Unit 26. One Evening, Stop Now, Go Away. etc.
Important for listening!
ln fluent speech, words within a speech unit are usually saidwithout a break. The sound at the end of one word is linked to thesound at the beginning of the next so that there is a smooth connectionbetween them.
A consonant sound at the end of a word is linked smoothly to a vowel sound at the beginning of the next:
one evening a serious accident the exact opposite
|When a word ending with a consonant sound is followed by a wordbeginning with another consonant sound there is no break between them,although the first consonant sound may change its pronunciation alittle to make it easier to move to the next consonant sound:
a warm breeze I've seen it starting tomorrow
Notice also that when a word ending with one of the consonants /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, is followed by a word beginning with a different one of these (or /m/ or /n/), no air is released at the end of the first consonant and there is a smooth change to the second:
stop now heard tell make bread
|When a word ending with a consonant sound is followed by a wordbeginning with the same consonant sound, one lengthened consonant soundis made:
some milk glorious sunshine it's half full
|A vowel sound at the end of a word is linked to a vowel sound at the beginning of the next by an inserted /w/ or /j/ ('y') sound:
who is it? go away can you see it? it's completely empty
/w/ /w/ /j/ /j/
The choice of either /w/ or /j/ depends on the vowel sound that ends the first word. If the vowel is produced with the highest part of the tongue close to the front of the mouth (/i:/, /eι/, /aι/, /oι/) then the linking sound will be /j/. If the vowel is produced with the highest part of the tongue close to the back of the mouth (/u:/, /aυ/, /∂υ/) then the linking sound will be /w/.
|Words ending with the letters -r or -re have a fnal vowel sound: e.g. car /ka:/, more /mo:/, fir /fз:/, other /'Λð∂/, fear /fι∂/, hair /hе∂/, pure /pju∂/. When a word like this is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, a /r/ sound is inserted:
car engine my other uncle pure oxygen
/r/ /r/ /r/
In some dictionaries this /r/ before a vowel is shown with the symbol r.
For example: /ka:r/ (car) /'Λð∂r/ (other) /pju∂r/ (pure)
Note: In many other accents of English (e.g. Scottish, Irish and most North American accents) words ending in -r or -re always have a final /r/ sound: car /ka:r/, more /m'o:r/, etc.
Less commonly, a /r/ sound is inserted when the word ends in one of the vowels /а:/, /о:/, /з:/, /∂/, /ι∂/, /е∂/ or /υ∂/ but is not spelt with the letters -r or -re:
China and Japan the area is fooded
However, some native speakers of British English think this is incorrect pronunciation.
Whensounds merge or a sound changes at the end of a word, it may sound likeanother word, but usually any misunderstanding is resolved by context. For example, 'talk Danish' might sound like 'taught Danish', but these are unlikely to be confused in context.
|First match A's questions with B's answers in this conversation.Then look at the B parts and decide whether the links marked are /w/links (write /w/) or /j/ links (write /j/).
Now listen and check your answers. Press 'pause' beforeeach B part and read it aloud. Then press 'play' again and compare yourpronunciation with what follows.
|Mark all the possible /r/ links in these sentences containing idiomaticphrases. Say the sentences aloud and then listen and check youranswers. (Check any idioms you don't know in a dictionary or in theKey.)
Example:I bought it on the spur of the moment.
1 He's got a fnger in every pie.
2 It's in the nature of things.
3 She's without a care in the world.
4 It's as clear as mud.
5 It's the law of the jungle.
6 Let's focus on the matter in hand.
7 Is that your idea of a joke?
8 He's a creature of habit.
9 Pride comes before a fall.
10 Get your act together!
|Listen and underline which of the words you hear in each sentence.As the pairs of words could be pronounced in a similar way in thesentences, you will need to use the context to help you choose.
Example: held / helped let / led
(She held my hand as she led me up the hill.)
Now check your answers in the Key. Then listen again and repeat the sentences.
|Unit 25 Unit 26 Unit 27