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Unit 97. -ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)

Unit 97; Part A

galka.jpgA clause is a part of a sentence. Some clauses begin with -ing or -ed. For example:97.1.jpg


Unit 97; Part B

galka.jpgWe use -ing clauses to say what somebody (or something) is (or was) doing at a particular time:

      Do you know the woman talking to Sam (the woman is talking to Sam)
      Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. 
(police are investigating the crime)
      Who were those people waiting outside?
  (they were waiting)
      I was woken up by a bell ringing
(a bell was ringing)

You can also use an -ing clause to say what happens all the time, not just at a particular time.

For example:
      The road connecting the two villages is very narrow.  (the road connects the two villages)
      I have a large room overlooking the garden.
  (the room overlooks the garden)
      Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T?
  (the name begins with T)

Unit 97; Part C

galka.jpg-ed clauses have a passive meaning:

      The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital.  (he was injured in the accident)
      George showed me some pictures painted by his father.
  (they had been painted by his father)

and invited are past participles. Note that many past participles are irregular and do not end in
-ed (stolen/made/written etc.):
      The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.
      Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.

You can use left in this way, with the meaning 'not used, still there':

      We've eaten nearly all the chocolates. There are only a few left.

Unit 97; Part D

galka.jpgWe often use -ing and -ed clauses after there is / there was etc. :

      There were some children swimming in the river.
      Is there anybody waiting?
      There was a big red car parked outside the house.


flag.jpgMake one sentence from two. Complete the sentences with an -ing clause.
Key.2    the man sitting next to me on the plane
3    The taxi taking us to the airport
4    a path leading to the river
5    A factory employing 500 people
6    a brochure containing the information I needed

1    A bell was ringing. I was woken up by it.
     I was woken up by    a bell ringing    .
2    A man was sitting next to me on the plane. I didn't talk much to him.
     I didn't talk much to the ___________________.
3    A taxi was taking us to the airport. It broke down.
     The ___________________ broke down.
4    There's a path at the end of this street. The path leads to the river.
      At the end of the street there's a ___________________.
5    A factory has just opened in the town. It employs 500 people.
     A ___________________ has just opened in the town.
6    The company sent me a brochure. It contained the information I needed.
     The company sent me ___________________.

flag.jpgMake one sentence from two, beginning as shown. Each time make an -ed clause.
Key.2    damaged in the storm
3    Most of the suggestions made at the meeting
4    The paintings stolen from the museum
5    the man arrested by the police

1    A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital.
      The boy    injured in the accident    was taken to hospital.
2    A gate was damaged in the storm. It has now been repaired.
     The gate _________________________ has now been repaired.
3    A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.
      Most of the _________________________ were not very practical.
4    Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven't been found yet.
     The _________________________ haven't been found yet.
5    A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?
     What was the name of _________________________?

flag.jpgComplete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form:
Key.3    living
4    offering
5    called
6    blown
7    sitting ... reading
8    working ... studying
blow       call        invite        live       offer        read       ring       sit        study       work
1    I was woken up by a bell    ringing   
2    Some of the people    invited    to the party can't come.
3    Life must be very unpleasant for people __________ near busy airports.
4    A few days after the interview. I received a letter __________ me the job.
5    Somebody __________ Jack phoned while you were out.
6    There was a tree __________ down in the storm last night.
7    The waiting room was empty except for a young man __________ by the window __________ a magazine.
8    Ian has a brother __________ in a bank in London and a sister __________ economics at university in Manchester.

flag.jpgUse the words in brackets to make sentences using There is / There was etc.
Key.3    There's somebody coming.
4    There were a lot of people travelling.
5    There was nobody else staying there.
6    There was nothing written on it.
7    There's a course beginning next Monday.

1    That house is empty.  (nobody / live / in it)
      There's nobody living in it.   
2    The accident wasn't serious.  (nobody / injure)
      There was nobody injured.    
3    I can hear footsteps.  (somebody / come)
     There _____________________
4    The train was full.  (a lot of people / travel)
5    We were the only guests at the hotel.  (nobody else / stay there)
6    The piece of paper was blank.  (nothing / write / on it)
7    The college offers English courses in the evening.  (a course / begin / next Monday)

Unit 96      Unit 97     Unit 98 forward.jpg