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Unit 84. There ... and it ...

Unit 84; Part A

galka.jpgThere and it84.1.jpg

We use there ... when we talk about something for the first time, to say that it exists:
   •    There's a new restaurant in King Street.  (not A new restaurant is in King Street)
   •    I'm sorry I'm late. There was a lot of traffic.  (not It was a lot of traffic)
   •    Things are more expensive now. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.

It = a specific thing, place, fact, situation
etc. (but see also section C):
   •    We went to the new restaurant. It's very good.  (It = the restaurant)
   •    I wasn't expecting them to come. It was a complete surprise.
  (It = that they came)

Compare there and it:
   •    I don't like this town. There's nothing to do here. It's a boring place.

also means 'to/at/in that place':
   •    The new restaurant is very good. I went there
(= to the restaurant) last night.
   •    When we got to the party, there were already a lot of people there (= at the party).

Unit 84; Part B

galka.jpgYou can say there will be / there must be / there might be / there used to be etc. :

   •    Will there be many people at the party?
   •    'Is there a flight to Paris this evening?'   'There might be. I'll phone the airport.'
   •    If people drove more carefully, there wouldn't be so many accidents.

Also  there must have been, there should have been
etc. :
   •    There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home.

Compare there and it:

   •    They live on a busy road. There must be a lot of noise from the traffic.
         They live on a busy main road. It must be very noisy.

   •    There used to be a cinema in King Street, but it closed a few years ago.
         That building is now a supermarket. It used to be a cinema.

You can also say there is sure/certain/likely/bound to be ... :

   •    There is bound (= sure) to be a flight to Paris this evening.

Unit 84; Part C

galka.jpgWe also use it in sentences like this:
   •    It's dangerous to walk in the road.

We do not usually say 'To walk in the road is dangerous'. Normally we begin with It ... .
Some more examples:
   •    It didn't take us long to get here.
   •    It's a pity (that) Sandra can't come to the party.
   •    Let's go. It's not worth waiting any longer.

We also use it to talk about distance, time and weather:

   •    How far is it from here to the airport.
   •    What day is it today?
   •    It's a long time since we saw you last.
   •    It was windy yesterday. 
(but There was a cold wind.)



flag.jpgPut in there is/was or it is/was. Some sentences are questions (is there ... ? / is it ... ? etc.) and some are negative (isn't/wasn't).
Key.3    Is there ... there's / there is
4    there was ...    It was
5    It was   
6    There was   
7    is it   
8    It was   
9    It's / It is   
10  there wasn't   
11  Is it ... it's / it is
12  there was ...  There was
13  It was   
14  There wasn't
15  There was...  it wasn't

1    The journey took a long time.    There was    a lot of traffic.
2    What's the new restaurant like?   Is it   good?
3    '_____________ a bookshop near here?'    'Yes, _____________ one in Hill Street.'
4    When we got to the cinema, _____________ a queue outside. _____________ a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.
5    I couldn't see anything. _____________ completely dark.
6    _____________ trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.
7    How far _____________ from Milan to Rome?
8    _____________ Keith's birthday yesterday. We had a party.
9    _____________ three years since I last went to the theatre.
10  I wanted to visit the museum, but _____________ enough time.
11  '_____________ time to leave?'    'Yes, _____________ nearly midnight.'
12  A few days ago _____________ a storm. _____________ a lot of damage.
13  _____________ a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.
14  _____________ anything on television, so I turned it off.
15  _____________ an accident in King Street, but _____________ very serious.
flag.jpgRead the first sentence and then write a sentence beginning There ... .
Key.2    There is a lot of salt in the soup.
3    There was nothing in the box.
4    There was a lot of violence in the film. / There was a lot of fighting ...
5    There were a lot of people in the shops.
6    There is a lot to do in this town. / There is a lot happening in this town.

1    The roads were busy today.
         There was a lot of traffic.   
2    This soup is very salty.
      There _________________ in the soup.
3    The box was empty.
      ________________________ in the box.
4    The film was very violent.
5    The shops were very crowded.
6    I like this town - it's lively.
flag.jpgComplete the sentences. Use there will be, there would be etc. Choose from:
Key.2    There may be
3    there will be / there'll be or there are going to be
4    There's going to be / There is going to be
5    There used to be
6    there should be
7    there wouldn't be
will        may       would       wouldn't        should        used to        (be) going to
1    If people drove more carefully,    there would be    fewer accidents.
2    'Do we have any eggs?'    'I'm not sure. ________________ some in the fridge.'
3    I think everything will be OK.  I don't think ________________ any problems.
4    Look at the sky. ________________ a storm.
5    'Is there a school in the village?'    'Not now. ________________ one, but it closed.'
6    People drive too fast on this road.  I think ________________ a speed limit.
7    If people weren't aggressive, ________________ any wars.
flag.jpgAre these sentences right or wrong? Change It to there where necessary.
Key.2    and there was a lot of snow
3    There used to be a church here
4    There must have been a reason.
5    OK
6    There's sure to be a car park somewhere.
7    there will be an opportunity
8    OK
9    there would be somebody ... but there wasn't anybody.
10  There has been no change.
11  OK

1    They live on a busy road. It must be a lot of noise.
2    Last winter it was very cold and it was a lot of snow.
3    It used to be a church here, but it was knocked down.       
4    Why was she so unfriendly? It must have been a reason.       
5    It's a long way from my house to the nearest shop.       
6    A: Where can we park the car?
     B: Don't worry. It's sure to be a car park somewhere.       
7    After the lecture it will be an opportunity to ask questions.   
8    I like the place where I live, but it would be nicer to live
      by the sea.
9    I was told that it would be somebody to meet me at the       
     station, but it wasn't anybody.       
10  The situation is still the same. It has been no change.       
11  I don't know who'll win, but it's sure to be a good game 
There must be a lot of noise.




Unit 83      Unit 84     Unit 85 forward.jpg

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