Unit 11. 'Comfort and 'Comfortable.
Suffixes and Word Stress (1)
Unit 11; Part A
|Some words are made up of a root and a suffix:|
In some words with suffixes, the stress stays on the same syllable as in the root. Compare:
'danger and: 'dangerous
In other words, the suffix changes the stressed syllable. Compare:
'commerce and: com'mercial
Unit 11; Part B
|Suffxes which don't usually change the stress pattern in the root word include -able, -age, -al (but see Unit 12 for -ial), -er, -ful, -less, -ness, -ous and -fy. For example:|
Unit 11; Part C
|Some suffixes themselves usually have the main stress. These include -ее, -eer, -ese and -ette. For example:|
Exceptions include: 'omelette, 'etiquette, em'ployee (although less commonly we use ,employ'ee).
Note: Some people say 'cigarette.
Words with these suffixes can often have stress shift (see Unit 10):
She's japanESE. but: She's a JAPanese JOURnalist.
He's a refuGEE. but: We saw photos of REFugee CHILdren.
|Complete the sentences with pairs of words from B opposite. You should also mark the stress.|
Key.(United States) Note that thisspeaker of American English pronounces 'herb' /з:rb/; in BritishEnglish it is usually pronounced /hз:b/. Note also that 'medicine' isusually pronounced with 2 syllables /'meds∂n/, but may be pronouncedwith three in slow, careful speech /'medιs∂n/.)
1 di'saster - di'sastrous
2 'outrage - out'rageous
3 Re'gardless - re'gard
4 'industry - in'dustrious
5 per'centage - per'cent
6 my'sterious - 'mystery
7 agri'cultural - 'agriculture
The herb is used for me'dicinal purposes, although it isn't usually thought of as a 'medicine .
1 The journey was a _____________; in fact, the whole vacation was _____________.
2 The decision was an _____________ - quite _____________. I was appalled.
3 _____________ of his mistakes, the president continues to be held in high _____________.
4 Workers in the steel _____________are generally skilled and _____________.
5 The Democrats' lead is now eight _____________ points, and has risen three _____________ in the last week.
6 Her _____________ disappearance was never explained, and her whereabouts remain a _____________ until today.
7 The region is mainly _____________ land and most people here still work in _____________.
|Now listen and check your answers. Then say the sentences aloud, paying attention to the stress in the words you have written. |
|This speaker is talking about the difficulty of getting cars repaired. Focus on the words ending with the suffixes -able and -al(in bold). Listen and tick the words which follow the rule given in B -that is, they have the same stress pattern as their root.|
Words with the same stress pattern as their root:
de'pendable (de'pend) re'liable (re'ly)
me'chanical (me'chanic) ac'ceptable (ac'cept)
pro'fessional (pro'fession) de'batable (de'bate)
Words with a diferent stress pattern from their root:
uni'versal ('universe) 'reputable (re'pute)
|Here are some extracts from a radio news programme. Underline thesyllable in each word in bold that you think is likely to be madeprominent. Remember, some of the words in bold are likely to havestress shift.|
Key.* indicates stress shift.
1 absentee* 2 volunteer* 3 Cantonese 4 roulette 5 Sudanese*
Example: An aircraf that crashed three years ago in the Andes has been found by mountaineers.
1 A report on the problem of absentee landlords is to be published today.
2 Five thousand volunteer helpers are to be recruited for the next Olympic Games.
3 Mandarin and Cantonese are the most widely spoken languages in China.
4 The government is considering a ban on roulette.
5 There has been an outbreak of cholera among Sudanese villagers.
Now listen and check your answers. Then read the extracts aloud.
Follow up: How many other country adjectives ending in -esecan you think of? How would you say them:(i) on their own; (ii) in thecontext 'the _____________ people' (e.g. the Japanese people)?
| ||Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12|| |
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