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Unit 28. Must and can't.

Unit 28; Part A

galka.jpgStudy this example:
You can use must to say that you believe something is certain:
•    You've been travelling all day. You must be tired.  (Travelling is tiring and you've been travelling all day, so you must be tired.)
•    'Jim is a hard worker.'    'Jim? You must be joking. He doesn't do anything.'
•    Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.
•    I'm sure Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere.

You can use can't to say that you believe something is not possible:

•    You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry already.  (People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal. You've just eaten, so you can't be hungry.)
•    They haven't lived here for very long. They can't know many people.

Study the structure:
I / you / he (etc.)

be (tired / hungry / at work etc.)
be (doing / going / joking etc.)
do / get / know / have etc.

Unit 28; Part B

galka.jpgFor the past we use must have (done) and can't have (done). Study this example:
Martin and Lucy are standing at the door of their friends' house.
They have rung the doorbell twice, but nobody has answered. Lucy says:

They must have gone out.
•     I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep.
•     'I've lost one of my gloves.'    'You must have dropped it somewhere.'
•     Sue hasn't contacted me. She can't have got my message.
•     Tom walked into a wall. He can't have been looking where he was going.

Study the structure:

I / you / he (etc.) 
been (asleep / at work etc.)
been (doing / looking etc.)
gone / got / known etc.
You can use couldn't have instead of can't have:

•     Sue couldn't have got my message.
•     Tom couldn't have been looking where he was going.


flag.jpgPut in must or can't.
Key.2    must
3    can't
4    must
5    must
6    can't
7    must
8    must
9    can't

1    You've been travelling all day. You     must     be tired.
2    That restaurant ___________ be very good. It's always full of people.
3    That restaurant ___________ be very good. It's always empty.
4    I'm sure I gave you the key. You ___________ have it. Have you looked in your bag?
5    You're going on holiday next week. You ___________ be looking forward to it.
6    It rained every day during their holiday, so they ___________ have had a very nice time.
7    Congratulations on passing your exam. You ___________ be very pleased.
8    You got here very quickly. You ___________ have walked very fast.
9    Bill and Sue always travel business class, so they ___________ be short of money.
flag.jpgComplete each sentence with a verb (one or two words) in the correct form.
Key.3    be
4    have been
5    be
6    go   or   have been
7    be going
8    have taken / have stolen / have moved
9    have been
10  be following

1    I've lost one of my gloves. I must    have dropped     it somewhere.
2    They haven't lived here for very long. They can't    know    many people.
3    Ted isn't at work today. He must _____________ ill.
4    Ted wasn't at work last week. He must _____________ ill.
5    (the doorbell rings)  I wonder who that is. It can't _____________ Mary. She's still at work at this time.
6    Sarah knows a lot about films. She must _____________ to the cinema a lot.
7    Look. James is putting on his hat and coat. He must _____________ out.
8    I left my bike outside the house last night and now it has gone. Somebody must _____________ it.
9    Amy was in a very difficult situation when she lost her job. It can't _____________ easy for her.
10  There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last twenty minutes. He must _____________ us.
flag.jpgRead the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can't have.
Key.3 It must have been very expensive.
4 They must have gone away.
5 I must have left it in the restaurant last night.
6 He can't have seen me.  or  He couldn't have seen me.
7 He must have been waiting for somebody
8 She can't have understood what I said.  or   She couldn't have understood what I said.
9 I must have forgotten to lock it.
10 The neighbours must have been having a party.
11 The driver can't have seen the red light.   or    The driver couldn't have seen ...

1    The phone rang, but I didn't hear it.  (I / asleep)
       I must have been asleep.                    
2    Sue hasn't contacted me.  (she / get / my message)
       She can't have got my message.        
3    The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it / very expensive)
4    I haven't seen the people next door for ages.   (they / go away)
5    I can't find my umbrella.  (I / leave / it in The restaurant last night)
6    Dave, who is usually very friendly, walked past me without speaking.  (he / see / me)
7    There was a man standing outside the café.  (he / wait / for somebody)
8    Liz did the opposite of what I asked her to do.  (she / understand / what I said)
9    When I got back to my car, the door was unlocked.  (I / forget / to lock it)
10  I was woken up in the night by the noise next door.  (the neighbours / have / a party)
11  The light was red, but the car didn't stop.  (the driver / see / the red light)

Unit 27      Unit 28     Unit 29 forward.jpg

Полный ассортимент первоклассного клинкерного кирпича тут. Клинкер — это старый, традиционный материал, применяющийся столетиями для возведения зданий.