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Unit 80. Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache)

Unit 80; Part A

galka.jpgYou can use two nouns together (noun + noun) to mean one thing/person/idea etc. For example:
     a tennis ball       a bank manager       a road accident       income tax       the city centre

The first noun is like an adjective. It tells us what kind of thing/person/idea
etc. For example:
    a tennis ball = a ball used to play tennis
    a road accident = an accident that happens on the road
   income tax = tax that you pay on your income
   the water temperature = the temperature of the water
   a London doctor = a doctor from London
   my life story = the story of my life
So you can say:
    a television camera    a television programme    a television studio    a television producer

   (these are all different things or people to do with television)
    language problems    marriage problems    health problems    work problems
   (these are all different kinds of problems)


   garden vegetables (= vegetables that are grown in a garden)
    a vegetable garden (= a garden where vegetables are grown)

Sometimes the first word ends in -ing. Usually these are things used for doing something:

    a frying pan (= a pan for frying)    a washing machine    a swimming pool    a dining room

Sometimes there are more than two nouns together:

•   I waited at the hotel reception desk.
•   We watched the World Swimming Championships on television.
•   If you want to play
table tennis (= a game), you need a table tennis table (= a table).

Unit 80; Part B

galka.jpgWhen two nouns are together like this, sometimes we write them as one word and sometimes as two separate words.
For example:
     a headache       toothpaste       a weekend       a car park       a road sign
There are no clear rules for this. If you are not sure, write two words.

Unit 80; Part C

galka.jpgNote the difference between:

  a sugar bowl (perhaps empty) and a bowl of sugar (= a bowl with sugar in it)
   a shopping bag (perhaps empty) and a bag of shopping (= a bag full of shopping)

Unit 80; Part D

galka.jpgWhen we use noun + noun, the first noun is like an adjective. It is normally singular, but the meaning is often plural. For example: a bookshop is a shop where you can buy books, an apple tree is a tree that has apples.

In the same way we say:

    a three-hour journey (= a journey that takes three hours)
    a ten-pound note  (not pounds)
     a four-week course  (not weeks)
    two 14-year-old girls (not years)
    a six-page letter (not pages)


    It was a four-week course.   but   The course lasted four weeks.


flag.jpgWhat do we call these things and people?
Key.3    a computer magazine
4    (your) holiday photographs
5    milk chocolate
6    a factory inspector
7    a race horse
8    a horse race
9    a central London hotel
10  (your) exam results
11  the dining room carpet
12  an oil company scandal
13  car factory workers
14  a road improvement scheme
15  a five-day course
16  a two-part question
17  a seven-year-old girl

1    A ticket for a concert is    a concert ticket  .   
2    Problems concerning health are   health problems  .   
3    A magazine about computers is __________________.
4    Photographs taken on your holiday are your __________________.
5    Chocolate made with milk is __________________.
6    Somebody whose job is to inspect factories is __________________.
7    A horse that runs in races is __________________.
8    A race for horses is __________________.
9    A hotel in central London is __________________.
10  The results of your exams are your __________________.
11  The carpet in the dining room is __________________.
12  A scandal involving an oil company is __________________.
13  Workers at a car factory are __________________.
14  A scheme to improve a road is __________________.
15  A course that lasts five days is __________________.
16  A question that has two parts is __________________.
17  A girl who is seven years old is __________________.
flag.jpgAnswer the questions using two of the following words each time:
Key.2    room number
3    seat belt
4    credit card
5    weather forecast
6    newspaper editor
7    shop window

accident   belt    card     credit    editor   forecast    newspaper
number     road   room    seat     shop    weather     window
1    This can be caused by bad driving.
2    If you're staying at a hotel, you need to remember this.    
3    You should wear this when you're in a car.
4    You can often use this to pay for things instead of cash.
5    If you want to know if it's going to rain, you can read or listen to this.
6    This person is a top journalist.
7    You might stop to look in this when you're walking along a street.
a road accident  
your  __________
a _____________
a _____________
the  ___________
a _____________
a _____________
flag.jpgComplete the sentences using the following:
Key.3    20-pound
4    15-minute
5    60 minutes
6    two-hour
7    five courses
8    two-year
9    500-year-old
10  five days
11  six miles
12  six-mile
15 minute(s)      60 minute(s)      two hour(s)        five day(s)         two year(s)       500 year(s)
six mile(s)         six mile(s)         20 pound(s)       five coursc(s)    ten page(s)       450 page(s)
Sometimes you need the singular (day/page etc.) and sometimes the plural (days/pages etc.).
1    It's quite a long book. There are    450 pages    .
2    A few days ago I received a     ten-page    letter from Julia.
3    I didn't have any change. I only had a ___________ note.
4    At work in the morning I usually have a ___________ break for coffee.
5    There are ___________ in an hour.
6    It's only a ___________ flight from London to Madrid.
7    It was a very big meal. There were ___________.
8    Mary has just started a new job. She's got a ___________ contract.
9    The oldest building in the city is the ___________ castle.
10  I work ___________ a week. Saturday and Sunday are free.
11  We went for a long walk in the country. We must have walked ___________.
12  We went for a ___________ walk in the country.

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