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Unit 8. Present perfect 2 (I have done).

Unit 8; Part A

galka.jpgStudy this example conversation:
Have you travelled a lot, Jane?
Yes, I've been to lots of places.
Really? Have you ever been to China?
Yes, I've been to China twice.
What about India?
No, I haven't been to India.


When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, we use the present perfect
(have been / have travelledetc.). Here, Dave and Jane are talking about the places Jane hasvisited in her life (which is a period that continues until now).

galka.jpgSome more examples:

•  Have you ever eaten caviar?  (in your life)
•  We've never had a car.
•  'Have you read Hamlet?'    'No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.'
•  Susan really loves that film. She's seen it eight times!
•  What a boring film! It's the most boring film I've ever seen.

galka.jpgBeen (to) = visited:
•  I've never been to China. Have you been there?
galka.jpgIn the following examples too, the speakers are talking about a period that continues until now (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast etc.):
•  Have you heard from Brian recently?
•  I've met a lot of people in the last few days.     
•  Everything is going well. We haven't had any problems so far.
•  I'm hungry. I haven't eaten anything since breakfast.
(= from breakfast until now)
•  It's good to see you again. We haven't seen each other for a long time.

Unit 8; Part B

galka.jpgWe use the present perfect with today / this evening / this year etc. when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking (see also Unit 14B):
8.3.jpg    I've drunk four cups of coffee today.     
    Have you had a holiday this year (yet)?       
    I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you?
    Rob hasn't studied very hard this term.

Unit 8; Part C

8.4.jpggalka.jpgWe say: It's the (first) time something has happened. For example:
    Don is having a driving lesson. It's his first one.
       It's the first time he has driven a car. 
(not drives)
     or       He has never driven a car before.
    Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened.  (not happens)
•    Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That's the third time he's phoned her this evening.


flag.jpgYou are asking people questions about things they have done. Make questions with ever using the words in brackets.
Key.2 Have you ever been to California?
3 Have you ever run (in) a marathon?
4 Have you ever spoken to a " famous person?
5 What's the most beautiful place you've ever visited?

1    (ride / horse)    Have you ever ridden a horse?    
2    (be / California?)  Have _______________________________  
3    (run / marathon?)   _______________________________      
4    (speak / famous person?  _______________________________    
5    (most beautiful place / visit?)  What's  _______________________________

flag.jpgComplete the sentences using today / this year / this term etc.
Key.2    haven't read one / haven't read a newspaper
3    it's made a loss / it has made a loss / it hasn't made a profit
4    she hasn't worked hard this term
5    it hasn't snowed (much) this winter
6   haven't won many/any games this season

1    I saw Tom yesterday, but    I haven't seen him today.   
2    I read a newspaper yesterday, but I ________________________ today.
3    Last year the company made a profit, but this year ________________________.
4    Tracy worked hard at school last term, but ________________________.
5    It snowed a lot last winter, but   
6    Our football team won a lot of games last season, but we ________________________.

flag.jpgRead the situations and write sentences as shown in the example.
Key.2    Have you played tennis before? No, this is the first time I've played tennis.
3    Have you ridden a horse before? / Have you been on a horse before?No, this is the first time I've ridden a horse. / ... I've been on ahorse.
4    Have you been to London before? No, this is the first time I've been to London.

1    Jack is driving a car, but he's very nervous and not sure what to do.
      You ask:      Have you driven a car before?     
      He says:     No, this is the first time I've driven a car.   
2    Ben is playing tennis. He's not good at it and he doesn't know the rules.
      You ask:  Have ______________________________________
      He says:  No. this is the first  ______________________________________
3    Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't look very confident or comfortable.
      You ask:  ______________________________________
      She says:   ______________________________________
4    Maria is in London. She has just arrived and it's very new for her.
      You ask:  ______________________________________
      She says:  ______________________________________

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