Unit 9. Abstract, Next Friday.
Consonant Clusters Within and Across Words
|Consonant clusters also occur within words. For example:|
Note: Some clusters found within words can also be found at the beginning of words (dislike - slow), at the end of words (important - lamp), or both (escape - Scotland/ask); but others can't (abstract, invisible).
|When a word ending with a consonant or consonants is followed by aword beginning with a consonant or consonants, a new consonant clusteracross words is formed. These can be particularly difficult topronounce when they come within a speech unit without a pause:|
// it's an elm tree//
// there's a children's playground//
When consonant clusters are divided by a pause, they are often easier to pronounce:
// if Tom can't take you to the film// try Mike//
// there'll be three suitcases// two of Joan's// plus my own//
|All the consonant clusters within the speech units in thisconversation are underlined. Listen and follow the notes. Some clustersare simplified with sounds left out or changed to make them easier topronounce. (Units 26-31 give detailed information on all these features of fluent speech.)|
|Words that commonly go together in phrases and compounds (examplesof these are given in Units 16-18) are generally said within speechunits. Consonants at the word boundaries are usually run together in acluster. For example:|
|Underline all the consonant clusters within the words in this text(i.e. not at the beginning or end of words). Note that some words havetwo consonant clusters.|
Key.When I started playing badminton, I was sixty and I hadn't done any strenuous (/'strenj∂uas/) exercise (/'eks∂saiz/) for almost twenty years. But after just a few months I'd won the over-fifties national championship and an international competition. My husband thinks I'm crazy and that I'll injure myself. But I've found a number of advantages in taking up a sport. I feel much healthier, and it's important to be active at my age. And meeting new people has improved my social life. So I'll carry on playing until I get too old.
|Now check your answers in the Key. Then read the text aloud,focusing on the pronunciation of words with underlined consonantclusters. |
|Listen and repeat phrase 1 in column A with a slight pause betweenthe two speech units. Then listen and repeat phrase 1 in column B,making sure you run the words together without a pause. Then do thesame for prases 2-10 (notice that the underlined clusters are the samein columns A and B) . Some underlined consonant clusters in column Bare simplified. Try to make the same simplifications when you repeatthem (see Key for details of simplifications).|
|Match a word from box A with a word from box B to make compoundnouns. Say the compounds aloud, making sure you run the words in thecompound together.|
Key.direct speech (/t/ is left out)
general strike (no simplifcation)
golf club (no simplifcation)
lamp shade (no simplifcation)
first class (/t/ is left out)
passive smoking (no simplifcation)
rock music (/k/ is shortened)
lost property (/t/ is left out)
speech therapist (no simplifcation)
time travel (no simplifcation)
tourist trap(/t/ is lef out)
Examples: blood poisoning (/d/ in 'blood' is pronounced like /b/)
|Listen, check your answers and repeat the compounds, making the samesimplifications of consonant clusters where these occur (see Key fordetails of simplifications).|
| ||Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10|| |
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