Unit 14. Dis'organised and ,Recon'sider.
Prefixes and Word Stress (1)
| prefix→ |
| ←root |
Common prefxes include: de-, dis-, il-, re-, un-. Sometimes the root can be used as an independent word (e.g. like), but other roots cannot (e.g. renounce and denounce, but not 'nounce').
|In some words the prefix is unstressed and is only made prominent (see Unit 10) for particular contrast. Compare:|
A: Do you enjoy driving?
B: No, I really disLIKE it.
A: I thought you LIKED driving?
B: No, I really DISlike it.
Words like this are usually shown as having only one (main) stressed syllable:
Other words like dislike include:
Other words with these prefixes have secondary stress on the prefix:
,decom'pose ,recon'sider ,unaf'fected
(See Unit 15C for stress shift in words like these.)
|In words with de- and re- prefixes, the prefix is usually pronounced /dι-/ and /rι-/ if it is unstressed and /di:-/ and /ri:-/ if it has secondary stress. Compare:|
de'grade /di-/ but: ,decom'pose /di:-/
re'claim /rι-/ but: ,recon'sider /ri:-/
A few words with de- and re- prefxes are usually pronounced with an unstressed /-ι-/ in the prefix when they are used as a verb and a stressed /-i:-/ in the prefix when they are used as a noun. Compare:
Interest is likely to decrease. (/dι'kri:s/)
but: There has been a decrease (/'di:kri:s/) in interest.
|Some words beginning re- have the same spelling but a different stress and meaning depending on whether re- means 'again' or not. Compare:|
Note: When re- means 'again', the words are sometimes spelt with a hyphen, e.g. re-cover, re-count.
|Complete the sentences with words from the box in В opposite.Underline the syllable that you think will have the main stress inthese words.|
Example: They're going to replace most of the workers with machines.
1 It's _________ to forecast the weather too far ahead.
2 I haven't had time to _________ since I got back from holiday.
3 We have to _________ her from working too hard.
4 Parking on a double yellow line is _________.
Now listen and check your answers. Then say the sentences aloud.
|Write the same words from exercise 1 (including the example) in thespaces in these conversations. Again, underline the syllables that youthink will have the main stress in these words.|
A: Would it be a wise investment?
B: No, I think it would be very unwise .
1 A: Did you say you've misplaced your keys?
B: No, I said I have to __________ them.
2 A: I suppose it's legal to bring alcohol into the country?
B: No, it's completely __________.
3 A: Did it take long to pack your case?
B: Ages, but it won't take long to __________ it.
4 A: Did your teacher encourage you to do the maths course?
B: No, she tried to __________ me from doing it.
Now listen, check your answers and say the В parts aloud.
|Write the verbs from the box in the correct column according to the usual pronunciation of the de- or re- prefix. Some are done for you.|
Key./di:-/ debug deregulate destabilise devalue
/dι-/ deflate deform delineate demote descend
/ri:-/ reapply recharge reconsider resit restructure
/rι-/ reflect refresh relapse replace review
Now listen and check your answers. Then say the words aloud.
|Choose words from D opposite to complete the pairs of sentences. Usethe same word in each pair. Think about the pronunciation of the wordsyou have written and say the sentences aloud.|
1 a recover /rι'kΛv∂/ ( = get well) b re-cover /,ri:'kΛv∂/ ( = cover again)
2 a re-sign /,ri:'saιn/ ( = sign again) b resign /rι'zaιn/ ( = give up a job)
3 a re-count /,ri:'kaunt/ ( = count again) b recount /rι'kaunt/( = describe)
a The band hasn't played together for years, but they've said they'll reform for the charity concert. (/,ri:'fo:m/ = form again)
b The government are going to reform health care. (/rι'fo:m/ = improve)
1 a She'd been seriously ill and it took her a long time to ___________.
b The chair was badly stained, so we had to ___________ it.
2 a He hasn't agreed yet to ___________ for the club for the next baseball season.
b If working conditions don't improve soon, she's threatening to ___________.
3 a When the phone rang, I forgot how many books I'd already put in the box, so I had
b He liked to ___________ his wartime experiences to anyone who'd listen.
Now listen and check.
| ||Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15|| |