и чувствует вину за создание чудовища, котороенесет только разрушение и смерть. Поэтому Виктор уходит в горы, чтобынайти покой. Но вместо этого чудовище требует его создать женщину, чтобыта стала его подругой. Франкенштейн возвращается в Англию под страхомсмерти его семьи. В момент, когда ученый почти закончил, он решает несоздавать еще одно чудовище, тогда чудовище убивает друга и новую женуВиктора — Элизабет. Виктор понимает, что единственной его целью в жизнистановится смерть чудовища. Виктор гоняется за ним по всей Европе иСеверному Полюсу, но внезапно он теряет след. Виктор провалился втрещину во льду. Тогда он встретил путешественника Роберта Уолтона и егокоманду. История заканчивается смертью Виктора и рас-каянием чудовища.Роберт Уолтон, который обещал убить чудовище, после недолгогозамешательства отпускает его, и его никто никогда больше не видел.
1. Did you like the story? Why?/Why not? I liked the story because Ifind it very interesting and humane. 2. How did you feel after youfinished reading the story? I feel pity for the monster because he wasnot able to love or to have friends. 3. Do you think the story sounds asunreal today as it did when it was written? Why? I think that today thestory does nor sound such unreal as it did earlier, because nowadaysmedical technologies are very developed and may be they already allow tomake such monsters. 4. Do you know any other examples of this kind ofstory? What are they? There are lots of examples when people'sdis-coveries kill their creators. For example, there are stories aboutrobots when they become against people and try to kill all of them.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполни пропуски словами из рамки.
1. Andrew knows a lot about computersand is very good at designing programs but he gets furious when we callhim a computer buff. 2. The police received several telephone callsabout a terrorist attack, but to everybody's relief it turned out to be ahoax. 3. Edward was frustrated when he found out that the vase he hadpaid a fortune for was not a genuine antique but a cleverly made fake.4. Some customers don't think that buying goods via the internet issafe. They want to be better protected against computer fraud. 4Соотнеси слова, чтобы получить устойчивые выражения.
1. technological breakthrough; 2. alternative medicine; 3. identicaltwins; 4. medical research; 5. developing embryo; 6. marine mammal. 5Перепиши предложения в пассивном залоге.
1. I can't cook the dish without pepper and salt. The dish can't becooked without pepper and salt. 2. We can't test the computer withoutspecial equipment. The computer can't be tested without specialequipment. 3.1 can't write an essay in ten minutes. An essay can't bewritten in ten minutes. 4. No one can cure this disease without aneffective remedy. This disease can't be cured without an effectiveremedy. 5. We can't accept your plan without Tony's approval. Your plancan't be accepted without Tony's approval. 6Поставь глаголы в нужную форму.
Anna: I don't really believe that cloning is possible.
Bertie: But there's strong evidence that it's true. Everyone knows aboutDolly, the sheep that has been cloned by British scientists.
A: I think it was a fraud. They didn't create Dolly from an adult cell, but from an embryo.
B: What do you mean?
A: Well, you know that there are natural identical twins. They mighthave taken one of the twin embryos to freeze it. Then they had waiteduntil the other embryo developed, was born naturally and grew into anadult animal.
В: And then?
A: Then they got the early embryo out of the freezer and put it in aninfant incubator. Dolly was born much later than her twin sister,because she had been kept in a freezer for years. And they claimed thatit was a clone, which it wasn't.
B: Don't be stupid! That fact of cloning has been accepted by scientistsall over the world. And there have been lots of other similarexperiments since that time.
A: OK, if you don't want to listen to my reasons — it's your right. I amalways very skeptical about cutting-edge discoveries like cloning,artificial intellect, UFOs, perpetual mobile and others. Seeking fameand recognition, scientists claim that they have found somethingextraordinary, but in most cases the breathtaking discoveries turn outto be frauds.
B: I've never seen such a skeptical person as you are! If all peoplewere like you, science would have died centuries ago and nothing at allhad been created! 7Отметь утверждения, с которыми ты согласен. Выбери одно из выбранныхтобой утверждений и прокомментируй его, аргументируя твой выбор.
1. Scientists should be very careful when experimenting with genes. 2.Scientists should focus on cloning human organs but not on cloningpeople. 3. People can benefit a lot from cloning technologies. I agreewith the idea that scientist should focus on cloning human organs butnot on cloning people. There is a serious problem with organtransplantation in medicine nowadays. Sometimes it is really hard tofind a donor for a sick. I think that cloning human organs and tissuemay solve this problem. As a result a lot of people could recover.
Раздел 5. Старая или современная: медицина как новая технология 83Прочитай предложения. Переведи их на русский.
— His health improved once he stopped smoking. Его здоровье улучшилось, когда он перестал курить.
— Eating junk food can seriously damage your health. Питание нездоровой пищей может нанести серьезный вред твоему здоровью.
— Stress is definitely bad for your health. Стресс определенно плохо сказывается на твоем здоровье.
— What helps you to stay in good health? Что помогает тебе оставаться здоровым?
— Не has been in poor health lately. В последнее время он был в плохой форме.
— A balanced diet helps to maintain health. Сбалансированная диета помогает поддерживать здоровье.
— Не stopped working because of ill health. Он перестал работать из-за плохого здоровья.
— It can take you several years to regain your health. Может потребоваться несколько лет, чтобы восстановить свое здоровье.
— You can have a free health check if you work for this company. Если тыбудешь работать в этой компании, ты сможешь получить бесплатныймедицинский осмотр.
— Living in the city centre can be a hazard to your health. Жизнь вцентре большого города может оказаться рискованной для твоего здоровья. 88Прочитайте текст и соотнесите картинки и лекарства.
Простые и эффективные средства домашней защиты от обычной простуды. Есливы чихаете и кашляете, у вас небольшое повышение температуры,слезотечение, боль в горле, насморк, возможно, это простуда. Простуда —это работа вирусных инфекций, которые начинают работать, когдаухудшается сопротивление организма. Она, как правило, поражает верхниедыхательные пути. Очень часто возникает в результате стресса, усталостиили недостаточного питания. Чтобы избежать простуды, есть несколькодо-машних средств: Питье горячей жидкости может облегчить симптомыпростуды. Горячий куриный суп является наиболее эффективным. Больныепростудой часто испытывают головную и пазушную отечности, горячая ваннанаиболее целесообразна в данном случае. Заполните ванну теплой илигорячей водой и добавьте в нее, по крайней мере, 0,5 кг соли. Послеванны, лягте сразу в постель и накройте все тело теплым одеялом. Телобудет потеть в ответ на тепло, чтобы вывести болезнь из организма.Долгий сон в теплой постели лечит простуда и помогает организмувосстановить силы. Полоскание теплым соленым раствором раз в два часаоблегчит боль в горле. Имбирный чай является одним из лучших способовпри лечении простуды. Для этого, следует вскипятить свежий корень имбиряв воде. Используйте мед вместо сахара, чтобы подсластить чай. Чайзаставит вас потеть. Если вы не хотите пить имбирь, вы можете жеватьего, что является еще одним эффективным способом лечения простуды. Есливам не нравится вкус вареного имбиря, попробуйте смешать корицу, молоко имед. Если вы хотите заменить молоко, используйте шоколад. Вы можетедобавить чеснок. Большинство из этих напитков не очень хороши на вкус,но если вы хотите естественным и эффективным образом вылечить простуду,они являются лучшим вариантом. 89Прочитай текст и заполни таблицу фразами из текста.
90а) Соотнеси слова и определения.
1. cure b) a fix for pain or minor illness; 2. treatment a) the processof providing medical care; 3. remedy с) a medicine that makes someonewho is ill become healthy.
b) Заполни пропуски.
1. The remedy is all prepared from wildflowers. 2. She is undergoingmedical treatment now. 3. The doctors cannot guarantee a cure. 4. It's apopular remedy for toothache. 5. There is no instant cure for thiscondition. 6. The paramedics are getting training in giving on-the-spottreatment. 97Что такое нанотехнология? Составь определение.
Nanotechnology is the skill of building very small machines by using computer technology 98Прочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки и абзацы.
1. В. Naturally nano. But nanomachines actually already exist insideyou. They are large molecules, like the enzyme that help power yourbody, and the ribosome that make the proteins to form your hair a nails.They are present inside the cells of the body, they just don't looklike our idea machines. But they are designed to work on the nano scale.If we could learn to copy their design we might be able to buildnano-sized robots help heal our bodies.
2. E. Small but dangerous? Some people are concerned that putting suchsmall particles into our bodies may cause us harm. The tiny size ofnanoparticles means they do not have the same properties as largerarticles of the same material. So a chemical that is safe in its normalstate might actually be harmful in its nano- form. Then again, it mightremain harmless. We don't really know yet.
3. D. Waiting time A lot of current work is focused on developingsensors that detect diseases and tiny capsules that take medicines towhere they're needed most in the body. But it could be a long timebefore we see the benefits. All new medicines have to go through longtrials to make sure they're safe. So we'll probably have to wait yearsfor most nano-s; zed healthcare to reach doctors' surgeries andhospitals.
4. G. What should be done? A recent report by the Royal Society and theRoyal Academy of Engineering recommended further research was neededinto the possible damaging effects of nanoparticles. They also suggestedthat all consumer products containing nanoparticles should be labeled.
5. E. Here and now However, cosmetics and beauty companies are alreadyusing this tiny technology to big effect. Skin scientists have designednano-sized "containers" that can carry a product's active ingredientsdeep into your skin, where they work most effectively. And somesunscreens now contain zinc oxide nanoparticles. These protect you fromthe Sun's rays but, unlike larger particles, they don't give you thatchalky look.
6. A. Future vision In the future, nanotechnologies could he doctorsdetect disease earlier, target drugs exact locations in the body, andgive us ways to grow and repair body tissue. But what will this "mini"medicine be like? Media images often show extremely small submarinesshooting through the blood, but the vision of nano-sized healthcare isunlikely become a reality. Scaled-down metal machine won't work on thenano-scale.
7. C. Early days The arrival of nanomachines that could repair ourbodies is a long way off. Before we design these devices, we need tounderstand how things work on this tiny scale. Most of the research isstill at a very early stage. Scientists at Oxford University are studyhow the tails, or "flagella", of some bacteria work. This type of tinymotor could be used future as a propeller for delivering drugs aroundthe body.
Рабочая тетрадь 3Распредели слова в таблице.
Jobs in medical care: nurse, general practitioner, surgeon, dentist, cardiologist, paramedic.
Things patients do: cough, sneeze, lose weight, receive injections, take pills, be operated on.
Things doctors do: provide treatment, give injections, operate on, transplant organs, take somebody's blood pressure, cure. 5а) Соотнеси слова. Используй четыре из получившихся фраз, чтобы закончить предложения.
1. regain strength; 2. receive treatment; 3. gargle the throat; 4. check the pulse; 5. cure diseases; 6. lessen symptoms.
b) 1. Doctors say that tea with lemon and a good sleep is the best wayto regain strength after a long hard day. 2. The paramedic checked thepulse. It was very weak. 3. Painkillers usually lessen symptoms, but don't cure diseases 6Заполни пропуски.
noun virus, nutrition, liquid, sore, fever, effect
adjective viral, nutritional, liquid, sore, feverish, effective 8Заполни пропуски глаголами, обозначающими намерения людей.
1. Jim: Don't forget about my birthday party this Saturday.
Anna: I will certainly come. Jim reminded Anna about his birthday party. She promised to come.
2. Andrea: Will you do me a favour? Could you lend me your laptop for this weekend?
Tom: No problem. I can give it to you till Monday. Andrea asked Tom tolend her his laptop. He agreed to give it to her till Monday.
3. Jerry: Would you like to go out with me Friday night? Tina: Umm, I'mnot sure. I may be busy on Friday. But, I think, yes, I would. Jerryinvited Tina to go out. She hesitated for a moment and then accepted theinvitation.
4. Emma: Can I make you some coffee?
Elsa: No, thank you. I don't normally have coffee so late. Emma offeredto make coffee but Elsa refused to have it so late at night.
5. Mary: It's seven o'clock already. I thought you'd be here by six.
John: Oh, sorry. I'm too late I know. Mary expected John to come at six. He apologized for being late.
6. Sophie: Don't worry so much. I think you should contact Max. He'll fix everything.
Andy: Thank you for your advice, darling. You are very supportive.Sophie advised Andy to contact Max. Andy thanked her for her support. 9Прочитай, что дедушка Майка сказал о себе, когда давал интервью журналистам 15 лет назад. Перепиши его слова в косвенной речи.
1. Mike's grandfather said that he had a perfect health. 2. He said thathe had never broken either an arm or a leg. 3. He replied thejournalist that the secret of his long and healthy life was eatingvegetables and drinking green tea. 4. He answered that he has neverexercised too much and that he hated jogging. 5. But he added that heenjoyed walking his dog very much. 6. He remarked that he had alwaysdreamt about working as a professional dog trainer. 7. He said that hewanted to join a local dog trainer's club when he retired. 10Прочитай письмо, которое ты получил от друга, ответь на него.
Hi, Laura, Don't worry about my printer — I'll manage somehow. As foryour symptoms, I think it's flu and you should start treatmentimmediately to avoid possible complications. The first thing I canadvise is to take a hot liquid because it can lessen your symptoms. Istrongly recommend you hot chicken soup, it is most useful. Taking longnaps on a warm bed also soothes flu and helps the body regain strength.So you should stay in bed and stop worrying about math test. Health isthe most precious thing that you have. It is most important. So, takecare of yourself. I hope you'll get better soon. Yours, XXX
Раздел 6. Современные технологии и окружающая среда 106Отметить слова «+» или «-» в зависимости от того какого рода эффект они оказывают на окружающую среду.
clean up +
have an impact on -
pollute - 108Прочитай интервью и расположи утверждения в хронологическом порядке.
Kelly decided to leave the country. Kelly found a job in a laundry of ahotel. Kelly moved to a flat on a main road. Kelly moved to a block offlats. Kelly found a job in a factory. Kelly's neighbours moved out. 111Закончи предложения, используя слова справа.
Shopping for clothes involves tricky decisions about fit, colour, style,and price. And if a growing number of companies have their way, you'llsoon start checking labels for another key detail: environmental impact.Earth-friendly fabrics are in. It's already possible to buy shirts madefrom bamboo and socks made from corn. Shopping malls of the futuremight also carry clothes made from chicken feathers or rice straw. Thecompanies that make such fabrics are interested in sustainabledevelopment. This means trying to provide things that people need whileprotecting natural resources and preserving biodiversity. "A fullysustainable business would be one that creates no negative impact on theenvironment," says Gordon Rands, an environmental business expert atWestern Illinois University in Macomb. "I don't think such a businessexists yet, but theoretically it's very possible. And companies aremoving in this direction." So, scientists are now looking for new waysto make fabrics for clothes that are good both for your imagination andfor the Earth.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Распредели слова и фразы по двум колонкам таблицы.
Words and phrases we are likely to use when we talk about environmentalproblems: noise pollution, air pollution, lead to deforestation, usechemicals, destroy the ecosystem, fumes from the traffic, upset theecobalance
Words and phrases we are likely to use when we talk about protectingenvironment: reduce carbon emission, develop ecotourism, reduceconsumption, use less packaging, wind energy technologies, protectspecies from extinction, solar energy devices 4Составь из букв слова, обозначающие природные и человеческие катастрофы.
1. drought; 2. earthquake; 3. deforestation; 4. flood; 5. famine; 6. tornado.
Раздел 7 Давай возьмем цифровой 116Прочитай тексты, какой факт не со-ответствует истине.
The typewriter was invented by Hungarian immigrant Qwert Yuiop who lefthis "signature" on the keyboard of a modern computer. This statement iswrong. 118Прочитай тексты и вставь части пред-ложений обратно в текст.
Text 1 Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos grew interested in online retailingin 1994 while working as a business analyst in New York City. Afterresearching the success of different mail-order companies, Bezos decidedthat books were the perfect product to sell via the internet. That yearhe left New York to establish his new company in Seattle, chosen forits proximity to major booksellers and the booming high-tech industry.In July 1995 Amazon.com launched its website, and has since expanded tooffer many other retail products in addition to books.
Text 2 Charles Babbage was a British mathematician and inventor, whodesigned and built mechanical computing machines on principles thatanticipated the modern electronic computer. Babbage's concepts led tothe modern computer and earned him the title "father of the computer".In the 1820s, Babbage began developing his Difference Engine, amechanical device that was supposed to mechanize the production ofmathematical tables. Bab.bage started to build his Difference Engine,but was unable to complete it because of a lack of founding. In the1830s, Babbage began developing his Analytical Engine, which wasdesigned to carry out more complicated calculations, but this device wasnever built. 121Выбери правильный вариант для пред-ложений.
1. You can check your e-mail at the internet cafe in the square. 2.Thousands of people logged on to view the live internet broadcast of theconcert. 3. To set up a company you first need to register an internetdomain name. 4. I have unlimited internet access via broadband internetconnection. 5. You need special software for downloading internet files. 122Соотнеси слова из левой колонки со словами из правой колонки.
1. connect to b) the website; 2. type in a) the website address; 3.click e) on a link; 4. browse/search c) the internet; 5. download d) theinformation.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Запиши верное слово для приведенных определений.
1. То do the necessary actions on a computer system that will allow youto begin using it: to log on/in; 2. To stop using a computer system bygiving it particular instructions: to log off/out; 3. The physicalequipment used in a computer system, such as the central processingunit, peripheral devices, and memory: hardware; 4. The programs that canbe used with a particular computer system: software; 5. A unique name,corresponding to one or more numeric IP addresses, used to identify aparticular web page or set of web pages on the internet: domain name; 6.A service provided on the internet enabling users to search for itemsof interest (e.g. AltaVista, Google, Rambler, Yahoo!): search engine; 7.A computer program that finds information on the internet and shows iton your computer screen (e.g. Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer):web browser. 2Используй слова из рамки и соотнеси их с картинками.
А — CD-ROM drive; В — speaker; С — web camera; D — monitor; E — USBport; F — keyboard; G — printer; H — scanner; I — computer; J — screen; К— mouse. 3Заполни пропуски глаголами.
Emma: Hello! Can I speak to Jonathan, please?
E: Hi, it's Emma. Busy?
J: A bit. I'm explaining to my grandma how to write e-mails. She bought acomputer a couple of days ago and asked me to help her understand howit operates. We have just installed the software and at the moment mygrandma is browsing the internet.
E: Wow! How's she feeling about it?
J: Absolutely delighted! She's amazed how much information the internet has to offer.
Е: Has she chosen a user's name for her mailbox?
J: Not yet. We need to choose the search engine first. I have neverthought that my grandma is so choosy about this stuff — she wants toknow the advantages of all existing search engines and wants to comparethem! She calls it an informed choice.
E: I won't be surprised if your grandma will become a very advanced user very soon.
J: Neither will I! She's learning surprisingly quickly. Actually, hermain problem is that she cannot type fast. She has never had anypractice in typing. But I'm she will improve her typing skills soon.
E: Slow typing is absolutely normal for starters. And why does she wantto get computer skills? She doesn't need it for her work, does she?
J: No, she retired a year ago. And that's why now she has more time thanshe used to. So, she wants to give it to self-development andcommunication. She travels a lot now and e-mailing helps her keep intouch with people she meets. She says that communication is a veryvaluable thing. And she is also considering an online language course.
E: Good luck to you both! I'd like to meet your grandma one day.
J: Any time. But wait till we will have everything sorted out with her e-mail. She hates distracting. 5Заполни пропуски фразами.
1. We say that a person has excellent computer skills when he/she canuse a computer for their work or studies effectively. 2. A computervirus is a program that can enter the computer and damage or eliminatethe information there. 3. A computer programmer is a person who createsspecial programs that enable users to make electronic documents or playcomputer games. 4. Playing computer games is a common pastime forpresent day teenagers. 5. Cracking other people's computers and stealinginformation is called a computer crime and is prosecuted by law. 6.Doctors say that computer addiction has become another dangerousdisorder that threatens people's health along with alcohol and drugs. 7.Computer dating can help shy and unsociable people start relationshipsand even make families. 6Выбери одно из высказываний и аргументируй свой выбор.
I think that computer skills are absolutely essential for people whowant to gain success and have a sustainable career. Approximatelyeverywhere we have to deal with computers now. They make our work easyand quickly that is why they are widely spread. Thus, you have to becomputer literal as if you want to get a good job. You will not justhave a choice.
Итоговый контроль 2а) Прочитай тексты и соотнеси их с за-головками.
1. В. This bamboo fan cap works just as you might imagine. Sunlight isabsorbed through the disk on the top of the hat, which powers the fanthat blows onto the forehead of the person wearing this unfortunatefashion accessory. Ladies don't distress, there is also a more femininestyle for those of you who are more apt to go for a floral design. Forthe joker in you or for those of you just wanting to keep cool, bothstyles are for sale in the UK at just £11.00 each.
2. A. A solar panel, which is 5 inches by 4.5 inches, powers the fan,which exchanges hot air inside the car for the presumably cooler airoutside. If you park in the shade and want to use the fan, there's aplug-in adapter for the car. One retail Website says the fan can reduceyour parked car's interior temperature by 25 degrees, though that's notmuch solace considering another Website cited 160 to 180 degree tempsinside a parked car on a hot day. If you want to try to make your carcooler, you can buy this solar gadget online for around $10.
3. F. Direct Sun Lighting is not a single futuristic but a wave of newtechnology known as Hyl Lighting (HSL). HSL is supposed to reduce forold-fashioned electricity by harnessing to power of the sun. The newlighting system that the light redirected into your home is to theactual light of the sun. There is also to filter the additional naturalcolors of them and sunset. So when is HSL going to be for commonly inthe average household? The model, delivering 50,000 lumen of sunlight tobe available for commercial buildings in e and to be tested forresidential housing in 2.
4. D. Now almost any common gadget can harness the power of the sun topower itself. Winner of the Mac World Best of Show 2005, the UniversalHybrid Charger recharges any handheld device that you would normallyplug into an outlet. The device is sold for $99.95 (USD) and comes infour different colors including a Quicksilver design. Besides the normalcables included in the box, they also throw in different tips which canbe used to power a wide variety of cell phone brands. The battery holdsenergy for up to a year and can be recharged by the sun or, whennecessary, a wall outlet.
5. С. For the person who has everything else, this plant holder uses thesun's rays to continually rotate the base so that sunlight is evenlydistributed onto the plant. This could be deemed useful to dedicatedgardeners lacking time to be fully attentive. Running in at only $24.95(USD), this solar gadget is affordable and time-saving. b) Прочитай тексты и определи в каких текстах упоминается следующее:
1. the year of a product's commercial launch — С; 2. the year of aproduct's participation in an exhibition — D; 3. the cheapest price of adevice — B; 4. the most expensive price of a device — D; 5. the modelof a device — C; 7. the temperature inside a car — B; 8. the amount oflight — C; 9. the material used — A; 10. the name of a design — A. 3Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа для каждого пропуска.
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wastedenergy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be availableand all you need to use it are a few wind turbines! Currently less than1% of the Earth's energy needs are supplied by wind, with Denmark beingthe most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind.The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the cheapest aroundand it is able to produce on average 18 times more energy than isconsumed in its construction, compared to nuclear which is estimated ataround five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms butwhat they often forget is that the land can still be used for farming,with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One ofthe biggest concerns about wind turbines, is their effect on bats andbirds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines.Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbinesare deeply concerned by the numbers of bats being killed, promptingongoing research. 4Заполни пропуски в тексте правильной формой глаголов в скобках.
The internet has changed people's life dramatically. It has allowedpeople from all over the world to communicate with each other andexpress their ideas and opinions. In a real life situation it is noteasy to start speaking with a complete stranger, a person in power or achild. The internet hides your age, class and looks. It has allowed manypeople to set up their own businesses. Some of these people are veryyoung, even under the age of 18. The workplace is becoming increasinglystressful for many people, with longer hours and polluted air in bigcities. The internet offers other alternatives, such as working fromhome and online shopping. Today you don't have to go out to buy goods orearn money. The biggest concern about people using the internet isgetting addicted to it. This happens because computers are used tocompensate for feelings of loneliness, marital and work problems, poorsocial life, and financial problems. All in all, the internet is here tostay and whether it improves or ruins our life is up to us.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 1 2АЗакончи предложения, используя слова в скобках, а также слова who, whose, which, why, when, where.
1. A genius is a person who has exceptional abilities. 2. An engineer isa person whose profession is to apply scientific principles to engines,machines and different constructions like bridges and buildings. 3. Acyborg is a cybernetic body which has both artificial and naturalsystems. 4. Curiosity is the reason why people make discoveries. 5. Anexperimental ground is a place where scientists can test out their newinventions. 6. A computer virus is a little program that inserts itselfinto a computer system and damages software and information. 7. PDA is aportable computer which can be used as a mobile phone, the internetbrowser and a little media player. Разминка 1 2BЗапиши собственные определения к следующим словам.
Spacecraft — a vehicle used for travel in space; UFO — ABBREVIATION FORunidentified flying object: an object seen in the sky which is thoughtto be a spacecraft from another planet; A programmer — a person whosejob is to produce computer programs; A submarine — a ship which cantravel under water; An iPod — a type of small MP3 player; An alien —relating to creatures from another planet; A laboratory — a room orbuilding with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or forteaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced;Inspiration — a sudden good idea; A nanotechnologist — a person who isinvolved in an area of science which deals with developing and producingextremely small tools and machines by controlling the arrangement ofseparate atoms. Разминка 1 3АЗадай вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. Even some scientists believe in extraterrestrial life. — Who believesin extraterrestrial life? — In what some scientists believe?
2. It's believed that Leonardo Da Vinci was the first person who made adrawing of a submarine and explained how it could work. — Who was thefirst person who made a drawing of a submarine and explained how itcould work? — What did Leonardo Da Vinci explain?
3. For some obvious reasons nanotechnologists consider rats the mostuseful animals in the world. — What considers rats the most usefulanimals in the world? — What do nanotechnologists consider as the mostuseful animals in the world?
4. Environmentalists insist on research into alternative energy sourcesthat do not pollute the planet. — Who insists on research intoalternative energy sources that do not pollute the planet? — What doenvironmentalists insist on? Разминка 1 3BВыполни социологический опрос. Сформулируй вопросы и представь результаты перед классом.
A. Extraterrestrial life: 1. Do you believe in extraterrestrial life? 2. How do you think when people will contact the aliens?
B. Artificial intellect (robots): 1. Do you believe that robots can experience emotions? 2. When will bio-robots be created?
Тест 1 Часть II ЧтениеПрочитай текст и заполни пропуски фразами. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
E-commerce means selling and buying products online. Nowadays internetshops can compete with retail shops quite successfully. Is online tradejust a fashion or a persistent tendency? Will it ultimately causetraditional shops to die out? Everything depends on customers and 1. Etheir buying habits and preferences. Let us find out how people in thestreets feel about e-trade growing opportunities. "I find buying onlinevery convenient," says Allan Brig, a loyal internet customer. "I haveunlimited access to the internet and I'm practically always online. If Ineed to buy something, I try internet shops first and only if theycan't offer me what I need, do I go to a store, a shopping centre or asupermarket." "Buying via the internet is a great option," Julia Smith, abusy undergraduate, shares the opinion. "And it's good for ideas too.If I want to buy something, say, a present for my friend, but have noidea what exactly I need, I type the key words "buy" and "originalpresents" in the search bar and press "enter". Instantly the searchingsystem provides me with a long list of sites which, as the machinethinks, meet my requirements. I look through the list 2. F but clickonly on the links that seem relevant. Naturally, the results of thesearch may contain lots of irrelevant links. It's irritating sometimes,but the machine doesn't want to confuse me deliberately, 3. С it justapplies mechanical approach to search for information. According to it,if a site contains all three words "buy", "original" and "presents",it'll be selected automatically. Unfortunately, 4. H the searchingsystem is not able to think logically and analyze the content of thesite. But I'm sure it'll learn how to do it very soon." Another opinionbelongs to Maria Chris, a freelance designer. "I often shop online," shesays, "though many of my friends don't think that it's safe enough.That's true, 5. В the internet provides additional opportunities forfraud, but if you are careful, you can feel quite safe. When I buy viathe internet, I usually visit several sites to compare prices anddelivery terms. I want to know if the delivery is free, to put itbluntly, if the delivery costs have been included in the price already,or if they want me to pay extra for it. As for the ways of payment,there are usually two options. The first one is payment by a creditcard, 6. G which means that you need to type in the details of yourcredit card in a special form. The essential information they need towithdraw the money from your account is the card holder's name, thenumber written on the card and the expiry date. Alternatively, you canpay cash to the delivery man when you receive the ordered goods. Thoughpaying cash is not very convenient, as the delivery man may not havechange, I usually prefer it as a very safe way." John Flint, a salesmanager in tourism, doesn't contradict the previous respondents.Actually, he sums up their opinions. "Theoretically speaking", he says,"hackers can break any computer and get access to your personal data 7. Aincluding your passwords, pin codes and credit card details. I'm not acomputer geek and I don't know how it can be done, but I'm sure it'spossible. In spite of that, I feel that e-trade offers us an amazingopportunity to save our time. Shopping is inevitable and sometimes it'sfun, but I'm grateful to the technological progress that now I candevote more time to what I really like — my family, my friends and myrare plants collection."
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Letter E F С H В G A Часть III Грамматика и ЛексикаЗаполни пропуски правильной формой. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Last Saturday I was at an air show with a friend. Jeff, my friend, isconsidering a career in aircraft engineering and that's why he isinterested in aviation and the prospects for this industry. Among theplanes presented at the show, a light jet caught Jeff's attentionimmediately. To me it was just a nice elegant blue-and-white jet, butJeff's description was much more professional. He said that it was asingle-pilot jet with two engines, which has an automated cockpit andcan carry five or six passengers. He also said that the jet is a verynoticeable innovation in aircraft construction for years and it may havea wide application in very different spheres. Its non-disputableadvantage is that it can land on a runway much shorter than a runwayrequired by the smallest jet now being flown. Jeff even predicted thatthe new jet would be used as an air taxi. And he may be right — in thenear future business people can be attracted to these jets because theywill get where they need to go much faster and cheaper than on a chartedbusiness jet. The official at the show said that unfortunately the jetscannot be delivered to the customers immediately as some technicalissues still need to be resolved. After the show I was wondering if thatjet could become an attractive alternative to daily commuting one day!
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Letter С A С A D D A Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые считают, что все дети будут учиться в виртуальных школах. Онисмогут входить в виртуальный класс из любого места — из дома, Интернеткафе, побережья океана. Через 50 лет не будет традиционных классов ишкол.
People sometimes can be very optimistic in their prognosis towards ourfuture. High technology is developing very quickly and new devices areimple-mented in our everyday life. And cyberspace has become anessential part of our real life. Educational system has also undergoneserious changes. As for me I do not think that in 50 years children willnot have to go to school. I believe that the traditional system ofeducation will remain the same. From my point of view face-to-facecontact in the process of learning is most important. I would neverrefuse replace real classroom by a virtual one. Besides, traditionalschool involves not only subjects and home tasks but also communicationwith peers. I reckon that students should get not only knowledge butsocial skills also. Virtual communication prevents this, to my mind.Though virtual classroom is rather convenient it allows much freedom forpupils. But I think that it is the only advantage of such a classroom.People always tried to simplify their life. Because of it a lot ofthings were created. But not of them actually simplified our lives.Sometimes vice versa. However, in spite of the fact that moderntechnology is changing our life greatly we still can choose whetheraccept or not these changes.
Рабочая тетрадь 2 Разминка 2 1Bа) Заполни пропуски наиболее подходящими модальными глаголами. Добавь одно или два предложения, чтобы выразить свое мнение.
1. When walking their dog, people shouldn't keep it on a lead. Thewalking might prove to be useless as the dog won't feel comfortable. 2Dogs should be walked in special places. If not, dog owners must cleanup after their dogs. Other people might be angry if you leave the placeafter you dirty. 3. If the dog is bog and fierce, it should always wear amuzzle when you walk it. Other people might be scared by your dog oryour dog might attack people. 4. Dogs shouldn't be allowed to children'spla-ygrounds, hospital or school gardens. They may do damage and may bedisease carriers. 5. The owners should keep their dogs healthy andvaccinate them regularly. Dogs need care and their owners should alwayslook after them. 6. If you want your puppy to become a good guide dog ora guard dog, you should apply to a professional dog coach or train ityourself. Only at early age dogs can learn. 7. When you train your dog,you shouldn't be cruel to it. You should be patient also. You should beready to the fact that your dog won't remember all the very first time. Разминка 2 2AПрочитай письмо Ольги и заполни пропуски необходимой формой слова.
Dear editor, I enjoy reading your magazine as there's lots ofinformation about new technologies, innovative engineering solutions andideas about how to make our life more and more digital. However,sometimes I doubt that if s all only for good. I think thattechnological progress affects our lifestyle in a very negative way too.It may be true that our life is much more comfortable now than it usedto be. We have lots of devices and gargets that do many jobs for us,like a washing machine and a dishwasher, or entertain us, like computersand iPhones. However, on the other hand, modern technologies depriveour bodies of being active, which causes different diseases and healthproblems. Furthermore, they develop new diseases and addictions. Afriend of mine, for example, has got computer addiction and it worriesme a lot. The thing is that he gave up volleyball, he was quite good at,doesn't go out and spends days and nights pattering on the computerkeyboard. His school is affected very badly as he doesn't do hishomework and even misses classes. His only interest in life is playingcomputer games, browsing the internet and chatting in the chat rooms.I've been trying to distract him from the computer, but nothing works.He is not conscious of the fact that any addiction is a disease whichrequires treatment and if not treated, it will cause seriouscomplications. I really think that he should see a doctor, but hedoesn't want to hear about that. I don't know what I should do in thissituation and would appreciate any advice. Do you think that I'm makingtoo much fuss about it? Should I just leave him alone? What measures canbe taken to make him come back to real life?
Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Letter A В В С A A В Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаИспользуй слова в правильной форме. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. improvement; 2. painful; 3. overweight; 4. sadly; 5. healthy; 6. injections. Часть IV. ПисьмоТы получил письмо от своего англоговорящего друга Тони. Ответь на его письмо. В своем письме ты должен:
— ответить на его вопросы;
— пожелать ему веселого дня рождения и задать ему два вопроса о его вечеринки по случаю дня рождения.
Dear Тоnу, I'd like to wish you many happy returns of this day of youbirth. I wish you also good health and happiness. Well, frankly speakingI was a little bit astonished too when I learnt about your present. Apuppy! Wow! I have never had a dog at home as a pet, I mean. So I don'treally know what I can advise you. I reckon that having a dog isresponsibility first of all. As now you have to walk it every day, feedand take care of this little creature. You should never neglect yourpet. You should remember that it needs your attention. As for training Ithink you should ask a professional trainer for an advice. Dogs shouldbe trained from the very early age, so you should not hesitate. By theway, how is your birthday party? Where did you go out with your friends?What did you do? Did you enjoy yourselves? I look forward to hearingfrom you soon.
Best wishes, XXX
Часть 4. Откуда ты?
Раздел 1. Город против деревни 2Распредели слова по колонкам в таблице.
City: skyscrapers/blocks of flats, the underground, terrible airpollution, some industrial areas, rush hour, crowds of people, trafficjams, litter, huge factories and plant.
Country: a cleaner and safer environment, raising chickens, farming,nice little cottages, producing your own food, sunlight and fresh air,hiking, fishing, spacious apartments, gathering a crop/harvest,swimming, producing goods, growing wheat or rye, trees and forests,convenient parking areas. 10Найди в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы.
— Where is the best place to live in the author's opinion? According tothe author of the article the best place to live is country.
— What kind of community has she moved to? She has moved to a smaller community where people's skills are more practical.
— Does she like it there? How do you know? She likes living in a small town as she tells positively about it.
— What does she like best about her new community? Why do you think so?She believes that living in a small town is more convenient because ofmanageable space, mild climate and decent environment.
— How does the value of work differ in a city from that in a small town?In a small town white-collar skills become useless. In a small townpractical skills are needed.
— Do you agree with the author's opinions? Why?/Why not? It's author'sopinion as she has a right to express it. But living in a city or asmall town it's a choice of everyone: Tastes differ and everyone willhave their own answer for this question. 11Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант.
1. b; 2. а; 3. b; 4. b. 12Прочитай текст и ответь на вопросы.
— Who are the boys? Boys have escaped from their homes to explore nearby countryside.
— Where are they? They are on an island that is three miles long and a quarter of a mile wide.
— How are they feeling? They feel homesick.
— Why do you think they are ashamed of the way they are feeling? They donot want to show their weakness to each other, they want to lookmature. 13Расположи следующие места в порядке от наименьшего до наибольшего.
1. camp; 2. settlement; 3. village; 4. town; 5. city; 6. capital; 7. megalopolis. 14Соотнеси слова и определения.
1. camp b) a place where tents or buildings are erected usually fortemporary living; 2. city g) an inhabited place usually larger or moreimportant than a town; 3. village d) a settlement usually larger than ahamlet but smaller than a town; 4. settlement f) a small village orcolony, usually historical; 5. town a) a compactly settled area usuallylarger than a village but smaller than a city; 6. megalopolis e) a verylarge urban unit; 7. capital c) the main city of a state or country. 15Прочитай текст и измени слова так, чтобы заполнить пропуски.
1. beautiful; 2. location; 3. live; 4. camping; 5. settlement; 6. arrival; 7. lately. 18Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски частями предложений внизу.
1. d; 2. b; 3. f; 4. с; 5. е; 6. а.
Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова с противоположным зна-чением.
1. local - global; 2. reasonable - unreasonable; 3. complexity -simplicity; 4. decent - indecent; 5. agricultural - industrial; 6. ample- insufficient; 7. safety - danger. 3Вычеркни неподходящее слово.
— inhabitant, city-dweller, villager, local,
white-collar worker, resident, settler;
— megalopolis, settlement, city,
location, town, village. 4Обведи правильное слово.
1. Do you enjoy shopping for new clothes? 2. You promised to help me with the essay, but you didn't come. 3. We decided to buy tickets for the show in advance. 4. Would you like having something to eat? 5.I don't want to talk about it now. 6. Some people hate cooking, but I like it. 7. Is it allowed to use cell phones here? 8.I would never recommend using this site. The information is not very reliable there. 5Прочитай следующие утверждения и напиши противоположное.
1. Living in the country is very boring. You don't have enough people tocommunicate with. Living in the country cannot be boring, as there are alot of things to do such as swimming, playing outdoors, and many otherthings. By the way, it should be borne in mind that the communicationdoes not depend on quantity but on quality. So it is important just tohave one good friend. 2. Living in a big city is very stressful. Allpeople who live there are nervous and rude. It is not correct to tellthat all people in a big city are nervous and stress. If it were, wewould not have any city as no one would live there. People can be happyin different circumstances even in the most stressful. 2. If people livein the country side, they are severed from the political life of thecountry and don't know what's going on there. In the modern societymedia has a huge power. Television and internet are everywhere now.People in every corner of a country may be in the mainstream. 3. Ifpeople live in cities they are severed from nature and don't care aboutenvironmental issues. In modern cities much attention is paid to theenvironment. In any towns there are beautiful big parks where citizensmay spend their free time. 4. Living in the country makes peopleunsociable and reserved. They don't want to know what's happeningoutside their little community. In the country people know each otherperfectly well. They usually visit their neighbours and get in touchwith each other. 5. Living in big cities makes people neglect eachother. They don't care about other people's well-being and never helpanyone. You can find a lot of indifferent people everywhere, in does notdepend on one particular place. In cities there are a lot of exampleswhen people help each other during some emergencies such as a fire orflood. 6Распредели слова по колонкам. 7Закончи эссе.
If I had to choose where to live — in a city or in the countryside, itwould be a very difficult choice for me. Both alternatives have manyadvantages as well as disadvantages. As indisputable advantages of thecity is that the city can offer you more perks of modern that thecountry can do. There are a lot of cafes, theatres and museums incities, while there is none in the country. In most cases thecountryside cannot offer the same, but it can attract with fresh air,quiet and peaceful environment. The worst thing about living in the cityis its rapid pace of life. Everyone is in a hurry. People usually donot have time even to look at the sky or to smile to passers-by. In thecountry I would hate being severed from the rest of the world. Beingseparated from a megalopolis, from this rapid life is the worst thingfor me about living in the country. The most reasonable thing, in myopinion, is to create a new type of settlement which could combine themain benefits of both, i.e. wide range of modern perks and perfectenvironment and would rid of the drawbacks of the both.
Раздел 2. Какое хобби ты предпочитаешь? 27Прочитай отрывки из книги Кейт Фокс. Озаглавь отрывки.
1. В; 2. Е; 3. D; 4. А; 5. С. 29Прочитай отрывки и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. b; 2. b; 3. с; 4. а; 5. b; 6. а; 7. b; 8. с. 30Соотнеси части предложений.
1. gossip publication; 2. do the hovering; 3. glance at the TV screen;4. have passion for word games; 5. weekly on the phone; 6. socialinteraction; 7. make eye contact; 8. fill pause; 9. shake hands; 10.kiss cheeks; 11. awkward silence; 12. unwritten rules; 13. widelyrecognized; 14. essential part. 34Заполни пропуски в предложениях следу-ющими фразами:
1. It was the first time we'd ever tried skating. 2. I'm usually free atthis time of day. 3. Now seems the time to make a change. 4. We justleft after midnight, local time. 5. He is too young to tell the time. 6.It was a particularly hard time for her. 7. What were you doing at thetime? 8. She did karate for a long time. 9. The fitness centre onlyopened a short time ago. 10. Do you remember the right time when wefirst came to school? 11. We had a really good time diving. 12. It'stime you started packing for the trip. 43Прочитай текст и заполни пропуски.
1.С; 2. В; 3. А; 4. D; 5. В; 6. С; 7. В.
Рабочая тетрадь 1а) Расположи хобби по двум колонкам.
sporty hobbies: snorkeling, surfing, badminton, fishing, paintball, kart driving,
painting,stamp collecting, knitting, cooking, clothes/accessoriesdesigning, photography, assembling miniature aircraft/ship/submarinemodels, collecting butterflies 2Расположи оборудование в правильные колонки.
knitting patterns from fashion journals, wool, needles,
snorkeling flippers, wet suit, mask, snorkel
skateboarding skateboard, helmet, knee pads,
photography camera, lenses, photo printer, photographic paper 4Поставь слова в правильную форму.
1. called; 2. lived; 3. made; 4. kicked; 5. was; 6. had arrived; 7. wasplaying; 8. was invited; 9. had been training; 10. could gain; 11.became; 12. had never seen; 13. could manage. 9Заполни пропуски. Измени форму, если необходимо.
1. been occupied; 2. sprawl; 3. affected; 4. preferred; 5. interaction;6. excuse; 7. encourage; 8. essential; 9. awarded; 10. recognized; 11.cares; 12. priority. 12Прочитай рекламное объявление и напиши письмо, чтобы узнать больше о предложении.
Dear Emmy, I am very interested in taking up dancing classes. I havecome across your advertisement about the new dancing school. I would begrateful whether you tell me about it in details. First of all, I wouldlike to know on what day's classes will be. If they are during weekdays,is it an evening time? Lots of people work and it will be more suitableto arrange classes in evenings. Secondly, could you tell me how manypeople there are in the group? And if it is ok, would you let me knowwhat the price per month is? Is there any discount for students?Finally, I would be happy if you tell me what equipment you providewith? I look forward to hearing from you soon. I am eager to startclasses.
Yours sincerely, XXX
Раздел 3. Круг моих друзей 54Прочитай стихотворение и заполните пропуски словами, сохраняя рифму.
"The rain may be falling hard outside,
But your smile makes it all alright.
I'm so glad that you're my friend.
I know our friendship will never end." 57Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. В; 2. D; 3. В; 4. С; 5. А; 6. В; 7. В; 8. А; 9. D; 10. А. 59Прочитай текст и ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What is a social networking system? A social networking system is anonline network of people linked together. 2. How can you become part ofone? You just need to register on a web page and send invitations toyour friends to become part of your network or community. 3. What arethe benefits of being part of such a system? Everyone in the network is a"friend of a friend" (though perhaps several times removed), you have agreater level of comfort about contacting each other and sharinginformation. 4. How are such systems different? Some of these networksare geared primarily toward dating, some are strictly for businesscontacts or employment searches, and still others are moregeneral-purpose — for making friends, finding people to join you inrecreational activities, or discussing common interests. 5. What is themost popular system called? How did it develop? The most popular systemis called Friendster. Within three months of its debut, Friendster hadover a million members. 6. What are the drawbacks of being a member ofsuch a system? All of the networks have percentage of "stale" members;besides the time and effort required using the system, many users havefound that "friends of friends" aren't necessarily people they want tohave relations with. 64Прочитай краткое содержание пьесы и расставь абзацы в правильном порядке.
1.С; 2. F; 3. D; 4. В; 5. Е; 6. А.
Рабочая тетрадь 2Соотнеси слова с противоположным значением.
1. timid - extraverted; 2. ambitious - indifferent to success; 3.trustworthy - unreliable; 4. popular - out of favour; 5. smart - stupid;6. decent - dishonest. 3Прочитай диалог и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. С; 2. С; 3. А; 4. В; 5. D; 6. D; 7. А; 8. В; 9. С; 10. В; 11. В; 12. А; 13. А.
Раздел 4. Восток или 3апад? 75Прочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки с параграфами.
1. The "Japanese" way of living; 2. Global trends; 3. Family life 4. Barculture, cafe and conversation; 5. A simple but aesthetic life; 6. Muchwork and bad health; 7. Looking for different lifestyle. 76Прочитай текст и скажи, в каких странах:
1. Family values are important. Italy; 2. The pace of life is ratherslow. Italy; 3. Long working days influence one's lifestyle a lot. TheUSA; 4. People feel depressed because of the fast pace and peerpressure. Japan; 5. The pace of life has increased recently. The USA; 6.Global trends have influenced people's lifestyle. Japan; 7. People havegot more interested in travelling. Japan; 8. People are looking forquieter places to live and work. The USA; 9. People combine their loveof the arts with everyday things. Italy; 10. New fashion trends havebeen created. Italy. 77Соотнеси слова, чтобы образовать устойчивые словосочетания.
1. community renowned; 2. genuine humbleness; 3. is a must; 4. maintain abalance; 5. mutual respect; 6. rapid changes; 7. rapid pace; 8.stressful lifestyle; 9. top priority; 10. tough competition; 11. worldvalues. 78Заполни пропуски фразами из упр. 77.
1. A lot of people in big cities suffer from a stressful lifestyle. 2.In our company mutual respect is one of the most important values. 3. Intraditional societies world values are still a top priority. 4. To befit one should maintain a balance of exercise and healthy food. 5.Visiting parents and grandparents is a must for me every weekend. 6.When they started their business they faced tough competition. 80Прочитай высказывания и раздели их по двум колонкам таблицы.
The Western way of thinking 1. Based on ancient Greek and Socraticideas. 2. Emphasis on indi-vidual rights. 3. The "truth" is important.
The Eastern way of thinking 1. Chinese and Indian philosophy en way ofseeing life. 2. Emphasis on social responsibility. 3. Balance isimportant. 84Прочитай текст и выбери предложение, которое лучше всего отражает его содержание.
A. Advanced technologies play an important role in the modern world. 85Прочитай текст и отметь верные и неверные предложения.
1. Т; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. Т; 6. F. 86Заполни пропуски словами справа.
1. communicate; 2. inventor, appreciation; 3. survival; 4. requirement; 5. solution; 6. existence.
Рабочая тетрадь 1Заполни пропуски в таблице. Country/ Continent People living there
Australia Australians Asia Asian Europe European Belgium Belgians ChinaChinese Cyprus Cypriots Egypt Egyptian Italy Italian Greece GreekHungary Hungarians Japan Japanese Malta Maltese New Zealand NewZealander 4Соотнеси предложения, которые отражают противоположности в стилях жизни Америки и Италии.
1. Generally Americans work from 8 to 10 hours a day. C. In contrast,Italians are not used to long working hours and usually enjoy longbreaks for lunch. 2. Lots of Americans commute to work every week day.Italians would rather quit a well-paid job than put up with traffic jamsand long journeys to the office and back. 3. Due to their intenselifestyle Americans have got used to fast food, which actually savestime, and find it quite good. A. Italians, however, would never agreewith that. They are extremely proud of their national cuisine andbelieve that a delicious dinner with family or friends is one of thebest things in the world. 4. Most Americans don't spend much time withtheir families. They often claim that they can't find time for that astheir schedule is very busy. E. Italians on the contrary enjoy qualitytime with their kids as well as their elderly parents. They believe thatwhen there's a wish, there's always a way. 5. When an American familygets together in the evening, they often prefer watching television totalking or going out. B. Unlike them, Italians definitely prefer beingoutdoors to staying indoors. One can often see large Italian families,their friends and neighbours gossiping or discussing various familymatters over cappuccino or espresso in cafes, bars or terraces.
Раздел 5. Сохраняя традиции 98Прочитай тексты и скажи, какой фестиваль: 1. used to be cruel towardsanimals — The Cat Festival; 2. involves a lot of eating — The HungerHooting Festival; 3. requires fast and careful movements — The KeppeiKrabtastic World Crab-Tying Championships; 4. involves men only —Naadam; 5. has an unclear origin — La Tomatina; 6. involves a strangeuse of vegetables — La Tomatina; 7. involves wearing special clothes —Naadam; 8. is compared to another festival — The Keppei Krabtastic WorldCrab-Tying Championships.
Итоговый контроль 2Поставь строчки в правильном порядке.
a) Two men were travelling together, when a Bear i) suddenly met them ontheir path. One of them d) climbed up quickly into a tree and concealedhimself к) in the branches. The other, seeing that he must be attacked,e) fell flat on the ground, and when the Bear came up h) and felt himwith his snout, and smelt him all over, m) he held his breath, andfeigned the appearance of death as much j) as he could. The Bear soonleft him, for it is said he will not c) touch a dead body. When he wasquite gone, g) the other Traveller descended from the tree, 1) andinquired of his friend what it was the Bear f) had whispered in his ear."He gave me this advice," b) his companion replied. "Never travel with afriend n) who deserts you at the approach of danger." 3Прочитай текст и выбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. С; 2. А; 3. А; 4. С; 5. В; 6. С; 7. А; 8. В. 4Заполни пропуски словами в правильной форме.
1. performance; 2. prosperity; 3. taught; 4. encouragement; 5. creation; 6. combination; 7. ability; 8. natural.
Тест 1 Часть II. Чтение1. А; 2. С; 3. В; 4. В; 5. А; 6. А; 7. В. Часть III. Грамматика и лексика1. В; 2. С; 3. А; 4. D; 5. D; 6. В. Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые думают, что Интернет может быть опасным для детей иподростков, потому что у них может возникнуть зависимость. Такаязависимость может крайне негативно сказаться на их жизни, вот почемуИнтернет должен использоваться только в образовательных целях.
Internet is an essential part of our everyday life. It serves millionsof purposes. Everyone could find something for him or her. Butunfortunately, sometimes internet may affect our life in a very negativeway especially for children and teenagers. Doctors remark that nowadaysa new type of addiction has appeared, i.e. internet addiction. The mostvulnerable group of people who suffer from this addiction is childrenand teenagers. They absorb completely in cyberspace. They stopsocializing with their peers in reality; they spend a lot of timeplaying computer games. Of course it affects their studying performance.But should not forget that internet may bring a lot of positive momentsalso. It is not only an endless source of information which can be usedin educational purposes but also a place where there is no limits forcommunication. Timid teenagers may find friends with the help ofinternet as it helps them feel more confident. In conclusion, I wouldlike to give some advice parents. It is very important to be attentiveto your children and monitor all the changes they undergo. If you noticeany symptoms of internet addiction, it will be easier to cure it at anearly stage. Internet is not a source of world evil, it is not verysmart to forbid your children use it.
Рабочая тетрадь 2Разминка 2 1АВыбери правильный вариант ответа.
1. I suggest arranging our farewell party in the nearby cafe. 2. Moderntechnologies allow people to have more time for themselves and theirhobbies. 3. I wouldn't recommend you going to that country if you don'tspeak their language. 4. I don't mind wearing traditional dresses fortraditional cultural events. 5. Colonists often wanted to make localpeople accept their religion. 6. Most people enjoy travelling, but onlysome of them can afford to do it often. 7. E-mailing got very popularbecause it lets us use less money on telephoning. Разминка 2 2AРаспредели глаголы no колонкам таблицы.
Verbs that are normally followed by an infinitive: manage, plan, refuse, afford,
Verbs that are normally followed by a gerund: suggest, mind, recommend, enjoy, admit Разминка 2 2Bа) Закончи диалог. Используй инфинитив глагола или герундий.
1. staying; 2. living; 3. to stay; 4. to pay; 5. to change; 6. having dinner; 7. walking; 8. to stay.
Тест 2 Часть II. ЧтениеПрочитай текст и соотнеси заголовки и параграфы. Перенеси ответы в таблицу.
1. F; 2. В; 3. А; 4. С; 5. Е; 6. D. Часть III. Грамматика и ЛексикаПрочитай отрывок из письма и заполни пропуски. Используй глаголы в правильной форме. Перенеси варианты ответа в таблицу
1. has found; 2. worked; 3. will not see; 4. admitting; 5. gets; 6. have been writing; 7. have not sent. Часть IV. ПисьмоПрокомментируй следующее высказывание:
Некоторые считают, что все тесты должны быть компьютеризированными.Компьютеры не могут быть предвзятыми, и поэтому результаты будут болееобъективными.
New innovations are coming into our life. Even the system of educationhas become more innovative. New technology is widely used in allschools. They include computers, DVD, overhead projectors and many otherdevices. The system of assessment is also changing. New computer basedtest have been implemented. But has it made results more objective? Thesupporters of this idea are convinced that the machine is absolutelyunprejudiced. We hardly can argue this statement. Using computers allowsus to speak about absence of any chance to cheating. In this case wecan rely on computers. But on the other hand, computers may break down.All the results of the candidate may be lost. The only solution is tocreate methods how to save the information the candidate has entered.Additionally we should not forget that for some people it is morepreferable, more convenient to take a paper-based test as it is justmore typical. Certainly, all time there are supporter and opposition ofinnovations. But again the decision will be made by the majority. Andfrom my point of view, this decision will be positive for computers.
Школьный английский Что изучает географическая экономика? 4Прочитай текст и выбери предложение, которое лучше всего отражало бы основную идею текста.
D. Economic integration is an essential and a reality in today's worldwhich lead to new prospects but also problems for national economies. 5Соотнеси колонки с фразами, чтобы по-лучились устойчивые словосочетания.
1. The proportion of imported goods... d) is increasing constantly. 2.Due to economic integration... e) we have much more variety in ourconsumer goods. 3. Importing core consumer goods may... a) weaken localeconomies. 4. If a country is highly integrated... b) into 'the globaleconomy, it may lead to its political dependency. 5. Economicintegration accelerates the economic... f) development of mostcountries. 6. Sometimes buying goods abroad... c) can reduce costs. 7Изучи диаграмму и информацию к ней. Прокомментирую утверждения под диаграммой.
It's very likely that oil production makes a considerable part of thecountry's economy. The pie chart says that the export of raw materialsconstitutes almost half. It's possible that the country has a goodsupply of oil as its economy specializes on oil export. It's likely thatthe country can provide its own energy to its economy. The pie chartsays that the considerable part of the country's economy is machinerysuch as equipment for the oil and gas industries. It's probable that thecountry is well integrated into the world economy. We can judge fromthe pie chart that this country is an exporter of raw materials. So itdemands strong international links. It's unlikely that the countryembodies the agricultural type of economy. According to the pie chartonly 11% makes up the country's economy in the agricultural sector. It'slikely that the country does not pay much attention to high technologydevelopment. According to the pie chart there is no sector for the hightechnology industry. It seems possible that the country could increasethe share of high tech equipment because of the car machine industry. Itis very likely that the country should change its exports in favour ofmore technological industries. 10Ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What is Transib short for? What's its full name? Transib stands forthe Trans-Siberian Railway. 2. What do the letters BAM stand for? BAMstands for the Baikal Amur Mainline. 3. Were the Transib and BAMconstructed si-multaneously? The Transib and BAM were not constructedsimultaneously. 4. What was their mission? Their mission was to linkdifferent parts of the country. 5. Has their mission been fullyrealized? There is no definite answer for this question. Theinfrastructure of the country still remains poor. 12Прочитай текст и ответь на следующие вопросы.
1. What was the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway and how much grounddid it cover? The Transib runs from Moscow to Vladivostok through thesoutheastern parts of the country. It covers more than nine thousandkilometers. 2. Why are the Transib and BAM so important for the economyof the region they go through? The existing lines provide a vitallyimportant corridor from Europe to the resources of Siberia and furtheron to the riches of the Far East. 3. Who built BAM? BAM was built byyoung people. 4. Why do many economists support the idea of re-launchingthe Transib and BAM projects? Because these routes may serve as abridge to new boosting economies of Korea, China and Japan.
Физика сложная? 4Что изучают разделы физики? Соотнеси колонки таблицы.
1. Mechanics: с) This branch of physics studies how objects and forcesinteract with each other. It describes if the object is static ordynamic, the types of motion and the forces acting on the object. 2.Molecular physics: b) This branch of physics studies the structure ofthe molecule, and that hold atoms together. 3. Thermodynamics: e) Thisbranch of physics studies heat and states that heat is a form of energy.It also studies how temperature changes the characteristics of theobject. 4. Electrodynamics: d) This branch of physics studieselectricity, electrical current and e magnetic fields. It also studiesthe interaction of charged particle electromagnetic fields. 5. Quantumphysics: a) This is a relatively young branch of physics which studieselectrons and neutrons. In contrast to Newton's physics, it states thatthe traditional model of atom is wrong, and that electrons, protons andneutron: the tiniest particles. It also studies what these particlesconsist of.